Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Dairy Cattle Related Abstracts

9 The Prevalence of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia Coli O157 (VTEC) in Dairy Cattle in Tripoli Area, Libya

Authors: Imad Buishi, Almabrouk Fares, Hallowma Helmi

Abstract:

Infection with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in humans can lead to mild or bloody diarrhea with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) as a possible complication. Cattle appear to be important reservoirs for VTEC O157. Epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of VTEC O157 in dairy cattle in Libya have never been conducted. To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors associated with VTEC O157 on dairy farms in Tripoli region, fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy cows were collected once from 15 randomly selected dairy farms in the period July 2010 through September 2010. All fecal samples were examined for the prevalence of VTEC O157 by conventional plating using Sorbitol-MacConkey agar (SMAC). Isolated of E. coli were subjected to slide agglutination test using E. coli O157 antiserum. The results pointed out that the prevalence within-herd and among herds were 9% and 60% respectively. The prevalence of VTEC O157 in fecal samples of dairy cattle was significantly associated with husbandry practices on farm-level such as signs of diarrhoea (p=0.02, OR=3.2) and sharing water trough (p= 0.03, OR=3.0). It was concluded that dairy cattle in Tripoli area are important reservoirs of VTEC O157 strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. When aiming at reducing risks for human by intervention at farm-level, it is of importance to reduce the number of positive animals and farms. For this, more research is needed to devise mitigation strategies that will reduce the on-farm contamination of VTEC O157.

Keywords: Dairy Cattle, Prevalence, VTEC O157, tripoli

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8 Impact of Dietary Rumen Protected Choline on Transition Dairy Cows’ Productive Performance

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Tony, Fayez Abaza

Abstract:

The effects of a dietary supplement of rumen-protected choline on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition and some blood metabolites were evaluated in transition dairy cows. Forty multiparous cows were blocked into 20 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one of 2 treatments. The treatments were supplementation either with or without (control) rumen-protected choline. Treatments were applied from 2 weeks before and until 8 weeks after calving. Both groups received the same basal diet as total mixed ration. Additionally, 50 g of a rumen-protected choline supplement (25% rumen protected choline chloride) was added individually in the feed. Individual feed intake, milk yield, and body weight were recorded daily. Milk samples were analyzed weekly for fat, protein, and lactose content. Blood was sampled at week 2 before calving, d 1, d 4, d 7, d 10, week 2, week 3, and week 8 after calving. Glucose, triglycerids, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyric acid in blood were analysed. The results revealed that choline supplementation increased DM intake from 16.5 to 18.0 kg/d and, hence, net energy intake from 99.2 to 120.5 MJ/d at the intercept of the lactation curve at 1 day in milk. Choline supplementation had no effect on milk yield, milk fat yield, or lactose yield. Milk protein yield was increased from 1.11 to 1.22 kg/d at the intercept of the lactation curve. Choline supplementation was associated with decreased milk fat concentration at the intercept of the lactation curve at 1 day in milking, but the effect of choline on milk fat concentration gradually decreased as lactation progressed. Choline supplementation decreased the concentration of blood triglycerids during the first 4 wk after parturition. Choline supplementation had no effect on energy-corrected milk yield, energy balance, body weight and body condition score. Results from this study suggest that fat metabolism in periparturient dairy cows is improved by choline supplementation during the transition period and this may potentially decrease the risk for metabolic disorders in the periparturient dairy cow.

Keywords: Dairy Cattle, choline, transition cow, triglycerids

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7 Histopathological and Microbiological Studies on Subclinical Endometritis in Repeat Breeder Cow

Authors: Mehmet Akoz

Abstract:

In this study the clinical, mikrobiological and histopathological diagnoses of subclinic and nonspecific endometritis resulting in repeat breeder. Total of 36 cows, aging between 3-9 years having normal oestrous cycles with no pregnancy following at least 3 unsuccesful inseminations, were used. Biopsy specimens for histopathological and swab for bacteri microbiological cultures were obtanied from endometrium of repeat breeders showing no macroskopic evidence of any defectiveness of genital organs and based on anamneses. Eleven out of 36 cows have positive bacteriological results. While 19 cows have varying degrees of and endometritis, the other 17 cows did not have any pathologic lesions. A total of 19 biopsies in 4 of the I. degree in endometritis, 9 of them II. degree endometritis and 6 were also III. degree endometritis was evaluated. In the majority of cows by the histopathological evaluation results (78.9%) monitored by the second and third-degree endometritis shape, in 83.3% of the isolated microorganisms were identified similar results. Histopathological and microbiological evaluation, along with clinical examination are important for the diagnoses and treatment of repeat breeders, having no resistance with well dissipation to endometrium rifaximina foam formulation was found to be more effective than PGF2α.

