Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 10

Cystic Fibrosis Related Abstracts

10 Encoded Nanospheres for the Fast Ratiometric Detection of Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Iván Castelló, Georgiana Stoica, Emilio Palomares, Fernando Bravo


We present herein two colour encoded silica nanospheres (2nanoSi) for the fluorescence quantitative ratiometric determination of trypsin in humans. The system proved to be a faster (minutes) method, with two times higher sensitivity than the state-of-the-art biomarkers based sensors for cystic fibrosis (CF), allowing the quantification of trypsin concentrations in a wide range (0-350 mg/L). Furthermore, as trypsin is directly related to the development of cystic fibrosis, different human genotypes, i.e. healthy homozygotic (> 80 mg/L), CF homozygotic (< 50 mg/L), and heterozygotic (> 50 mg/L), respectively, can be determined using our 2nanoSi nanospheres.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Biomarker, Cystic Fibrosis, trypsin, homozygote, heterozygote

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9 Phenotypical and Genotypical Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis in 26 Cases from East and South Algeria

Authors: Yahia Mouloud, Yahia Massinissa


Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal genetic disease in the Europe population, is caused by mutations in the transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). It affects most organs including an epithelial tissue, base of hydroelectrolytic transepithelial transport, notably that aerial ways, the pancreas, the biliary ways, the intestine, sweat glands and the genital tractus. The gene whose anomalies are responsible of the cystic fibrosis codes for a protein Cl channel named CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) that exercises multiple functions in the cell, one of the most important in control of sodium and chlorine through epithelia. The deficient function translates itself notably by an abnormal production of viscous secretion that obstructs the execrator channels of this target organ: one observes then a dilatation, an inflammation and an atrophy of these organs. It also translates itself by an increase of the concentration in sodium and in chloride in sweat, to the basis of the sweat test. In order to do a phenotypical and genotypical diagnosis at a part of the Algerian population, our survey has been carried on 16 patients with evocative symptoms of the cystic fibrosis at that the clinical context has been confirmed by a sweat test. However, anomalies of the CFTR gene have been determined by electrophoresis in gel of polyacrylamide of the PCR products (polymerase chain reaction), after enzymatic digestion, then visualized to the ultraviolet (UV) after action of the ethidium bromide. All mutations detected at the time of our survey have already been identified at patients attained by this pathology in other populations of the world. However, the important number of found mutation with regard to the one of the studied patients testifies that the origin of this big clinical variability that characterizes the illness in the consequences of an enormous diversity of molecular defects of the CFTR gene.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, Polymorphism, CFTR gene, algerian population, sweat test, genotypical diagnosis

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8 Drug-Drug Plasma Protein Binding Interactions of Ivacaftor

Authors: Elena K. Schneider, Johnny X. Huang, Vincenzo Carbone, Mark Baker, Mohammad A. K. Azad, Matthew A. Cooper, Jian Li, Tony Velkov


Ivacaftor is a novel CF trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator that improves the pulmonary function for cystic fibrosis patients bearing a G551D CFTR-protein mutation. Because ivacaftor is highly bound (>97%) to plasma proteins, there is the strong possibility that co-administered CF drugs that compete for the same plasma protein binding sites and impact the free drug concentration. This in turn could lead to drastic changes in the in vivo efficacy of ivacaftor and therapeutic outcomes. This study compares the binding affinity of ivacaftor and co-administered CF drugs for human serum albumin (HSA) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) using surface plasmon resonance and fluorimetric binding assays that measure the displacement of site selective probes. Due to their high plasma protein binding affinities, drug-drug interactions between ivacaftor are to be expected with ducosate, montelukast, ibuprofen, dicloxacillin, omeprazole and loratadine. The significance of these drug-drug interactions is interpreted in terms of the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters and molecular docking simulations. The translational outcomes of the data are presented as recommendations for a staggered treatment regimen for future clinical trials which aims to maximize the effective free drug concentration and clinical efficacy of ivacaftor.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, human serum albumin, human α-1-acid glycoprotein, binding affinity, ivacaftor

