Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Cytokines Related Abstracts

21 Immunological and Genetic Studies of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Alaa Jawad Hassan, Saad Marza Al-Aaraji, Fadil Abbas Hamad

Abstract:

The current study was designed to assess some immunological parameters and pedigree analysis for atopic dermatitis patients, as the study included 64 patients (37 males and 27 females) and 24 healthy individuals (12 males and 12 females) with no history of the AD. The cases of this study were divided into two age groups; the first is infant and children (1-10 years), while the second is adolescent and adults (11- 60 years). The number of cases was 51 and 13 in each age group respectively. Sera samples from confirmed AD patients and healthy control were analysed by mean of ELISA for assessment the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4 and IgE. The study showed that a significant increase (P < 0.05) in IL-1β, IL-4 and IgE levels in the patients compared with the control group in both age groups and gender, while there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in the concentration of IL-2. The study of pedigree analysis shows the genetic tendency in the frequency of disease depending on the genetic history of family, where more patients returning to families in which both parents or one of them infected with AD, whereas the patients were no parents infected with AD they are suffering from asthma and the disease recurs in their uncles.

Keywords: Molecular Biology, Atopic dermatitis, Cytokines, IgE

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
20 TNF-Kinoid® in Autoimmune Diseases

Authors: Yahia Massinissa, Melakhessou Med Akram, Mezahdia Mehdi, Marref Salah Eddine

Abstract:

Cytokines are natural proteins which act as true intercellular communication signals in immune and inflammatory responses. Reverse signaling pathways that activate cytokines help to regulate different functions at the target cell, causing its activation, its proliferation, the differentiation, its survival or death. It was shown that malfunctioning of the cytokine regulation, particularly over-expression, contributes to the onset and development of certain serious diseases such as chronic rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, lupus. The action mode of Kinoid® technology is based on the principle vaccine: The patient's immune system is activated so that it neutralizes itself and the factor responsible for the disease. When applied specifically to autoimmune diseases, therapeutic vaccination allows the body to neutralize cytokines (proteins) overproduced through a highly targeted stimulation of the immune system.

Keywords: Cytokines, Vaccination, Kinoid tech, auto-immune diseases

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
19 Lipopolysaccharide Induced Avian Innate Immune Expression in Heterophils

Authors: Rohita Gupta, G. S. Brah, R. Verma, C. S. Mukhopadhayay

Abstract:

Although chicken strains show differences in susceptibility to a number of diseases, the underlying immunological basis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, heterophils were subjected to LPS stimulation and total RNA extraction, further differential gene expression was studied in broiler, layer and indigenous Aseel strain by Real Time RT-PCR at different time periods before and after induction. The expression of the 14 AvBDs and chTLR 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 15 and 21 was detectable in heterophils. The expression level of most of the AvBDs significantly increased (P<0.05) 3 hours post in vitro lipopolysaccharide challenge. Higher expression level and stronger activation of most AvBDs, NFkB-1 and IRF-3 in heterophils was observed, with the stimulation of LPS in layer compared to broiler, and in Aseel compared to both layer and broiler. This investigation will allow more refined interpretation of immuno-genetic basis of the variable disease resistance/susceptibility in divergent stock of chicken including indigenous breed. Moreover this study will be helpful in formulation of strategy for isolation of antimicrobial peptides from heterophils.

Keywords: Cytokines, differential expression, heterophils, defensin, TLR

Procedia PDF Downloads 488
18 Innate Immune Expression in Heterophils in Response to LPS

Authors: Rohita Gupta, G. S. Brah, R. Verma, C. S. Mukhopadhayay

Abstract:

Although chicken strains show differences in susceptibility to a number of diseases, the underlying immunological basis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, heterophils were subjected to LPS stimulation and total RNA extraction, further differential gene expression was studied in broiler, layer and indigenous Aseel strain by Real Time RT-PCR at different time periods before and after induction. The expression of the 14 AvBDs and chTLR 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 15 and 21 was detectable in heterophils. The expression level of most of the AvBDs significantly increased (P<0.05) 3 hours post in vitro lipopolysaccharide challenge. Higher expression level and stronger activation of most AvBDs, NFkB-1 and IRF-3 in heterophils was observed with the stimulation of LPS in layer compared to broiler, and in Aseel compared to both layer and broiler. This investigation will allow more refined interpretation of immuno-genetic basis of the variable disease resistance/susceptibility in divergent stock of chicken including indigenous breed. Moreover, this study will be helpful in formulation of strategy for isolation of antimicrobial peptides from heterophils.