Keywords: Histopathology, Dairy Cattle, repeat breeder, PGF2α, rifaximina

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6 Effect of Feeding Varying Levels of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on the Performance of Transition Sahiwal Cattle

Authors: Farhan Ahmad Atif, Abd Ur Rehman, Muhammad Babir

Abstract:

Dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) is an important aspect of dairy nutrition, especially in the transition period. Sahiwal cattle is the highest milk producing breed among Zebu cattle. We planned first study on transition Sahiwal cattle to determine the effects of feeding varying levels of negative DCAD. For this purpose, twenty pregnant cows (at the 250th day of gestation) were selected and randomly divided into 5 groups comprising four animals each. Five iso-caloric (2100 Kcal) and iso-nitrogenous (12%) diets were formulated and each diet was allotted to each group. The animals received positive DCAD diet served as control. Diets were supplemented with NutriCAB® to attain 0, -15, -30 and -45 DCAD levels. Experimental diets were fed at ad-libitum upto parturition and data regarding feed intake were recorded on daily. Post-partum incidence of milk fever, dystocia, retention of placenta (RP), mastitis as well as milk production, milk fat percentage and serum Ca levels were recorded. Urine and blood pH were determined weekly during the last month of pregnancy. Results showed that prepartum feed intake and blood pH were not affected (P > 0.05), while urine pH was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by lowering DCAD levels. Post parturient blood calcium level linearly increased (P < 0.05) with decreasing DCAD. Pre-partum negative DCAD feeding had no effect (P > 0.05) on post-parturient milk production and fat percentage. However, parturient related problems decreased with decreasing DCAD feeding. It was concluded that negative DCAD feeding raised serum calcium level and reduced the incidence of post-parturient problems in Sahiwal cattle.

Keywords: Transition, Dairy Cattle, metabolic diseases, reproductive disorders, incidence

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5 In vitro Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Bovine Mastitis Bacteria in Ethiopia

Authors: Befekadu Urga Wakayo

Abstract:

Introduction: Bacterial infections represent major human and animal health problems in Ethiopia. In the face of poor antibiotic regulatory mechanisms, development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to commonly used drugs has become a growing health and livelihood threat in the country. Monitoring and control of AMR demand close coloration between human and veterinary services as well as other relevant stakeholders. However, risk of AMR transfer from animal to human population’s remains poorly explored in Ethiopia. This systematic research literature review attempted to give an overview on AMR challenges of bovine mastitis bacteria in Ethiopia. Methodology: A web based research literature search and analysis strategy was used. Databases are considered including; PubMed, Google Scholar, Ethiopian Veterinary Association (EVA) and Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP). The key search terms and phrases were; Ethiopia, dairy, cattle, mastitis, bacteria isolation, antibiotic sensitivity and antimicrobial resistance. Ultimately, 15 research reports were used for the current analysis. Data extraction was performed using a structured Microsoft Excel format. Frequency AMR prevalence (%) was registered directly or calculated from reported values. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS – 16. Variables were summarized by giving frequencies (n or %), Mean ± SE and demonstrative box plots. One way ANOVA and independent t test were used to evaluate variations in AMR prevalence estimates (Ln transformed). Statistical significance was determined at p < 0.050). Results: AMR in bovine mastitis bacteria was investigated in a total of 592 in vitro antibiotic sensitivity trials involving 12 different mastitis bacteria (including 1126 Gram positive and 77 Gram negative isolates) and 14 antibiotics. Bovine mastitis bacteria exhibited AMR to most of the antibiotics tested. Gentamycin had the lowest average AMR in both Gram positive (2%) and negative (1.8%) bacteria. Gram negative mastitis bacteria showed higher mean in vitro resistance levels to; Erythromycin (72.6%), Tetracycline (56.65%), Amoxicillin (49.6%), Ampicillin (47.6%), Clindamycin (47.2%) and Penicillin (40.6%). Among Gram positive mastitis bacteria higher mean in vitro resistance was observed in; Ampicillin (32.8%), Amoxicillin (32.6%), Penicillin (24.9%), Streptomycin (20.2%), Penicillinase Resistant Penicillin’s (15.4%) and Tetracycline (14.9%). More specifically, S. aurues exhibited high mean AMR against Penicillin (76.3%) and Ampicillin (70.3%) followed by Amoxicillin (45%), Streptomycin (40.6%), Tetracycline (24.5%) and Clindamycin (23.5%). E. coli showed high mean AMR to Erythromycin (78.7%), Tetracycline (51.5%), Ampicillin (49.25%), Amoxicillin (43.3%), Clindamycin (38.4%) and Penicillin (33.8%). Streptococcus spp. demonstrated higher (p =0.005) mean AMR against Kanamycin (> 20%) and full sensitivity (100%) to Clindamycin. Overall, mean Tetracycline (p = 0.013), Gentamycin (p = 0.001), Polymixin (p = 0.034), Erythromycin (p = 0.011) and Ampicillin (p = 0.009) resistance increased from the 2010’s than the 2000’s. Conclusion; the review indicated a rising AMR challenge among bovine mastitis bacteria in Ethiopia. Corresponding, public health implications demand a deeper, integrated investigation.

Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, Dairy Cattle, Ethiopia, Mastitis bacteria

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4 Cereal Bioproducts Conversion to Higher Value Feed by Using Pediococcus Strains Isolated from Spontaneous Fermented Cereal, and Its Influence on Milk Production of Dairy Cattle

Authors: Elena Bartkiene, Vita Krungleviciute, Rasa Zelvyte, Ingrida Monkeviciene, Jone Kantautaite, Rolandas Stankevicius, Modestas Ruzauskas

Abstract:

The environmental impact of agricultural bioproducts from the processing of food crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Currently, cereal bran has been used as a low-value ingredient for both human consumption and animal feed. The most popular bioprocessing technologies for cereal bran nutritional and technological functionality increasing are enzymatic processing and fermentation, and the most popular starters in fermented feed production are lactic acid bacteria (LAB) including pediococci. However, the ruminant digestive system is unique, there are billions of microorganisms which help the cow to digest and utilize nutrients in the feed. To achieve efficient feed utilization and high milk yield, the microorganisms must have optimal conditions, and the disbalance of this system is highly undesirable. Pediococcus strains Pediococcus acidilactici BaltBio01 and Pediococcus pentosaceus BaltBio02 from spontaneous fermented rye were isolated (by rep – PCR method), identified, and characterized by their growth (by Thermo Bioscreen C automatic turbidometer), acidification rate (2 hours in 2.5 pH), gas production (Durham method), and carbohydrate metabolism (by API 50 CH test ). Antimicrobial activities of isolated pediococcus against variety of pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial strains previously isolated from diseased cattle, and their resistance to antibiotics were evaluated (EFSA-FEEDAP method). The isolated pediococcus strains were cultivated in barley/wheat bran (90 / 10, m / m) substrate, and developed supplements, with high content of valuable pediococcus, were used for Lithuanian black and white dairy cows feeding. In addition, the influence of supplements on milk production and composition was determined. Milk composition was evaluated by the LactoScope FTIR” FT1.0. 2001 (Delta Instruments, Holland). P. acidilactici BaltBio01 and P. pentosaceus BaltBio02 demonstrated versatile carbohydrate metabolism, grown at 30°C and 37°C temperatures, and acidic tolerance. Isolated pediococcus strains showed to be non resistant to antibiotics, and having antimicrobial activity against undesirable microorganisms. By barley/wheat bran utilisation using fermentation with selected pediococcus strains, it is possible to produce safer (reduced Enterobacteriaceae, total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold count) feed stock with high content of pediococcus. Significantly higher milk yield (after 33 days) by using pediococcus supplements mix for dairy cows feeding could be obtained, while similar effect by using separate strains after 66 days of feeding could be achieved. It can be stated that barley/wheat bran could be used for higher value feed production in order to increase milk production. Therefore, further research is needed to identify what is the main mechanism of the positive action.