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7 A 30 Year Audit of the Vascular Complications of Ports: Permanent Intravascular Access Devices

Authors: S. Kershaw, P. J. Barry, K. Webb


Background: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a chronic lung disease where patients have chronic lung infection punctuated by acute exacerbations that require intermittent intravenous (IV) antibiotics during their lives. With time, peripheral venous access can become difficult and limited. Accessing these veins can become arduous, traumatic, painful and unworkable. A permanent intravascular access device or Port is a small device that is inserted into the central venous system that allows the delivery of medicine eliminating the need for peripheral venous access. Ports represent a convenient and efficient method when venous access is required on a permanent basis however they are also associated with significant vascular complications. Superior Vena Cava Obstruction (SVCO) is a rare but significant vascular complication of ports in this setting. Objective: We aimed to look at a single CF centre’s experience of port-related SVCO over a thirty year period. Methods: Retrospective data was extracted using patient’s notes, electronic radiological reports and local databases over a period in excess of 30 years from 1982 to 2014. Results: 13 patients were identified with SVCO as a result of their port. 11 patients had CF (9 female, 2 male), one male patient had Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia and one female patient had severe Asthma. The mean port function was 1532 days (range 110 – 4049) and the mean age at SVCO was 24 years (range 11.1 to 36.5 years). The most common symptoms were facial oedema (n=8, 61.5%) and dilated veins (n=6, 46.2%). 7 patients had their Ports removed after SVCO. 6 patients underwent attempted stenting (46.2%) and 6 did not. 4 out of the 6 who underwent stenting required/had re-intervention. 3 of the 6 patients who underwent stenting had symptom resolution, however, 4 of the 6 patients who were not stented had symptom resolution also. Symptom resolution was not guaranteed with stenting and required re-intervention in two-thirds. Conclusion: This case series represents the experience of one of the longest established CF units in the UK and represents the largest cohort ever reported in the literature.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, Ports, Superior Vena Cava Obstruction, access devices

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6 A Qualitative Study of Parents' Recommendations for Improving the Notification Process and Communication between Health Professionals and Families for New Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Mohammad S. Razai, Jan Williams, Rachel Nestel, Dermot Dalton


Purpose: This descriptive qualitative study aimed to obtain parents recommendations for improving the notification process and communication of positive newborn screening result for cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: Thematic analysis of semi-structured open-ended interviews with 11 parents of 7 children with confirmed diagnosis of CF between 2 months — 2 years of age. Results: Parents preferred face to face disclosure of positive NBS results by a pediatrician with CF professional qualification. They trusted a pediatrician more than any other professional in providing accurate, credible and comprehensive information about the diagnosis and its implications. Parents recommended that health professionals be knowledgeable and provide clear, succinct and understandable information. Providers should also explore parents concerns and acknowledge feelings and emotions. Most parents reported that they preferred to be notified immediately as soon as the results were available. Several parents preferred to be told once the diagnosis was certain. Most parents regarded open access to CF team as the most significant part of care coordination. In addition to health professionals, most parents used internet as an important source of information, interaction and exchange of experiences. Most parents also used social networking sites such as Facebook groups and smart phone apps. Conclusion: This study provides significant new evidence from parental perspective in emphasizing the pivotal role of good communication skills deployed by a knowledgeable CF specialist in person. Parents use of social media and internet has replaced some traditional methods of information exchange and may reduce the need for professional input for newly diagnosed CF patients.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, care coordination, newborn screening, notification process, parental preferences, professional-paren communication

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5 Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Cystic Fibrosis: Do They Achieve Guidelines ?

