Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Cyclic Voltammetry Related Abstracts

20 Development of an Electrochemical Aptasensor for the Detection of Human Osteopontin Protein

Authors: Sofia G. Meirinho, Luis G. Dias, António M. Peres, Lígia R. Rodrigues


The emerging development of electrochemical aptasen sors has enabled the easy and fast detection of protein biomarkers in standard and real samples. Biomarkers are produced by body organs or tumours and provide a measure of antigens on cell surfaces. When detected in high amounts in blood, they can be suggestive of tumour activity. These biomarkers are more often used to evaluate treatment effects or to assess the potential for metastatic disease in patients with established disease. Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein found in all body fluids and constitutes a possible biomarker because its overexpression has been related with breast cancer evolution and metastasis. Currently, biomarkers are commonly used for the development of diagnostic methods, allowing the detection of the disease in its initial stages. A previously described RNA aptamer was used in the current work to develop a simple and sensitive electrochemical aptasensor with high affinity for human OPN. The RNA aptamer was biotinylated and immobilized on a gold electrode by avidin-biotin interaction. The electrochemical signal generated from the aptamer–target molecule interaction was monitored electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry in the presence of [Fe (CN) 6]−3/− as a redox probe. The signal observed showed a current decrease due to the binding of OPN. The preliminary results showed that this aptasensor enables the detection of OPN in standard solutions, showing good selectivity towards the target in the presence of others interfering proteins such as bovine OPN and bovine serum albumin. The results gathered in the current work suggest that the proposed electrochemical aptasensor is a simple and sensitive detection tool for human OPN and so, may have future applications in cancer disease monitoring.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, osteopontin, aptamer, aptasensor, screen-printed electrode

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19 Determination of Nanomolar Mercury (II) by Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Carbon Zinc/Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide – 3 (4-Methoxyphenyl) Propionate Nanocomposite Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Sharifah Norain Mohd Sharif, Norhayati Hashima


A mercury(II) sensor was developed by using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) paste electrode modified with Zn/Al layered double hydroxide-3(4-methoxyphenyl)propionate nanocomposite (Zn/Al-HMPP). The optimum conditions by cyclic voltammetry were observed at electrode composition 2.5% (w/w) of Zn/Al-HMPP/MWCNTs, 0.4 M potassium chloride, pH 4.0, and scan rate of 100 mVs-1. The sensor exhibited wide linear range from 1x10-3 M to 1x10-7 M Hg2+ and 1x10-7 M to 1x10-9 M Hg2+, with a detection limit of 1x10-10 M Hg2+. The high sensitivity of the proposed electrode towards Hg(II) was confirmed by double potential-step chronocoulometry which indicated these values; diffusion coefficient 1.5445 x 10-9 cm2 s-1, surface charge 524.5 µC s-½ and surface coverage 4.41 x 10-2 mol cm-2. The presence of 25-fold concentration of most metal ions had no influence on the anodic peak current. With characteristics such as high sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability the electrode was then proposed as the appropriate alternative for the determination of mercury(II).

Keywords: nanocomposite, Cyclic Voltammetry, mercury(II), modified carbon paste electrode

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18 Electrochemical Behavior of Iron (III) Complexes with Catechol at Different pH

Authors: K. M. Salim Reza, M. Hafiz Mia, M. A. Aziz, M. A. Motin, M. M. Rahman, M. A. Hasem


The redox behavior of Fe (III) in presence of Catechol (Cc) has been carried out in buffer solution of different pH, scan rate, variation of Fe (III) concentration and Cc concentration. Uncoordinated Fe(III) or Cc has been found to undergo reversible electrode reaction whereas coordinated Fe-Cc is irreversible. The peak positions of the voltammogram of Fe- Cc shifted with respect to that of free Fe (III) or Cc and also developed a new peak at 0.12 V. The peak current of Fe-Cc decreases significantly compared with that of free Fe(III) or Cc in the same experimental conditions. These behaviors ascribed the formation of complex of Fe with Cc. The complex was formed either by the addition of Cc into Fe(III) or by the addition of Fe(III) into Cc. The effect of pH of Fe-Cc complex was studied by varying pH from 2 to 8.5. The electro chemical oxidation of Fe-Cc is facilitated in lower pH media. The slope of the plots of anodic peak current, Ep against pH of Fe-Cc complexe is 30 mV, indicates that the oxidation of Fe-Cc complexes proceeded via the 2e−/2H+ processes. The proportionality of the anodic and cathodic peak currents with square root of scan rate of suggests that the peak current of the different complexes at each redox reaction is controlled by diffusion process.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, Fe-Cc Complex, pH effect, redox interaction