Keywords: Milk, Dairy Cattle, barley/wheat bran, fermented feed, pediococcus

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3 Analyzing of Good Dairy Practices in Dairy Farm Management in Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta: The Effect of Good Management in Milk Production

Authors: Dandi Riswanto, Mahendra Wahyu Eka Pradana, Hutomo Abdurrohman

Abstract:

The dairy farm has strategic roles in meeting the demand of foods. Sleman Regency is a central dairy production in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Sleman district has a population of 3954 heads dairy cattle with an environmental temperature of 22 to 35 degrees Celsius and humidity 74 to 87% which makes a good location for a dairy cattle farm. The dairy cattle that are kept by the majority of the Friesian Holstein Crossbreed are predominantly reared by conventional management. Sleman Regency accounts for 7.3% of national milk production. Factors influencing include genetic, environmental, and management. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Good Dairy Farming Practices (GDFP) application on milk production in Sleman Regency. The data collection was conducted in January 2017 until May 2017 using survey and interviews methods at 5 locations of dairy farms selected randomly. Data were analyzed with the chi-square test. The result of this research showed that GDFP point was management 1,47 points (less good). The result showed that Good Dairy Farming Practices (GDFP) has a positive effect on milk production.

Keywords: milk production, Dairy Cattle, GDFP, Sleman regency

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2 Changes in the fecal Microbiome of Periparturient Dairy Cattle and Associations with the Onset of Salmonella Shedding

Authors: Lohendy Munoz-Vargas, Stephen O. Opiyo, Rose Digianantonio, Michele L. Williams, Asela Wijeratne, Gregory Habing

Abstract:

Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen with critical importance in animal and public health. The persistence of Salmonella on farms affects animal productivity and health, and represents a risk for food safety. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in the colonization and invasion of this ubiquitous microorganism. To overcome the colonization resistance imparted by the gut microbiome, Salmonella uses invasion strategies and the host inflammatory response to survive, proliferate, and establish infections with diverse clinical manifestations. Cattle serve as reservoirs of Salmonella, and periparturient cows have high prevalence of Salmonella shedding; however, to author`s best knowledge, little is known about the association between the gut microbiome and the onset of Salmonella shedding during the periparturient period. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the association between changes in bacterial communities and the onset of Salmonella shedding in cattle approaching parturition. In a prospective cohort study, fecal samples from 98 dairy cows originating from four different farms were collected at four time points relative to calving (-3 wks, -1 wk, +1 wk, +3 wks). All 392 samples were cultured for Salmonella. Sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina platform was completed to evaluate the fecal microbiome in a selected sample subset. Analyses of microbial composition, diversity, and structure were performed according to time points, farm, and Salmonella onset status. Individual cow fecal microbiomes, predominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, and Proteobacteria phyla, significantly changed before and after parturition. Microbial communities from different farms were distinguishable based on multivariate analysis. Although there were significant differences in some bacterial taxa between Salmonella positive and negative samples, our results did not identify differences in the fecal microbial diversity or structure for cows with and without the onset of Salmonella shedding. These data suggest that determinants other than the significant changes in the fecal microbiome influence the periparturient onset of Salmonella shedding in dairy cattle.

Keywords: Microbiome, Dairy Cattle, salmonella, periparturient

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1 Reliability of Swine Estrous Detector Probe in Dairy Cattle Breeding

Authors: O. O. Leigh, L. C. Agbugba, A. O. Oyewunmi, A. E. Ibiam, A. Hassan

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Accuracy of insemination timing is a key determinant of high pregnancy rates in livestock breeding stations. The estrous detector probes are a recent introduction into the Nigerian livestock farming sector. Many of these probes are species-labeled and they measure changes in the vaginal mucus resistivity (VMR) during the stages of the estrous cycle. With respect to size and shaft conformation, the Draminski® swine estrous detector probe (sEDP) is quite similar to the bovine estrous detector probe. We investigated the reliability of the sEDP at insemination time on two farms designated as FM A and FM B. Cows (Bunaji, n=20 per farm) were evaluated for VMR at 16th h post standard OvSynch protocol, with concurrent insemination on FM B only. The difference in the mean VMR between FM A (221 ± 24.36) Ohms and FM B (254 ± 35.59) Ohms was not significant (p > 0.05). Sixteen cows (80%) at FM B were later (day 70) confirmed pregnant via rectal palpation and calved at term. These findings suggest consistency in VMR evaluated with sEDP at insemination as well as a high predictability for VMR associated with good pregnancy rates in dairy cattle. We conclude that Draminski® swine estrous detector probe is reliable in determining time of insemination in cattle breeding stations.

Keywords: Dairy Cattle, insemination, swine estrous probe, vaginal mucus resistivity

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