Keywords: Cytokines, differential expression, heterophils, defensin, TLR

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
17 Differential Antibrucella Activity of Bovine and Murine Macrophages

Authors: Raheela Akhtar, Muhammad Younus, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Yongqun Oliver He, Aftab Ahmad Anjum

Abstract:

Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen affecting macrophages. Macrophages release some components such as lysozymes (LZ), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrite intermediates (RNI) which are important tools against intracellular survival of Brucella. The antibrucella activity of bovine and murine macrophages was compared following stimulation with Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharides. Our results revealed that murine macrophages were ten times more potent to produce antibrucella components than bovine macrophages. The differential production of these components explained the differential Brucella killing ability of these species that was measured in terms of intramacrophagic survival of Brucella in murine and bovine macrophages.

Keywords: Cytokines, bovine macrophages, Brucella abortus, cell stimulation, Murine macrophages

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
16 Rosuvastatin Improves Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Nidhi Garg, Pawan Krishan

Abstract:

Background: Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are depleted and contribute to increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Statins exert a protective effect in CAD partly by promoting EPC mobilization. This vasculoprotective effect of statin has not yet been investigated in RA. We aimed to investigate the effect of rosuvastatin on EPCs in RA. Methods: 50 RA patients were randomized to receive 6 months of treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/day, n=25) and placebo (n=25) as an adjunct to existing stable antirheumatic drugs. EPCs (CD34+/CD133+) were quantified by Flow Cytometry. Inflammatory measures included DAS28, CRP and ESR were measured at baseline and after treatment. Lipids and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1) were estimated at baseline and after treatment. Results: At baseline, inflammatory measures and pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated and EPCs depleted among both groups. At baseline, EPCs inversely correlated with DAS28 and TNF-α in both groups. EPCs increased significantly (p < 0.01) after treatment with rosuvastatin but did not show significant change with placebo. Rosuvastatin exerted positive effect on lipid spectrum: lowering total cholesterol, LDL, non HDL and elevation of HDL as compared with placebo. At 6 months, DAS28, ESR, CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 improved significantly in rosuvastatin group. Significant negative correlation was observed between EPCs and DAS28, CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 after treatment with rosuvastatin. Conclusion: First study to show that rosuvastatin improves inflammation and EPC biology in RA possibly through its anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering effect. This beneficial effect of rosuvastatin may provide a novel strategy to prevent cardiovascular events in RA.

Keywords: Cytokines, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, rosuvastatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
15 Punica granatum (Pomegranate) of a Libyan Variety Exhibits in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Potential

Authors: Lamees A. Ben Saad, Kah Hwi Kim, Chin Chew Quah, Mustafa Shahimi

Abstract:

Background: Punica granatum (pomegranate) was used as a traditional medicine in different parts of the world. It has been used in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions such as peptic ulcer. The numerous risks associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the treatment of pain and inflammation give rise to using medicinal herbs as alternative therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate pomegranate fraction (EtOAc) by determination of its inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulated nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxxgenase-2 (COX2) release from RAW264.7cells. Methods: The inhibitory effect of EtOAc was evaluated on (LPS) induced NO production, PGE2, and IL-6 quantified by immunoassay kit and prostaglandin E2 competitive ELISA kit. COX2 production is an in vitro indication of possible anti-inflammatory activity and was estimated by Western blotting. Results: EtOAc potentially inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin, and IL-6 production. With these findings, it was evident that the EtOAc could reduce the LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner as determined by Western blotting. Conclusion: The results emphasize potential therapeutic applications of Punica granatum in the treatment of inflammation.

Keywords: Cytokines, Inflammation, Cytotoxicity, Punica granatum

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
14 Calcium Release- Activated Calcium Channels as a Target in Treatment of Allergic Asthma

Authors: Martina Šutovská, Marta Jošková, Ivana Kazimierová, Lenka Pappová, Maroš Adamkov, Soňa Fraňová

Abstract:

Bronchial asthma is characterized by increased bronchoconstrictor responses to provoking agonists, airway inflammation and remodeling. All these processes involve Ca2+ influx through Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ channels (CRAC) that are widely expressed in immune, respiratory epithelium and airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. Our previous study pointed on possible therapeutic potency of CRAC blockers using experimental guinea pigs asthma model. Presented work analyzed complex anti-asthmatic effect of long-term administered CRAC blocker, including impact on allergic inflammation, airways hyperreactivity, and remodeling and mucociliary clearance. Ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation of the airways according to Franova et al. was followed by 14 days lasted administration of CRAC blocker (3-fluoropyridine-4-carboxylic acid, FPCA) in the dose 1.5 mg/kg bw. For comparative purposes salbutamol, budesonide and saline were applied to control groups. The anti-inflammatory effect of FPCA was estimated by serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) changes in IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α analyzed by Bio-Plex® assay as well as immunohistochemical staining focused on assessment of tryptase and c-Fos positivity in pulmonary samples. The in vivo airway hyperreactivity was evaluated by Pennock et al. and by organ tissue bath methods in vitro. The immunohistochemical changes in ASM actin and collagen III layer as well as mucin secretion evaluated anti-remodeling effect of FPCA. The measurement of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in vitro using LabVIEW™ Software determined impact on mucociliary clearance. Long-term administration of FPCA to sensitized animals resulted in: i. Significant decrease in cytokine levels, tryptase and c-Fos positivity similar to budesonide effect; ii.Meaningful decrease in basal and bronchoconstrictors-induced in vivo and in vitro airway hyperreactivity comparable to salbutamol; iii. Significant inhibition of airway remodeling parameters; iv. Insignificant changes in CBF. All these findings confirmed complex anti-asthmatic effect of CRAC channels blocker and evidenced these structures as the rational target in the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma.