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17 Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Nanotube Based Supercapacitor

Authors: Jafar Khan Kasi, Ajab Khan Kasi, Muzamil Bokhari


Carbon nanotube is one of the most attractive materials for the potential applications of nanotechnology due to its excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties. In this paper we report a supercapacitor made of nickel foil electrodes, coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thin film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. Chemical vapor deposition method was used for the growth of MWCNTs and ethanol was used as a hydrocarbon source. High graphitic multiwall carbon nanotube was found at 750 C analyzing by Raman spectroscopy. We observed the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor by cyclic voltammetry. The electrodes of supercapacitor fabricated from MWCNTs exhibit considerably small equivalent series resistance (ESR), and a high specific power density. Electrophoretic deposition is an easy method in fabricating MWCNT electrodes for high performance supercapacitor.

Keywords: charge, Cyclic Voltammetry, Catalyst, Carbon Nanotube, chemical vapor deposition

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16 Development of Solid Electrolytes Based on Networked Cellulose

Authors: Boor Singh Lalia, Yarjan Abdul Samad, Raed Hashaikeh


Three different kinds of solid polymer electrolytes were prepared using polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a base polymer, networked cellulose (NC) as a physical support and LiClO4 as a conductive salt for the electrolytes. Networked cellulose, a modified form of cellulose, is a biodegradable and environmentally friendly additive which provides a strong fibrous networked support for structural stability of the electrolytes. Although the PEO/NC/LiClO4 electrolyte retains its structural integrity and mechanical properties at 100oC as compared to pristine PEO-based polymer electrolytes, it suffers from poor ionic conductivity. To improve the room temperature conductivity of the electrolyte, PEO is replaced by the polyethylene glycol (PEG) which is a liquid phase that provides high mobility for Li+ ions transport in the electrolyte. PEG/NC/LiClO4 shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to PEO/NC/LiClO4 at room temperature, but it is brittle and tends to form cracks during processing. An advanced solid polymer electrolyte with optimum ionic conductivity and mechanical properties is developed by using a ternary system: TEGDME/PEO/NC+LiClO4. At room temperature, this electrolyte exhibits an ionic conductivity to the order of 10-5 S/cm, which is very high compared to that of the PEO/LiClO4 electrolyte. Pristine PEO electrolytes start melting at 65 °C and completely lose its mechanical strength. Dynamic mechanical analysis of TEGDME: PEO: NC (70:20:10 wt%) showed an improvement of storage modulus as compared to the pristine PEO in the 60–120 °C temperature range. Also, with an addition of NC, the electrolyte retains its mechanical integrity at 100 oC which is beneficial for Li-ion battery operation at high temperatures. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) studies revealed that the ternary polymer electrolyte is thermally stable in the lithium ion battery operational temperature range. As-prepared polymer electrolyte was used to assemble LiFePO4/ TEGDME/PEO/NC+LiClO4/Li half cells and their electrochemical performance was studied via cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, Mechanical Properties, Ionic Conductivity, Lithium Ion Batteries, solid polymer electrolyte

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15 Thermal Reduction of Perfect Well Identified Hexagonal Graphene Oxide Nano-Sheets for Super-Capacitor Applications