Authors: Hatice Akbıyık, Hülya Gökmen Özel, Nagehan Emiralioğlu, Elmas Ebru Güneş Yalçın, Deniz Doğru Ersöz, Hayriye Uğur Özçelik, Nural Kiper


Background: Dietary recommendations in cystic fibrosis (CF) are based on the need to compensate for the increased energy needs of infection, the increased energy cost of breathing and the losses, incurred from malabsorption. Studies in CF indicate that dietary recommendations for CF patients can be difficult to achieve Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy and nutrient intakes and to compare in accordance with CF dietary guidelines in CF. Methods: One-hundred sixty patients with CF, aged between 2 to 20 years (mean±SD= 7.4±4.8 years) attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Pulmonary Diseases were included. Energy and nutrient intakes from foods and enteral products were calculated using a-24-hour dietary recall method with BEBIS 7.2 programme. Percentages of energy and nutrient intakes were compared in accordance with CF dietary guidelines. Patients or/and parents completed a questionnaire showing mealtime problems, usage of alternative therapies and type of nutrition. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS 16.0 programme. Results: It was obtained that 14.5% and 46.9% of the total energy intake were from proteins and carbohydrates, respectively. The actual contribution of total, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats to the total caloric intake was 37.5%, 14.3%, 14.9%, 9.9%, respectively. It was found that 87.7% of energy, 85% of protein 91.7% of carbohydrate, 81.1% of fat intakes were met, when compared CF recommended intakes of 120% RDA. Additionally 67%, 69.5%, 68.2% and 68.9% of the subjects did not achieve CF recommended intakes of 120% RDA for energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat, respectively. Patients with CF had low intakes for age for almost all vitamins and minerals, although supplementation was given. Especially most patients did not achieve the minimum recommended vitamin K intake of 120% RDA. The percentage meeting 120% RDA was 75.9% for vitamin K. It was shown that 41% of the patients had mealtime problems and they skipped the breakfast. Moreover 25.4% of the patients used alternative products outside the standard treatment (such as omega-3, ginger, turmeric, local honey). It was also showed that 60.8% of patients were using enteral products in addition to normal foods, the remaining patients were on only normal foods. Conclusion: The aims of improving nutritional status in children are to achieve normal weight gain and growth; optimize vitamin and mineral status; and slow the rate of clinical decline. In this study although enteral products were used in patients with CF, it was found that energy and nutrient requirements were unable to meet. Because dietary assessment is essential to identify the need for earlier nutritional intervention, in each visit patients need to be referred to CF specialist dietitian.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, energy and nutrient intakes, mealtime problems, malabsorbtion

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4 The Role of Health Beliefs in Predicting and Explaining Risky Health Behaviours within Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Rebecca Keyte, Helen Egan, Michail Mantzios


It is well acknowledged that ongoing adherence is a major concern within CF. However recently literature has indicated that non-adherence should not be viewed just in terms of medical regimens. There are other damaging behaviours that some chronically ill patients engage in which can be viewed as a form of non-adherence, such as risky behaviours. Risky behaviours are a major concern within CF, as they can have adverse health effects on patients regardless of patients adherence to medical regimens. The risky behaviours this research is predominantly focusing on are smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, illicit drug use and risky sexual behaviour. This research investigates patient’s beliefs about their CF and the impact their CF has upon their life, exploring rationales for why some patients engage in risky behaviours. This research utilises qualitative semi-structured interviews taking an interpretive perspective. Twenty-four adult participants have been recruited (16 male, age range 19–66 yrs) from two UK regional CF centres, with a median FEV1 61.77% predicted. Participants were recruited via clinician guidance, with 13 participants identified by clinicians as partaking in risky behaviours. However, during the interviews 17 participants were identified as partaking in risky behaviours, illustrating that not all patients offer full disclosure of engagement in such behaviours to their clinicians. Preliminary findings illustrate a variety of reasons as to why some CF patients engage in risky behaviours, with many participants stating that one challenge in terms of living with CF is accepting their illness. Disclosure of illness was also an issue, the desire to be seen as ‘normal’ was important to many. It is often possible for CF patients to hide their illness as they do not always appear to be unwell. However, literature indicates a desire for normalcy can be accompanied with the engagement of normalised risky behaviours, enabling patients to retaliate against their illness identity. There was also evidence of a life-orientated perspective amongst participants, with some reporting that their desire for fun and enjoyment was the reason for why they were engaging in risky behaviours. Some participants did not acknowledge the impact their risky behaviours could have upon their CF, and others rationalised their continuation with the behaviours by suggesting that they were in fact beneficial to their health. There was an apparent lack of knowledge around the implications of risky behaviours, with participants indicating that they had not been informed of such potential consequences by their clinicians. Given the adverse health effects of risky behaviours within CF, more effective health promotion measures are needed to both reduce and more importantly prevent these behaviours. Due to the initiation of risky behaviours within the CF population commonly occurring during adolescence, the researcher now proposes to conduct semi-structured interviews with paediatric patients to investigate their awareness and beliefs towards risky behaviours. Overall, this research will highlight reasons why some CF patients engage in risky behaviours, in order to inform interventions aimed to prevent the initiation in risky behaviours by increasing patient awareness.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, health beliefs, preliminary findings, risky health behaviours

