Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

cyclooxygenase-2 Related Abstracts

4 Attenuation of Homocysteine-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Human Monocytes by Fulvic Acid

Authors: Shao-Ju Chien, Yi-Chien Wu, Ting-Ying Huang, Li-Tsen Li, You-Jin Chen, Cheng-Nan Chen

Abstract:

Homocysteine and pro-inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) have been linked to vascular dysfunction and risks of cardiovascular diseases. Fulvic acid (FA) is class of compounds of humic substances and possesses various pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on inflammatory responses of the monocytes remains unclear. We investigated the regulatory effect of FA on homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in human monocytes. Peripheral blood monocytes and U937 cells were kept as controls or pre-treated with FA, and then stimulated with homocysteine. The results show that pretreating monocytes with FA inhibited the homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitor for nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) attenuated homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism by which FA inhibit homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in monocytes, and a basis for using FA in pharmaceutical therapy against inflammation.

Keywords: homocysteine, monocytes, cyclooxygenase-2, fulvic acid, anti-inflammation

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3 Expanding the Therapeutic Utility of Curcumin

Authors: Azza H. El-Medany, Hanan H. Hagar, Omnia A. Nayel, Jamila H. El-Medany

Abstract:

In search for drugs that can target cancer cell micro-environment in as much as being able to halt malignant cellular transformation, the natural dietary phytochemical curcumin was currently assessed in DMH-induced colorectal cancer rat model. The study enrolled 50 animals divided into a control group (n=10) and DMH-induced colorectal cancer control group (n=20) (20mg/kg-body weight for 28 weeks) versus curcumin-treated group (n=20) (160 mg/kg suspension daily oral for further 8 weeks). Treatment by curcumin succeeded to significantly decrease the percent of ACF and tended to normalize back the histological changes retrieved in adenomatous and stromal cells induced by DMH. The drug also significantly elevated GSH and significantly reduced most of the accompanying biochemical elevations (namely MDA, TNF-α, TGF-β and COX2) observed in colonic carcinomatous tissue, induced by DMH, thus succeeding to revert that of MDA, COX2 and TGF-β back to near normal as justified by being non-significantly altered as compared to normal controls. The only exception was PAF that was insignificantly altered by the drug. When taken together, it could be concluded that curcumin possess the potentiality to halt some of the orchestrated cross-talk between cancerous transformation and its micro-environmental niche that contributes to cancer initiation, progression and metastasis in this experimental cancer colon model. Envisioning these merits to a drug with already known safety preferentiality, awaits final results of current ongoing clinical trials, before curcumin can be added to the new therapeutic armamentarium of anticancer therapy.

Keywords: Curcumin, cyclooxygenase-2, dimethyl hydralazine, aberrant crypt foci, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, platelet activating factor

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2 Involvement of Multi-Drug Resistance Protein (Mrp) 3 in Resveratrol Protection against Methotrexate-Induced Testicular Damage

Authors: Mohamed A. Morsy, Azza A. K. El-Sheikh, Abdulla Y. Al-Taher

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of resveratrol (RES) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced testicular damage. RES (10 mg/kg/day) was given for 8 days orally and MTX (20 mg/kg i.p.) was given at day 4 of experiment, with or without RES in rats. MTX decreased serum testosterone, induced histopathological testicular damage, increased testicular tumor necrosis factor-α level and expression of nuclear factor-κB and cyclooxygenase-2. In MTX/RES group, significant reversal of these parameters was noticed, compared to MTX group. Testicular expression of multidrug resistance protein (Mrp) 3 was three- and five-folds higher in RES- and MTX/RES-treated groups, respectively. In vitro, using prostate cancer cells, each of MTX and RES alone induced cytotoxicity with IC50 0.18 ± 0.08 and 20.5 ± 3.6 µM, respectively. RES also significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of MTX. In conclusion, RES appears to have dual beneficial effect, as it promotes MTX tumor cytotoxicity, while protecting the testes, probably via up-regulation of testicular Mrp3 as a novel mechanism.

Keywords: Resveratrol, cyclooxygenase-2, methotrexate, multidrug resistance protein 3, tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB

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1 In vitro Study of Inflammatory Gene Expression Suppression of Strawberry and Blackberry Extracts

Authors: Franco Van De Velde, Debora Esposito, Maria E. Pirovani, Mary A. Lila

Abstract:

The physiology of various inflammatory diseases is a complex process mediated by inflammatory and immune cells such as macrophages and monocytes. Chronic inflammation, as observed in many cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, occurs when the low-grade inflammatory response fails to resolve with time. Because of the complexity of the chronic inflammatory disease, major efforts have focused on identifying novel anti-inflammatory agents and dietary regimes that prevent the pro-inflammatory process at the early stage of gene expression of key pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. The ability of the extracts of three blackberry cultivars (‘Jumbo’, ‘Black Satin’ and ‘Dirksen’), and one strawberry cultivar (‘Camarosa’) to inhibit four well-known genetic biomarkers of inflammation: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxynase-2 (Cox-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in an in vitro lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model were investigated. Moreover, the effect of latter extracts on the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production was assessed. Assay was conducted with 50 µg/mL crude extract concentration, an amount that is easily achievable in the gastrointestinal tract after berries consumption. The mRNA expression levels of Cox-2 and IL-6 were reduced consistently (more than 30%) by extracts of ‘Jumbo’ and ‘Black Satin’ blackberries. Strawberry extracts showed high reduction in mRNA expression levels of IL-6 (more than 65%) and exhibited moderate reduction in mRNA expression of Cox-2 (more than 35%). The latter behavior mirrors the intracellular ROS production of the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages after the treatment with blackberry ‘Black Satin’ and ‘Jumbo’, and strawberry ‘Camarosa’ extracts, suggesting that phytochemicals from these fruits may play a role in the health maintenance by reducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, effective inhibition in the gene expression of IL-1β and iNOS was not observed by any of blackberry and strawberry extracts. However, suppression in the NO production in the activated macrophages among 5–25% was observed by ‘Jumbo’ and ‘Black Satin’ blackberry extracts and ‘Camarosa’ strawberry extracts, suggesting a higher NO suppression property by phytochemicals of these fruits. All these results suggest the potential beneficial effects of studied berries as functional foods with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles. Moreover, the underlying role of phytochemicals from these fruits in the protection of inflammatory process will deserve to be further explored.

Keywords: Functional foods, cyclooxygenase-2, reactive oxygen species, interleukin-6

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