Authors: A. N. Fouda


A novel well identified hexagonal graphene oxide (GO) nano-sheets were synthesized using modified Hummer method. Low temperature thermal reduction at 350°C in air ambient was performed. After thermal reduction, typical few layers of thermal reduced GO (TRGO) with dimension of few hundreds nanometers were observed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). GO has a lot of structure models due to variation of the preparation process. Determining the atomic structure of GO is essential for a better understanding of its fundamental properties and for realization of the future technological applications. Structural characterization was identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. A comparison between exper- imental and theoretical IR spectrum were done to confirm the match between experimentally and theoretically proposed GO structure. Partial overlap of the experimental IR spectrum with the theoretical IR was confirmed. The electrochemical properties of TRGO nano-sheets as electrode materials for supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. An enhancement in supercapacitance after reduction was confirmed and the area of the CV curve for the TRGO electrode is larger than those for the GO electrode indicating higher specific capacitance which is promising in super-capacitor applications

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, hexagonal graphene oxide, thermal reduction

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14 Determination of Nanomolar Mercury (II) by Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Carbon Zinc/Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide-3(4-Methoxyphenyl) Propionate Nanocomposite Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Sharifah Norain Mohd Sharif, Norhayati Hashim


A mercury(II) sensor was developed by using multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) paste electrode modified with Zn/Al layered double hydroxide-3(4-methoxyphenyl) propionate nano composite (Zn/Al-HMPP). The optimum conditions by cyclic voltammetry were observed at electrode composition 2.5% (w/w) of Zn/Al-HMPP/MWCNTs, 0.4 M potassium chloride, pH 4.0, and scan rate of 100 mVs-1. The sensor exhibited wide linear range from 1x10-3 M to 1x10-7 M Hg2+ and 1x10-7 M to 1x10-9 M Hg2+, with a detection limit of 1 x 10-10 M Hg2+. The high sensitivity of the proposed electrode towards Hg(II) was confirmed by double potential-step chronocoulometry which indicated these values; diffusion coefficient 1.5445 x 10-9 cm2 s-1, surface charge 524.5 µC s-½ and surface coverage 4.41 x 10-2 mol cm-2. The presence of 25-fold concentration of most metal ions had no influence on the anodic peak current. With characteristics such as high sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability the electrode was then proposed as the appropriate alternative for the determination of mercury.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Cyclic Voltammetry, mercury(II), modified carbon paste electrode

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13 The Effects of pH on the Electrochromism in Nickel Oxide Films

Authors: T. Taşköprü, M. Zor, E. Turan


The advantages of nickel oxide as an electrochromic material are its good contrast of transmittance and its suitable use as a secondary electrochromic film with WO3 for electrochromic devices. Electrochromic nickel oxide film was prepared by using a simple and inexpensive chemical deposition bath (CBD) technique onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from nickel nitrate solution. The films were ace centered cubic NiO with preferred orientation in the (2 0 0) direction. The electrochromic (EC) properties of the films were studied as a function of pH (8, 9, 10 and 11) in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte (0.3 M KOH) using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The EC cell was formed with the following configuration; FTO/nickel oxide film/0.3 M KOH/Pt The potential was cycled from 0.1 to 0.6V at diffferent potential sweep rates in the range 10- 50 mV/s. The films exhibit anodic electrochromism, changing colour from transparent to black.CV results of a nickel oxide film showed well-resolved anodic current peak at potential; 45 mV and cathodic peak at potential 28 mV. The structural, morphological, and optical changes in NiO film following the CV were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis- NIR spectrophotometry. No change was observed in XRD, besides surface morphology undergoes change due to the electrical discharge. The change in tansmittance between the bleached and colored state is 68% for the film deposited with pH=11 precursor.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, SEM, XRD, nickel oxide

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12 Electrocoagulation of Ni(OH)2/NiOOH for the Removal of Boron Using Nickel Foam as Sacrificial Anode