Keywords: Cytokines, allergic asthma, CRAC channels, respiratory epithelium

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
13 Redirection of Cytokine Production Patterns by Dydrogesterone, an Orally-Administered Progestogen

Authors: Raj Raghupathy

Abstract:

Recurrent Spontaneous Miscarriage (RSM) is a common form of pregnancy loss, 50% of which are due to ‘unexplained’ causes. Evidence exists to suggest that RSM may be caused by immunologic factors such as cytokines which are critical molecules of the immune system, with an impressive array of capabilities. An association appears to exist between Th2-type reactivity (mediated by Th2 or anti-inflammatory cytokines) and normal, successful pregnancy, and between unexplained RSM and Th1 cytokine dominance. If pro-inflammatory cytokines are indeed associated with pregnancy loss, the suppression of these cytokines, and thus the ‘redirection’ of maternal reactivity, may help prevent cytokine-mediated pregnancy loss. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of modulating cytokine production using Dydrogesterone (Duphaston®), an orally-administered progestogen. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 34 women with a history of at least 3 unexplained recurrent miscarriages were stimulated in vitro with a mitogen (to elicit cytokine production) in the presence and absence of dydrogesterone. Levels of selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured after exposure to these progestogens. Dydrogesterone down-regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulates the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The ratios of Th2 to Th1 cytokines are markedly elevated in the presence of dydrogesterone, indicating a shift from potentially harmful maternal Th1 reactivity to a more pregnancy-conducive Th2 profile. We used a progesterone receptor antagonist to show that this cytokine-modulating effect of dydrogesterone is mediated via the progesterone receptor. Dydrogesterone also induces the production of the Progesterone-Induced Blocking Factor (PIBF); lymphocytes exposed to PIBF produce higher levels of Th2 cytokines, affecting a Th1 → Th2 cytokine shift which could be favourable to the success of pregnancy. We conclude that modulation of maternal cytokine production profiles is possible with dydrogesterone which has the merits that it can be administered orally and that it is safe.

Keywords: Cytokines, progesterone, dydrogesterone, recurrent spontaneous miscarriage

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
12 Depressive-Like Behavior in a Murine Model of Colorectal Cancer Associated with Altered Cytokine Levels in Stress-Related Brain Regions

Authors: D. O. Miranda, L. R. Azevedo, J. F. C. Cordeiro, A. H. Dos Santos, S. F. Lisboa, F. S. Guimarães, G. S. Bisson

Abstract:

Background: The Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the world. The prevalence of psychiatric-disorders among CRC patients, mainly depression, is high, resulting in impaired quality of life and side effects of primary treatment. High levels of proinflammatory cytokines at tumor microenvironment is a feature of CRC and the literature suggests that those mediators could contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the ability of tumor-associated biological processes to affect the central nervous system (CNS) has only recently been explored in the context of symptoms of depression and is still not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that depressive-like behavior in an experimental model of CCR induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was correlated to proinflammatory profile in the periphery and in the brain. Methods: Colorectal carcinogenesis was induced in adult C57BL/6 mice (n=12) by administration of MNNG (5mg/kg, 0.1ml/intrarectal instillation) 2 times a week, for 2 week. Control group (n=12) received saline (0.1ml/intrarectal instillation). Eight weeks after beginning of MNNG administration animals were submitted to the forced swim test (FST) and the sucrose preference test for evaluation, respectively, of depressive- and anhedonia-like behaviors. After behavioral evaluation, the colon was collected and brain regions dissected (cortex-C, striatum-ST and hippocampus-HIP) for posterior evaluation of cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17, and CX3CL1) by ELISA. Results: MNNG induced depressive-like behavior, represented by increased immobility time in the FST (Student t test, p < 0.05) and lower sucrose preference (Student t test, p < 0.05). Moreover, there were increased levels of IL-1β, IL-17 and CX3CL1 in the colonic tissue (Student t test, p < 0.05) and in the brain (IL-1 β in the ST and HIP, Student t test, p < 0.05; IL-17 and CX3CL1 in the C and HIP, p < 0.05). IL-10 levels, in contrast, were decreased in both the colon (p < 0.05) and the brain (C and HIP, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results obtained in the present work support the notion that tumor growth induces neuroinflammation in stress-related brain regions and depressive-like behavior, which could be related to the high incidence of depression in colorectal carcinogenesis. This work have important clinical and research implications, taken into account that cytokine levels may be a marker promissory for the developing depression in CRC patients. New therapeutic strategies to assist in alleviating mental suffering in cancer patients might result from a better understanding of the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of depression in these subjects.

