Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

cyclodextrin Related Abstracts

2 Preparation and Characterization of Anti-Acne Dermal Products Based on Erythromycin β-Cyclodextrin Lactide Complex

Authors: Lacramioara Ochiuz, Manuela Hortolomei, Aurelia Vasile, Iulian Stoleriu, Marcel Popa, Cristian Peptu


Local antibiotherapy is one of the most effective acne therapies. Erythromycin (ER) is a macrolide antibiotic topically administered for over 30 years in the form of gel, ointment or hydroalcoholic solution for the acne therapy. The use of ER as a base for topical dosage forms raises some technological challenges due to the physicochemical properties of this substance. The main disadvantage of ER is the poor water solubility (2 mg/mL) that limits both formulation using hydrophilic bases and skin permeability. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are biocompatible cyclic oligomers of glucose, with hydrophobic core and hydrophilic exterior. CDs are used to improve the bioavailability of drugs by increasing their solubility and/or their rate of dissolution after including the poorly water soluble substances (such as ER) in the hydrophobic cavity of CDs. Adding CDs leads to the increase of solubility and improved stability of the drug substance, increased permeability of substances of low water solubility, decreased toxicity and even to active dose reduction as a result of increased bioavailability. CDs increase skin tolerability by reducing the irritant effect of certain substances. We have included ER to lactide modified β-cyclodextrin, in order to improve the therapeutic effect of topically administered ER. The aims of the present study were to synthesise and describe a new complex with prolonged release of ER with lactide modified β-cyclodextrin (CD-LA_E), to investigate the CD-LA_E complex by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), to analyse the effect of semisolid base on the in vitro and ex vivo release characteristics of ER in the CD-LA_E complex by assessing the permeability coefficient and the release kinetics by fitting on mathematical models. SEM showed that, by complexation, ER changes its crystal structure and enters the amorphous phase. FTIR analysis has shown that certain specific bands of some groups in the ER structure move during the incapsulation process. The structure of the CD-LA_E complex has a molar ratio of 2.12 to 1 between lactide modified β-cyclodextrin and ER. The three semisolid bases (2% Carbopol, 13% Lutrol 127 and organogel based on Lutrol and isopropyl myristate) show a good capacity for incorporating the CD-LA_E complex, having a content of active ingredient ranging from 98.3% to 101.5% as compared to the declared value of 2% ER. The results of the in vitro dissolution test showed that the ER solubility was significantly increased by CDs incapsulation. The amount of ER released from the CD-LA_E gels was in the range of 76.23% to 89.01%, whereas gels based on ER released a maximum percentage of 26.01% ER. The ex vivo dissolution test confirms the increased ER solubility achieved by complexation, and supports the assumption that the use of this process might increase ER permeability. The highest permeability coefficient was obtained in ER released from gel based on 2% Carbopol: in vitro 33.33 μg/cm2/h, and ex vivo 26.82 μg/cm2/h, respectively. The release kinetics of complexed ER is performed by Fickian diffusion, according to the results obtained by fitting the data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

Keywords: Acne, erythromycin, lactide, cyclodextrin

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1 Engineered Control of Bacterial Cell-to-Cell Signaling Using Cyclodextrin

Authors: Yuriko Takayama, Norihiro Kato


Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication system in bacteria to regulate expression of target genes. In gram-negative bacteria, activation on QS is controlled by a concentration increase of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL), which can diffuse in and out of the cell. Effective control of QS is expected to avoid virulence factor production in infectious pathogens, biofilm formation, and antibiotic production because various cell functions in gram-negative bacteria are controlled by AHL-mediated QS. In this research, we applied cyclodextrins (CDs) as artificial hosts for the AHL signal to reduce the AHL concentration in the culture broth below its threshold for QS activation. The AHL-receptor complex induced under the high AHL concentration activates transcription of the QS-target gene. Accordingly, artificial reduction of the AHL concentration is one of the effective strategies to inhibit the QS. A hydrophobic cavity of the CD can interact with the acyl-chain of the AHL due to hydrophobic interaction in aqueous media. We studied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6HSL)-mediated QS in Serratia marcescens; accumulation of C6HSL is responsible for regulation of the expression of pig cluster. Inhibitory effects of added CDs on QS were demonstrated by determination of prodigiosin amount inside cells after reaching stationary phase, because production of prodigiosin depends on the C6HSL-mediated QS. By adding approximately 6 wt% hydroxypropyl-β-CD (HP-β-CD) in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium prior to inoculation of S. maecescens AS-1, the intracellularly accumulated prodigiosin was drastically reduced to 7-10%, which was determined after the extraction of prodigiosin in acidified ethanol. The AHL retention ability of HP-β-CD was also demonstrated by Chromobacterium violacuem CV026 bioassay. The CV026 strain is an AHL-synthase defective mutant that activates QS solely by adding AHLs from outside of cells. A purple pigment violacein is induced by activation of the AHL-mediated QS. We demonstrated that the violacein production was effectively suppressed when the C6HSL standard solution was spotted on a LB agar plate dispersing CV026 cells and HP-β-CD. Physico-chemical analysis was performed to study the affinity between the immobilized CD and added C6HSL using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor. The COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayer was prepared on a gold electrode of 27-MHz AT-cut quartz crystal. Mono(6-deoxy-6-N, N-diethylamino)-β-CD was immobilized on the electrode using water-soluble carbodiimide. The C6HSL interaction with the β-CD cavity was studied by injecting the C6HSL solution to a cup-type sensor cell filled with buffer solution. A decrement of resonant frequency (ΔFs) clearly showed the effective C6HSL complexation with immobilized β-CD and its stability constant for MBP-SpnR-C6HSL complex was on the order of 102 M-1. The CD has high potential for engineered control of QS because it is safe for human use.

Keywords: Intracellular Signaling, quorum sensing, cyclodextrin, acylhomoserine lactone

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