Authors: Yu-Jen Shih, Yao-Hui Hunag


Electrocoagulation (EC) using metallic nickel foam as anode and cathode for the removal of boron from solution was studied. The electrolytic parameters included pH, current density, and initial boron concentration for optimizing the EC process. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency was increased by elevating pH from 4.0 to 8.0, and then decreased at higher pH. The electrolytic efficacy was not affected by current density. In respect of energy consumption, 1.25 mA/cm2 of current density was acceptable for an effective EC of boron, while increasing boric acid from 10 to 100 ppm-B did not impair removal efficiency too much. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that the oxide film, Ni(OH)2 and NiOOH, at specific overpotentials would result in less weight loss of anode than that predicted by the Faraday’s law. The optimal conditions under which 99.2% of boron was removed and less than 1 ppm-B remained in the electrolyte would be pH 8, four pairs of electrodes, and 1.25 mA/cm2 in 120 min as treating wastewaters containing 10 ppm-B. XRD and SEM characterization suggested that the granular crystallites of hydroxide precipitates was composed of theophrastite.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, Hydrogen Generation, electrocoagulation, boron removal, borohydrides, NiOOH

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11 Development of an Inexpensive Electrocatalytic Energy Material: Cu-Ni-CeO2 for High Performance Alcoholic Fuel Cell

Authors: Sujit Kumar Guchhait, Subir Paul


One of the major research areas is to find an alternative source of energy to fulfill the energy crisis and environmental problems. The Fuel cell is such kind of energy producing unit. Use of fuel cell to produce renewable energy for commercial purpose is limited by the high cost of Pt based electrode material. Development of high energetic, as well as inexpensive fuel cell electrode materials, is needs of hour to produce clean energy using derive bio-fuel. In this present investigation, inexpensive Cu-Ni-CeO2 electrode material has been synthesized by using pulse current. The surface morphology of the electrode materials is controlled by several deposition parameters to increase the rate of electrochemical oxidation of alcoholic fuel, ethanol. The electrochemical characterization of the developed material was done by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Chronoamperometry (CA) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy test. It is interesting to find that both these materials have shown high electrocatalytic properties in terms of high exchange current density (I0), low polarization resistance (Rp) and low impedance. It is seen that the addition of CeO2 to Ni-Cu has outperformed Pt as far as high electrocatalytic properties are concerned. The exchange current density on the Cu-Ni-CeO2 electrode surface for ethanol oxidation is about eight times higher than the same on the Pt surface with much lower polarization resistance than the later. The surface morphology of the electrode materials has been revealed by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). It is seen that grains are narrow and subspherical with 3D surface containing pores in between two elongated grains. XRD study exhibits the presence of Ni and CeO2 on the Cu surface.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, SEM, EIS, XRD, potentiodynamic polarization, electro-catalyst, alcoholic fuel

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10 Micropower Composite Nanomaterials Based on Porous Silicon for Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Alexey P. Antropov, Alexander V. Ragutkin, Nicolay A. Yashtulov


The original controlled technology for power active nanocomposite membrane-electrode assembly engineering on the basis of porous silicon is presented. The functional nanocomposites were studied by electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry methods. The application possibility of the obtained nanocomposites as high performance renewable energy sources for micro-power electronic devices is demonstrated.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Renewable Energy Sources, Electron Microscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry, porous silicon, platinum-palladium nanocomposites, power activity

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9 Influence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior

Authors: Y. El Kaissi, M. Allam, A. Koulou, M. Galai, M. Ebn Touhami


The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Cyclic Voltammetry, EIS, potentiodynamic polarization, electroless Ni–P coating

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8 Cyclic Voltammetric Investigations on Nickel Electrodeposition from Industrial Sulfate Electrolyte in Presence of Ca(II), Mg(II), Na(I) Ions

Authors: Udit Mohanty, Mari Lundstrom


Electrochemical investigation by cyclic voltammetry was conducted to explore the polarization behavior of reactions occurring in nickel electrowinning in presence of cationic impurities such as Ca2+ (0-100 mg/L), Na+ (1-10 g/L) and Mg2+ (10-100 mg/L). A comparative study was devised between industrial and synthetic electrolytes to observe the shift in the nucleation overpotentials of nickel deposition, dissolution and hydrogen evolution reactions at the cathode and anode respectively. Significant polarization of cathodic reactions were observed with concentrations of Na ≥ 8g /L and Ca ≤ 40 mg /L in the synthetic electrolytes. Nevertheless, a progressive increase in the concentration of Ca, Mg and Na in the industrial electrolyte demonstrated a depolarization behavior in the cathodic reactions related to nickel deposition and/or hydrogen evolution. Synergistic effect of Ca with Mg and Na in both the industrial and synthetic electrolytes induced a notable depolarization effect, also reflected in the peak currents.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, Nickel, Polarization, cationic impurities, electrowinning