Keywords: Brain, Cytokines, Depression, colorectal cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
11 Lack of Association between IL-10 Promoter Gene Polymorphisms and Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Thai Population

Authors: Surangrat Srisurapanon, Manaphol Kulpraneet, Anirut Limtrakul, Piyatida Tangteerawatana

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health care disease world-wide. Control of the global TB epidemic has been impaired by the lack of an effective vaccine, by the emergence of drug resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and by lack of sensitive and rapid diagnostics. Cytokines play a major role in defense against M. tuberculosis infection. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding various cytokines have been associated with tuberculosis susceptibility. Polymorphisms of the regulatory cytokine gene, the interleukin (IL)-10 is associated with the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in different populations. However, IL-10 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to TB in Thai is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the common IL-10 promoter gene polymorphisms are associated with TB in Thai population. Forty eight patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis were studied. DNA samples were extracted from leukocytes and used to investigate -1087A/G, -819C/T, -252C/A (rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872) in IL-10 gene using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. In this study, the genotype and allele frequencies of IL-10-1087A/G, -819C/T, -252C/A polymorphism did not significantly different between TB patients and healthy controls ((genotype: p=0.38, p=0.92, p=1; allele: p=0.57, p=0.77, p=0.89, respectively). The lack of association between common IL-10 promoter polymorphisms and TB susceptibility in this study may provide clue for better understanding of IL-10-1087A/G, -819C/T, -252C/A polymorphism and TB susceptibility in Thai population, which might facilitate the rationale design of vaccines. However, further studies in large scales population are required for confirmation.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, Cytokines, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), IL-10

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
10 Development of a Diagnostic Device to Predict Clinically Significant Inflammation Associated with Cardiac Surgery

Authors: Mohamed Majrashi, Patricia Connolly, Terry Gourlay

Abstract:

Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to cause inflammatory response during open heart surgery. It includes the initiation of different cascades such as coagulation, complement system and cytokines. Although the immune system is body’s key defense mechanism against external assault, when overexpressed, it can be injurious to the patient, particularly in a cohort of patients in which there is a heightened and uncontrolled response. The inflammatory response develops in these patients to an exaggerated level resulting in an autoimmune injury and may lead to poor postoperative outcomes (systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multi-organs failure). Previous studies by this group have suggested a correlation between the level of IL6 measured in patient’s blood before surgery and after polymeric activation and the observed inflammatory response during surgery. Based upon these findings, the present work is aimed at using this response to develop a test which can be used prior to the open heart surgery to identify the high-risk patients before their operation. The work will be accomplished via three main clinical phases including some pilot in-vitro studies, device development and clinical investigation. Current findings from studies using animal blood, employing DEHP and DEHP plasticized PVC materials as the activator, support the earlier results in patient samples. Having established this relationship, ongoing work will focus on developing an activated lateral flow strip technology as a screening device for heightened inflammatory propensity.

Keywords: Cytokines, Cardiopulmonary Bypass, inflammatory response, overexpression

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
9 TNF-α, TNF-β and IL-10 Gene Polymorphism and Association with Oral Lichen Planus Risk in Saudi Patients

Authors: Maha Ali Al-Mohaya, Lubna Majed Al-Otaibi, Ebtissam Nassir Al-Bakr, Abdulrahman Al-Asmari

Abstract:

Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease. Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis and disease progression of OLP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF-β and interleukin (IL)-10 gene polymorphisms with the OLP risk. Material and Methods: Forty-two unrelated patients with OLP and 211 healthy volunteers were genotyped for TNF-α (-308 G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G), IL-10 (-1082G/A), IL-10 (-819C/T), and IL-10 (-592C/A) polymorphisms. Results: The frequencies of allele A and genotype GA of TNF-α (-308G/A) were significantly higher while allele G and GG genotypes were lower in OLP patients as compared to the controls (P < 0.001). The frequency of GA genotype of TNF-β (+252A/G) was significantly higher in patients than in controls while the AA genotype was completely absent in OLP patients. These results indicated that allele A and genotype GA of TNF-α (-308G/A) as well as the GA genotype of TNF-β (+252A/G) polymorphisms are associated with OLP risk. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of -1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A polymorphisms in IL-10 gene did not differ significantly between OLP patients and controls (P > 0.05). However, haplotype ATA extracted from 1082G/A, -819C/T, -592C/A polymorphisms of IL-10 were more prevalent in OLP patients when compared to controls indicating its possible association with OLP susceptibility. Conclusion: It is concluded that TNF-α (-308G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G) and IL-10 (-1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A) polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility of OLP, thus giving additional support for the genetic basis of this disease. Further studies are required using a larger sample size to confirm this association and determine the prognostic values of these findings.

Keywords: Cytokines, Genetic, Polymorphism, oral lichen planus

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
8 Biocompatible Chitosan Nanoparticles as an Efficient Delivery Vehicle for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Lipids to Induce Potent Cytokines and Antibody Response through Activation of γδ T-Cells in Mice

Authors: Ishani Das, Avinash Padhi, Sitabja Mukherjee, Santosh Kar, Avinash Sonawane

Abstract:

Activation of cell mediated and humoral immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are critical for protection. Herein, we show that mice immunized with Mtb lipid bound chitosan nanoparticles(NPs) induce secretion of prominent Th1 and Th2 cytokines in lymph node and spleen cells, and also induced significantly higher levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgM in comparison to control mice measured by ELISA. Furthermore, significantly enhanced γδ-T cell activation was observed in lymph node cells isolated from mice immunized with Mtb lipid coated chitosan-NPs as compared to mice immunized with chitosan-NPs alone or Mtb lipid liposomes through flow cytometric analysis. Also, it was observed that in comparison to CD8+ cells, significantly higher CD4+ cells were present in both the lymph node and spleen cells isolated from mice immunized with Mtb lipid coated chitosan NP. In conclusion, this study represents a promising new strategy for efficient delivery of Mtb lipids using chitosan NPs to trigger enhanced cell mediated and antibody response against Mtb lipids.

Keywords: Cytokines, chitosan nanoparticles, antibody response, mycobacterium tuberculosis lipids

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
7 Antihyperglycemic Potential of Chrysin and Diosmin alone or in Combination against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia in Rats: Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms

Authors: Sally A. El Awdan, Gehad A. Abdel Jaleel, Dalia O Saleh, Manal Badawi

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disease that affects a wide range of people worldwide and results in serious complications. Streptozotocin (STZ) causes selective cytotoxicity in the pancreatic β-cell, and it has been extensively used to induce diabetes mellitus in rats. The present study investigated the effects of diosmin and chrysin alone or in combination with each other on glucose level and on liver in STZ diabetic rats. Methods: In this study, rats were divided into six experimental groups (normal, untreated STZ-diabetic (60 mg/kg B.W., IP), treated STZ-diabetic with glycazide (10 mg/kg B.W, oral), treated STZ-diabetic with diosmin (100 mg/kg B. W., oral), treated STZ-diabetic with chrysin (80 mg/kg B.W., oral), treated STZ-diabetic with diosmin (50 mg/kg B.W, oral) + chrysin (40 mg/kg B.W., oral). After 2 weeks blood samples were withdrawn and glucose was measured. Animals were anaesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg), and sacrificed for dissecting liver. Results: Throughout the experimental period, all treatments significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum glucose, AST, ALT, triglyceride, cholesterol, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β. Moreover, the treated diabetic rats showed higher levels of reduced glutathione (P<0.05) in the liver compared to the diabetic control rats and inhibited diabetes-induced elevation in the levels of malondialdehyde in liver. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that diosmin and chrysin possess several treatment-oriented properties, including the control of hyperglycemia, antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusion: Considering these observations, it appears that diosmin and chrysin may be a useful supplement to delay the developmentof diabetes and its complications.

Keywords: Diabetes, Cytokines, rat, diosmin, chrysin, streptozocin

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
6 [Keynote Talk]: Bioactive Cyclic Dipeptides of Microbial Origin in Discovery of Cytokine Inhibitors

Authors: Sajeli A. Begum, Ameer Basha, Kirti Hira, Rukaiyya Khan

Abstract:

Cyclic dipeptides are simple diketopiperazine derivatives being investigated by several scientists for their biological effects which include anticancer, antimicrobial, haematological, anticonvulsant, immunomodulatory effect, etc. They are potentially active microbial metabolites having been synthesized too, for developing into drug candidates. Cultures of Pseudomonas species have earlier been reported to produce cyclic dipeptides, helping in quorum sensing signals and bacterial–host colonization phenomena during infections, causing cell anti-proliferation and immunosuppression. Fluorescing Pseudomonas species have been identified to secrete lipid derivatives, peptides, pyrroles, phenazines, indoles, aminoacids, pterines, pseudomonic acids and some antibiotics. In the present work, results of investigation on the cyclic dipeptide metabolites secreted by the culture broth of Pseudomonas species as potent pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitors are discussed. The bacterial strain was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of groundnut crop and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 16S rDNA sequence (GenBank Accession No. KT625586). Culture broth of this strain was prepared by inoculating into King’s B broth and incubating at 30 ºC for 7 days. The ethyl acetate extract of culture broth was prepared and lyophilized to get a dry residue (EEPA). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ELISA assay proved the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion in culture supernatant of RAW 264.7 cells by EEPA (IC50 38.8 μg/mL). The effect of oral administration of EEPA on plasma TNF-α level in rats was tested by ELISA kit. The LPS mediated plasma TNF-α level was reduced to 45% with 125 mg/kg dose of EEPA. Isolation of the chemical constituents of EEPA through column chromatography yielded ten cyclic dipeptides, which were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic techniques. These cyclic dipeptides are biosynthesized in microorganisms by multifunctional assembly of non-ribosomal peptide synthases and cyclic dipeptide synthase. Cyclo (Gly-L-Pro) was found to be more potentially (IC50 value 4.5 μg/mL) inhibiting TNF-α production followed by cyclo (trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Phe) (IC50 value 14.2 μg/mL) and the effect was equal to that of standard immunosuppressant drug, prednisolone. Further, the effect was analyzed by determining mRNA expression of TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. EEPA and isolated cyclic dipeptides demonstrated diminution of TNF-α mRNA expression levels in a dose-dependent manner under the tested conditions. Also, they were found to control the expression of other pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6, when tested through their mRNA expression levels in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages under LPS-stimulated conditions. In addition, significant inhibition effect was found on Nitric oxide production. Further all the compounds exhibited weak toxicity to LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Thus the outcome of the study disclosed the effectiveness of EEPA and the isolated cyclic dipeptides in down-regulating key cytokines involved in pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases.In another study led by the investigators, microbial cyclic dipeptides were found to exhibit excellent antimicrobial effect against Fusarium moniliforme which is an important causative agent of Sorghum grain mold disease. Thus, cyclic dipeptides are emerging small molecular drug candidates for various autoimmune diseases.

Keywords: Cytokines, Pseudomonas, TNF-Alpha, cyclic dipeptides, Fusarium moniliforme

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
5 The Pro-Reparative Effect of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Chronic Inflammatory Osteolytic Periapical Lesions

Authors: Michelle C. S. Azevedo, Priscila M. Colavite, Carolina F. Francisconi, Ana P. Trombone, Gustavo P. Garlet

Abstract:

VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) know as a potential protective factor in the view of its marked immunosuppressive properties. In this work, we investigated a possible association of VIP with the clinical status of experimental periapical granulomas and the association with expression markers in the lesions potentially associated with periapical lesions pathogenesis. C57BL/6WT mice were treated or not with recombinant VIP. Animals with active/progressive (N=40), inactive/stable (N=70) periapical granulomas and controls (N=50) were anesthetized and the right mandibular first molar was surgically opened, allowing exposure of dental pulp. Endodontic pathogenic bacterial strains were inoculated: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Actinomyces viscosus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum. The cavity was not sealed after bacterial inoculation. During lesion development, animals were treated or not with recombinant VIP 3 days post infection. Animals were killed after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of infection and the jaws were dissected. The extraction of total RNA from periodontal tissues was performed and the integrity of samples was checked. qPCR reaction using TaqMan chemistry with inventoried primers were performed in ViiA7 equipment. The results, depicted as the relative levels of gene expression, were calculated in reference to GAPDH and β-actin expression. Periodontal tissues from upper molars were vested and incubated supplemented RPMI, followed by processing with 0.05% DNase. Cell viability and couting were determined by Neubauer chamber analysis. For flow cytometry analysis, after cell counting the cells were stained with the optimal dilution of each antibody; (PE)-conjugated and (FITC)-conjugated antibodies against CD4, CD25, FOXP3, IL-4, IL-17 and IFN-γ antibodies, as well their respective isotype controls. Cells were analyzed by FACScan and CellQuest software. Results are presented as the number of cells in the periodontal tissues or the number of positive cells for each marker in the CD4+FOXp3+, CD4+IL-4+, CD4+IFNg+ and CD4+IL-17+ subpopulations. The levels mRNA were measured by qPCR. The VIP expression was predominated in inactive lesions, as well part of the clusters of cytokine/Th markers identified as protective factors and a negative correlation between VIP expression and lesion evolution was observed. A quantitative analysis of IL1β, IL17, TNF, IFN, MMP2, RANKL, OPG, IL10, TGFβ, CTLA4, COL5A1, CTGF, CXCL11, FGF7, ITGA4, ITGA5, SERP1 and VTN expression was measured in experimental periapical lesions treated with VIP 7 and 14 days after lesion induction and healthy animals. After 7 days, all targets presented a significate increase in comparison to untreated animals. About migration kinetics, profile of chemokine receptors expression of TCD4+ subsets and phenotypic analysis of Tregs, Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells during the course of experimental periodontal disease evaluated by flow cytometry and depicted as the number of positive cells for each marker. CD4+IFNg+ and CD4+FOXp3+ cells migration were significate increased 7 days post VIP treatment. CD4+IL17+ cells migration were significate increased 7 and 14 days post VIP treatment, CD4+IL4+ cells migration were significate increased 14 and 21 days post VIP treatment compared to the control group. In conclusion, our experimental data support VIP involvement in determining the inactivity of periapical lesions. Financial support: FAPESP #2015/25618-2.