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3 A Patient Passport Application for Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Sabin Tabirca, Tamara Vagg, Cathy Shortt, Claire Hickey, Joseph A. Eustace, Barry J. Plant


Introduction: Paper-based patient passports have been used advantageously for older patients, patients with diabetes, and patients with learning difficulties. However, these passports can experience issues with data security, patients forgetting to bring the passport, patients being over encumbered, and uncertainty with who is responsible for entering and managing data in this passport. These issues could be resolved by transferring the paper-based system to a convenient platform such as a smartphone application (app). Background: Life expectancy for some Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients are rising and as such new complications and procedures are predicted. Subsequently, there is a need for education and management interventions that can benefit CF adults. This research proposes a CF patient passport to record basic medical information through a smartphone app which will allow CF adults access to their basic medical information. Aim: To provide CF patients with their basic medical information via mobile multimedia so that they can receive care when traveling abroad or between CF centres. Moreover, by recording their basic medical information, CF patients may become more aware of their own condition and more active in their health care. Methods: This app is designed by a CF multidisciplinary team to be a lightweight reflection of a hospital patient file. The passport app is created using PhoneGap so that it can be deployed for both Android and iOS devices. Data entered into the app is encrypted and stored locally only. The app is password protected and includes the ability to set reminders and a graph to visualise weight and lung function over time. The app is introduced to seven participants as part of a stress test. The participants are asked to test the performance and usability of the app and report any issues identified. Results: Feedback and suggestions received via this testing include the ability to reorder the list of clinical appointments via date, an open format of recording dates (in the event specifics are unknown), and a drop down menu for data which is difficult to enter (such as bugs found in mucus). The app is found to be usable and accessible and is now being prepared for a pilot study with adult CF patients. Conclusions: It is anticipated that such an app will be beneficial to CF adult patients when travelling abroad and between CF centres.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, mHealth, digital patient passport, self management

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2 Performance of a Lytic Bacteriophage Cocktail against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Conditions That Simulate the Cystic Fibrosis Lung Environment

Authors: Isaac Martin, Abigail Lark, Sandra Morales, Eric W. Alton, Jane C. Davies