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7 Electrochemical Study of Interaction of Thiol Containing Proteins with As (III)

Authors: Sunil Mittal, Sukhpreet Singh, Hardeep Kaur


The affinity of thiol group with heavy metals is a well-established phenomenon. The present investigation has been focused on electrochemical response of cysteine and thioredoxin against arsenite (As III) on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. It was observed that both the compounds produce distinct response in free and immobilised form at the electrode. The SEM, FTIR, and impedance studies of the modified electrode were conducted for characterization. Various parameters were optimized to achieve As (III) effect on the reduction potential of the compounds. Cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry were employed as the analysis techniques. The optimum response was observed at neutral pH in both the cases, at optimum concentration of 2 mM and 4.27 µM for cysteine and thioredoxin respectively. It was observed that presence of As (III) increases the reduction current of both the moieties. The linear range of detection for As (III) with cysteine was from 1 to 10 mg L⁻¹ with detection limit of 0.8 mg L⁻¹. The thioredoxin was found more sensitive to As (III) and displayed a linear range from 0.1 to 1 mg L⁻¹ with detection limit of 10 µg L⁻¹.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, arsenite, cysteine, thioredoxin

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6 1,8-Naphthalimide Substituted 4,4-Difluoroboradiaza-S-Indacene Dyads: Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Live-Cell Imaging

Authors: Madhurima Poddar, Vinay Sharma, Shaikh M. Mobin, Rajneesh Misra


Three 1,8-naphthalimide (NPI) substituted 4,4-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) dyads were synthesized via Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction of ethynyl substituted NPI with the meso-, β- and α-halogenated BODIPYs, respectively. The photophysical and electrochemical data reveals considerable electronic communication between the BODIPY and NPI moieties. The electronic absorption spectrum reveals that the substitution of NPI at α position of BODIPY exhibit better electronic communication between the NPI and the BODIPY units. The electronic structures of all the dyads exhibit planar geometries which are in a good correlation with the structures obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures of the dyads exhibit interesting supramolecular interactions. The dyads show good cytocompatibility with the potential of multicolor live-cell imaging; making them excellent candidates for biological applications. The work provides an important strategy of screening the substitution pattern at different position of BODIPYs which will be useful for the design of BODIPY based organic molecules for various optoelectronic applications as well as bio-imaging.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, bio-imaging studies, cross-coupling, density functional calculations, fluorescence spectra, single crystal XRD, UV/Vis spectroscopy

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5 Characterization of Self-Assembly Behavior of 1-Dodecylamine Molecules on Au (111) Surface

Authors: Wan-Tzu Yen, Yu-Chen Luo, I-Ping Liu, Po-Hsuan Yeh, Sheng-Hsun Fu, Yuh-Lang Lee


Self-assembled characteristics and adsorption performance of 1-dodecylamine molecules on gold (Au) (111) surfaces were characterized via cyclic voltammetry (CV), surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The present study focused on the formation of 1-dodecylamine (DDA) on a gold surface with respect to the ex-situ arrangement of an adlayer on the Au(111) surface, and phase transition at potential dynamics carried out by EC-STM. This study reveals that alkyl amine molecules were formed an adsorption pattern with highly regular “lie down shape” on Au(111) surface, even in an extreme acid system (pH = 1). Acidic electrolyte (HClO₄) could protonate the surface of alkyl amine of a monolayer of the gold surface when potential shifts to negative. The quite stability of 1-dodecylamine on the gold surface maintained the monolayer across the potential window (0.1-0.8V). This transform model was confirmed by EC-STM. In addition, amine-modified Au(111) electrode adlayer used to examine how to affect an electron transfer across an interface using [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/[Fe(CN)₆]⁴⁻ redox pair containing 0.1 M HClO₄ solution.