Keywords: Cytokines, chronic inflammation, osteolytic lesions, VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide)

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
4 The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Stem Cell Factor Levels in Serum of Adolescent and Young Adults with Mood Disorders: A Two Year Follow-Up Study

Authors: Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager, Maria Skibinska, Natalia Lepczynska, Joanna Pawlak, Pawel Kapelski, Joanna Hauser

Abstract:

Introduction: Inflammation and cytokines have emerged as a promising target in mood disorders research; however there are still very limited numbers of study regarding inflammatory alterations among adolescents and young adults with mood disorders. The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Stem Cell Factor (SCF) are the pleiotropic cytokines which may play an important role in mood disorders pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of these factors in serum of adolescent and young adults with mood disorders compared to healthy controls. Subjects: We involved 79 patients aged 12-24 years in 2-year follow-up study with a primary diagnosis of mood disorders: bipolar disorder (BP) and unipolar disorder with BP spectrum. Study group includes 23 males (mean age 19.08, SD 3.3) and 56 females (18.39, SD 3.28). Control group consisted 35 persons: 7 males (20.43, SD 4.23) and 28 females (21.25, SD 2.11). Clinical diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were assessed using Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (SCID) in young adults respectively. Clinical assessment includes evaluation of clinical factors and symptoms severity (rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale). Clinical and biological evaluations were made at control visits respectively at baseline (week 0), euthymia (at month 3 or 6) and after 12 and 24 months. Methods: Serum protein concentration was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) method. Human MIF and SCF DuoSet ELISA kits were used. In the analyses non-parametric tests were used: Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Friedman’s ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Spearman correlation. We defined statistical significance as p < 0.05. Results: Comparing MIF and SCF levels between acute episode of depression/hypo/mania at baseline and euthymia (at month 3 or 6) we did not find any statistical differences. At baseline patients with age above 18 years old had decreased MIF level compared to patients younger than 18 years. MIF level at baseline positively correlated with age (p=0.004). Positive correlations of SCF level at month 3 and 6 with depression or mania occurrence at month 24 (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively) was detected. Strong correlations between MIF and SCF levels at baseline (p=0.0005) and month 3 (p=0.03) were observed. Discussion: Our results did not show any differences in MIF and SCF levels between acute episode of depression/hypo/mania and euthymia in young patients. Further studies on larger groups are recommended. Grant was founded by National Science Center in Poland no 2011/03/D/NZ5/06146.

Keywords: Cytokines, Mood Disorders, MIF, SCF

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
3 Impact of Cytokines Alone and Primed with Macrophages on Balamuthia mandrillaris Interactions with Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells in vitro

Authors: Abdul Matin, Salik Nawaz, Suk-Yul Jung

Abstract:

Balamuthia mandrillaris is well known to cause fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE). Amoebic transmission into the central nervous system (CNS), haematogenous spread is thought to be the prime step, followed by blood-brain barrier (BBB) dissemination. Macrophages are considered to be the foremost line of defense and present in excessive numbers during amoebic infections. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of macrophages alone or primed with cytokines on the biological characteristics of Balamuthia in vitro. Using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitutes the BBB, we have shown that Balamuthia demonstrated > 90% binding and > 70% cytotoxicity to host cells. However, macrophages further increased amoebic binding and Balamuthia-mediated cell cytotoxicity. Furthermore, macrophages exhibited no amoebicidal effect against Balamuthia. Zymography assay demonstrated that macrophages exhibited no inhibitory effect on proteolytic activity of Balamuthia. Overall, to our best knowledge, we have shown for the first time macrophages has no inhibitory effects on the biological properties of Balamuthia in vitro. This also strengthened the concept that how and why Balamuthia can cause infections in both immuno-competent and immuno-compromised individuals.