Objectives: The cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is a unique microbiological niche, wherein harmful bacteria persist for many years despite antibiotic therapy. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), the major culprit leading to lung decline and increased mortality, thrives in the lungs of patients with CF due to several factors that have been linked with poor antibiotic performance. Our group is investigating alternative therapies including bacteriophage cocktails with which we have previously demonstrated efficacy against planktonic organisms. In this study, we explored the effects of a 4-phage cocktail on Pa grown in two different conditions, intended to mirror the CF lung: a) alongside standard antibiotic treatment in pre-formed biofilms (structures formed by Pa-secreted exopolysaccharides which provide both physical and cell division barriers to antimicrobials and host defenses and b) in an acidic environment postulated to be present in the CF airway due both to the primary defect in bicarbonate secretion and secondary effects of inflammation. Methods: 16 Pa strains from CF patients at the Royal Brompton Hospital were selected based on sensitivity to a) ceftazidime/ tobramycin and b) the phage cocktail in a conventional plaque assay. To assess efficacy of phage in biofilms, 96 well plates with Pa (5x10⁷ CFU/ ml) were incubated in static conditions, allowing adherent bacterial colonies to form for 24 hr. Ceftazidime and tobramycin (both at 2 × MIC) were added, +/- bacteriophage (4x10⁸ PFU/mL) for a further 24 hr. Cell viability and biomass were estimated using fluorescent resazurin and crystal violet assays, respectively. To evaluate the effect of pH, strains were grown planktonically in shaking 96 well plates at pH 6.0, 6.6, 7.0 and 7.5 with tobramycin or phage, at varying concentrations. Cell viability was quantified by fluorescent resazurin assay. Results: For the biofilm assay, treatment groups were compared with untreated controls and expressed as percent reduction in cell viability and biomass. Addition of the 4-phage cocktail resulted in a 1.3-fold reduction in cell viability and 1.7-fold reduction in biomass (p < 0.001) when compared to standard antibiotic treatment alone. Notably, there was a 50 ± 15% reduction in cell viability and 60 ± 12% reduction in biomass (95% CI) for the 4 biofilms demonstrating the most resistance to antibiotic treatment. 83% of strains tested (n=6) showed decreased bacterial killing by tobramycin at acidic pHs (p < 0.01). However, 25% of strains (n=12) showed improved phage killing at acidic pHs (p < 0.05), with none showing the pattern of reduced efficacy at acidic pH demonstrated by tobramycin. Conclusion: The 4-phage anti-Pa cocktail tested against Pa performs well in pre-formed biofilms and in acidic environments; two conditions intended to mimic the CF lung. To our knowledge, these are the first data looking at the effects of subtle pH changes on phage-mediated bacterial killing in the context of Pa infection. These findings contribute to a growing body of evidence supporting the use of nebulised lytic bacteriophage as a treatment in the context of lung infection.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, Biofilm, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lytic bacteriophage

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1 Chloride Ion Channels Play a Role in Mediating Immune Response during Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Louise Robson, Richmond Muimo, Hani M. Alothaid


Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease that affects respiratory function and in EU it affects about 1 in 2,500 live births with an average 40-year life expectancy. This disease caused by mutations within the gene encoding the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) chloride channel leading to dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport and chronic lung inflammation, suggesting functional alterations of immune cells. In airways, CFTR been found to form a functional complex with S100A10 and AnxA2 in a cAMP/PKA dependent manner. The multiprotein complex of AnxA2-S100A10 and CFTR is also regulated by calcineurin. The aim of this study was i) to investigate whether chloride ion (Cl−) channels are activated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS from PA), ii) if this activation is regulated by cAMP/PKA/calcineurin pathway and iii) to investigate the role of LPS-activated Cl− channels in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells. Human peripheral blood monocytes were used in the study. Whole-cell patch records showed that LPS from PA can activate Cl− channels, including CFTR and outwardly-rectifying Cl− channel (ORCC). This activation appears to require an intact PKA/calcineurin signalling pathway. The Gout in the presence of LPS was significantly inhibited by diisothiocyanatostilbene-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an ORCC blocker (p<0.001). The Gout was further suppressed by CFTR(inh)-172, a specific inhibitor for CFTR channels (p<0.001). Monocytes pre-incubated with PKA inhibitor or calcineurin inhibitor before stimulated with LPS from PA that were resulted in DIDS and CFTR(inh)-172 insensitive currents. Activation of both ORCC and CFTR was however, observed in response to monocytes exposure to LPS. Additionally, ELISA showed that the CFTR and ORCC play a role in mediating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β upon exposure of monocytes to LPS. However, this secretion was significantly inhibited due to CFTR and ORCC inhibition. However, Cl− may play a role in IL-1β release independent of cAMP/PKA/calcineurin signalling due to the enhancement of IL-1β secretion even when cAMP/PKA/calcineurin pathway was inhibited. In conclusion, our data confirmed that LPS from PA activates Cl− channels in human peripheral blood monocytes. Our data also confirmed that Cl− channels were involved in IL-1β release in monocytes upon exposure to LPS. However, it has been found that PKA and calcineurin does not seem to influence the Cl− dependent cytokine release.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pKa, annexin A2, CFTR, S100A10, PP2B, outwardly-rectifying Cl− channel

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