Keywords: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry, self-assembled monolayer, surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy, dodecylamine, gold (Au)(111)

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4 Electrodeposition of Silicon Nanoparticles Using Ionic Liquid for Energy Storage Application

Authors: Anjali Vanpariya, Priyanka Marathey, Sakshum Khanna, Roma Patel, Indrajit Mukhopadhyay


Silicon (Si) is a promising negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) due to its low cost, non-toxicity, and a high theoretical capacity of 4200 mAhg⁻¹. The primary challenge of the application of Si-based LiBs is large volume expansion (~ 300%) during the charge-discharge process. Incorporation of graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), morphological control, and nanoparticles was utilized as effective strategies to tackle volume expansion issues. However, molten salt methods can resolve the issue, but high-temperature requirement limits its application. For sustainable and practical approach, room temperature (RT) based methods are essentially required. Use of ionic liquids (ILs) for electrodeposition of Si nanostructures can possibly resolve the issue of temperature as well as greener media. In this work, electrodeposition of Si nanoparticles on gold substrate was successfully carried out in the presence of ILs media, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis (trifluoromethyl sulfonyl) imide (BMImTf₂N) at room temperature. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) suggests the sequential reduction of Si⁴⁺ to Si²⁺ and then Si nanoparticles (SiNs). The structure and morphology of the electrodeposited SiNs were investigated by FE-SEM and observed interconnected Si nanoparticles of average particle size ⁓100-200 nm. XRD and XPS data confirm the deposition of Si on Au (111). The first discharge-charge capacity of Si anode material has been found to be 1857 and 422 mAhg⁻¹, respectively, at current density 7.8 Ag⁻¹. The irreversible capacity of the first discharge-charge process can be attributed to the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation via electrolyte decomposition, and trapped Li⁺ inserted into the inner pores of Si. Pulverization of SiNs results in the creation of a new active site, which facilitates the formation of new SEI in the subsequent cycles leading to fading in a specific capacity. After 20 cycles, charge-discharge profiles have been stabilized, and a reversible capacity of 150 mAhg⁻¹ is retained. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data shows the decrease in Rct value from 94.7 to 47.6 kΩ after 50 cycles of charge-discharge, which demonstrates the improvements of the interfacial charge transfer kinetics. The decrease in the Warburg impedance after 50 cycles of charge-discharge measurements indicates facile diffusion in fragmented and smaller Si nanoparticles. In summary, Si nanoparticles deposited on gold substrate using ILs as media and characterized well with different analytical techniques. Synthesized material was successfully utilized for LiBs application, which is well supported by CV and EIS data.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, electrodeposition, Li-ion battery, ionic liquid, silicon nanoparticles

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3 Peptide Aptasensor for Electrochemical Detection of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Shah Abbas


Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic, inflammatory autoimmune disease, affecting an overall 1% of the global population. Despite being tremendous efforts by scientists, early diagnosis of RA still has not been achieved. In the current study, a Graphene oxide (GO) based electrochemical sensor has been developed for early diagnosis of RA through Cyclic voltammetry. Chitosan (CHI), a CPnatural polymer has also been incorporated along with GO in order to enhance the biocompatibility and functionalization potential of the biosensor. CCPs are known antigens for Anti Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies (ACPAs) which can be detected in serum even 14 years before the appearance of symptoms, thus they are believed to be an ideal target for the early diagnosis of RA. This study has yielded some promising results regarding the binding and detection of ACPAs through changes in the electrochemical properties of biosensing material. The cyclic voltammogram of this biosensor reflects the binding of ACPAs to the biosensor surface, due to its shifts observed in the current flow (cathodic current) as compared to the when no ACPAs bind as it is absent in RA negative patients.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cyclic Voltammetry, Graphene Oxide, peptide sensor, anti citrullinated peptide antibodies

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2 Electroactivity of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum 1-4N during Carbon Dioxide Reduction in a Bioelectrosynthesis System

Authors: Carlos A. Garcia-Mogollon, Juan C. Quintero-Diaz, Claudio Avignone-Rossa


Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum 1-4N (Csb 1-4N) is an industrial reference strain for Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Csb 1-4N is a solventogenic clostridium and H₂ producer with a metabolic profile that makes it a good candidate for Bioelectrosynthesis System (BES). The aim of this study was to evaluate the electroactivity of Csb 1-4N by cyclic voltammetry technique (CV). The Bioelectrosynthesis fermentation (BES) started in a Triptone-Yeast extract (TY) medium with trace elements and vitamins, Complex Nitrogen Source (CNS), and bicarbonate (NaHCO₃, 4g/L) as a carbon source, run at -600mVAg/AgCl and adding 200uM NADH. The six BES batches were performed with different media composition with and without NADH, CNS, HCO₃⁻ , and applied potential. The CV was performed as three-electrode system: platinum slice working electrode (WE), nickel contra electrode (CE) and reference electrode Ag/AgCl (ER). CVs were run in a potential range of -0.7V to 0.7V vs. VAg/AgCl at a scan rate 10mV/s. A CV recorded using different NaHCO₃ concentrations (0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 4g/L) were obtained. BES fermentation samples were centrifuged (3000 rpm, 5min, 4C), and supernatant (7mL) was used. CVs were obtained for Csb1-4N BES culture cell-free supernatant at 0h, 24h, and 48h. The electrochemical analysis was carried out with a PalmSens 4.0 potentiostat/galvanostat controlled with the PStrace 5.7 software, and CVs curves were characterized by reduction and oxidation currents and reduction and oxidation peaks. The CVs obtained for NaHCO₃ solutions showed that the reduction current and oxidation current decreased as the NaHCO₃ concentration was decreased. All reduction and oxidation currents decreased until exponential growth stop (24h), independence of initial cathodic current, except in medium with trace elements, vitamins, and NaHCO3, in which reduction current was around half at 24h and followed decreasing at 48. In this medium, Csb1-4N did not grow, but pH was increased, indicating that NaHCO₃ was reduced as the reduction current decreased. In general, at 48h reduction currents did not present important changes between different mediums in BES cultures. In terms of intensities in the peaks (Ip) did not present important variations; except with Ipa and Ipc in BES culture with NaHCO₃ and NADH added are higher than peaks in other cultures. Based on results, cathodic and anodic currents changes were induced by NaHCO₃ reduction reactions during Csb1-4N metabolic activity in different BES experiments.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, carbon dioxide fixation, clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum 1-4N, bioelectrosynthesis

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1 Green Electrochemical Nitration of Bioactive Compounds: Biological Evaluation with Molecular Modelling

Authors: Sara Torabi, Sadegh Khazalpour, Mahdi Jamshidi


Nitro aromatic compounds are valuable materials because of their applications in the preparation of chemical intermediates for the synthesis of dyes, plastics, perfumes, energetic materials, and pharmaceuticals. Chemical and electrochemical procedures are reported for nitration of aromatic compounds. Flavonoid derivatives are present in many vegetables and fruits and are constituent of many common pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements. Electrochemistry provides very versatile means for the electrosynthesis, mechanistic and kinetic studies. To the best of our knowledge, and despite the importance of these compounds in numerous scientific fields, there are no reports on the electrochemical nitration of Quercetin derivatives. Herein, we describe a green electrochemical synthesis of a nitro compound. In this work, electrochemical oxidation of Quercetin has been studied in the presence of nitrite ion as a nucleophile in acetate buffer solution (c = 0.2 M, pH = 6.0), by means of cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The results indicate the participation of produced o-benzoquinones in Michael reaction with nitrite ion (in the divided cell) to form the corresponding nitro diol (EC mechanism). The purity of product and characterization was done using ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The presented strategies use a water/ethanol mixture as solvent. Ethanol as cosolvent was also used in the previous studies because of its low cost, safety, easy availability, recyclability, bioproductability, and biodegradability. These strategies represent a one-pot and facile process for the synthesis of nitro compound in high yield and purity under green conditions.

Keywords: Green Chemistry, Molecular Docking, Cyclic Voltammetry, electrochemical synthesis

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