Keywords: Cytokines, macrophages, Balamuthia mandrillaris, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
2 Neuroprotective Effects of Gly-Pro-Glu-Thr-Ala-Phe-Leu-Arg, a Peptide Isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. Protein Hydrolysate

Authors: Maria Del Carmen Millan-Linares, Ana Lemus Conejo, Rocio Toscano, Alvaro Villanueva, Francisco Millan, Justo Pedroche, Sergio Montserrat-De La Paz

Abstract:

GPETAFLR (Glycine-Proline-Glutamine-Threonine-Alanine-Phenylalanine-Leucine-Arginine) is a peptide isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. protein hydrolysate (LPH). Herein, the effect of this peptide was investigated in two different models of neuroinflammation: in the immortalized murine microglia cell line BV-2 and in a high-fat-diet-induced obesity mouse model. Methods and Results: Effects of GPETAFLR on neuroinflammation were evaluated by RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, and ELISA techniques. In BV-2 microglial cells, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) enhanced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) whereas GPETAFLR decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in BV2 microglial cells. M1 (CCR7 and iNOS) and M2 (Arg-1 and Ym-1) polarization markers results showed how the GPETAFLR octapeptide was able to decrease M1 polarization marker expression and increase the M2 polarization marker expression compared to LPS. Animal model results indicate that GPETAFLR has an immunomodulatory capacity, both decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in brain tissue. Polarization markers in the brain tissue were also modulated by GPETAFLR that decreased the pro-inflammatory expression (M1) and increased the anti-inflammatory expression (M2). Conclusion: Our results suggest that GPETAFLR isolated from LPH has significant potential for management of neuroinflammatory conditions and offer benefits derived from the consumption of Lupinus angustifolius L. in the prevention of neuroinflammatory-related diseases.

Keywords: Cytokines, neuroinflammation, GPETAFLR peptide, BV-2 cell line, high-fat-diet

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
1 Influence of IL-1β on Hamster Blastocyst Hatching via Regulation of Hatching Associated Proteases

Authors: Madhulika Pathak, Polani Seshagiri, Vani Venkatappa

Abstract:

Blastocyst hatching is an indispensable process for successful implantation. One of the major reasons for implantation failure in IVF clinic is poor quality of embryo, which are not development/hatching-competent. Therefore, attempts are required to develop or enhance the culture system with a molecule recapitulating the autocrine/paracrine factors containing the environment of in-vivo endometrial milieu. We have tried to explore the functional molecules involved in the hamster hatching phenomenon. Blastocyst hatching is governed by several molecules that are entwined and regulate this process, among which cytokines are known to be expressed and are still least explored. Two of such cytokines we have used for our study are IL-1β and its natural antagonist IL-1ra to understand the functional dynamics of cytokines involved in the hatching process. Using hamster, an intriguing experimental model for hatching behavior, we have shown the mRNA (qPCR) and protein (ICC) expression of IL-1β, IL-1ra and IL-1 receptor type 1 throughout all the stages of morula, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst. Post-asserting the expression, the functional role is shown by supplementation studies, where IL-1β supplementation showed enhancement in hatching level (IL-1β treated: 84.1 ± 4.2% vs control: 63.7 ± 3.1 %, N=11), further confirmed by the diminishing effect of IL-1ra on hatching rate (IL-1ra treated: 27.5 ± 11.1% vs control: 67.9 ± 3.1%). The exogenous supplementation of IL-1ra decreased the survival rate of embryos and affected the viability in dose-dependent manner, establishing the importance of IL-1β in blastocyst cell survival. Previously, the cathepsin L and B were established as the proteases that were involved in the hamster hatching process. The inducing effect of IL-1β was correlated with enhanced mRNA level, as analyzed by qPCR, for both CAT L (by 1.9 ± 0.5 fold) and CAT B (by 3.5 ± 0.1) fold which was diminished in presence of IL-1ra (Cat L by 88 percent and Cat B by 94 percent. Moreover, using a specific fluorescent substrate-based assay kit, the enzymatic activity of these proteases was found to be increased in presence of IL-1β (Cat L by 2.1 ± 0.1 fold and CAT B by 2.3 ± 0.7 fold) and was curtailed in presence of IL-1ra. These observations provide functional insights with respect to the involvement of cytokines in the hatching process. This has implications in understanding the hatching biology and improving the embryo development quality in IVF clinics.

Keywords: Cytokines, interleukin, hatching, blastocyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 1