Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Cyber Security Related Abstracts

14 An Exploration of Cyberspace Security, Strategy for a New Era

Authors: Laxmi R. Kasaraneni

Abstract:

The Internet connects all the networks, including the nation’s critical infrastructure that are used extensively by not only a nation’s government and military to protect sensitive information and execute missions, but also the primary infrastructure that provides services that enable modern conveniences such as education, potable water, electricity, natural gas, and financial transactions. It has become the central nervous system for the government, the citizens, and the industries. When it is attacked, the effects can ripple far and wide impacts not only to citizens’ well-being but nation’s economy, civil infrastructure, and national security. As such, these critical services may be targeted by malicious hackers during cyber warfare, it is imperative to not only protect them and mitigate any immediate or potential threats, but to also understand the current or potential impacts beyond the IT networks or the organization. The Nation’s IT infrastructure which is now vital for communication, commerce, and control of our physical infrastructure, is highly vulnerable to attack. While existing technologies can address some vulnerabilities, fundamentally new architectures and technologies are needed to address the larger structural insecurities of an infrastructure developed in a more trusting time when mass cyber attacks were not foreseen. This research is intended to improve the core functions of the Internet and critical-sector information systems by providing a clear path to create a safe, secure, and resilient cyber environment that help stakeholders at all levels of government, and the private sector work together to develop the cybersecurity capabilities that are key to our economy, national security, and public health and safety. This research paper also emphasizes the present and future cyber security threats, the capabilities and goals of cyber attackers, a strategic concept and steps to implement cybersecurity for maximum effectiveness, enabling technologies, some strategic assumptions and critical challenges, and the future of cyberspace.

Keywords: Cyber Security, National Security, critical infrastructure, Enabling Technologies, critical challenges

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13 Cyber Security and Risk Assessment of the e-Banking Services

Authors: Aisha F. Bushager

Abstract:

Today we are more exposed than ever to cyber threats and attacks at personal, community, organizational, national, and international levels. More aspects of our lives are operating on computer networks simply because we are living in the fifth domain, which is called the Cyberspace. One of the most sensitive areas that are vulnerable to cyber threats and attacks is the Electronic Banking (e-Banking) area, where the banking sector is providing online banking services to its clients. To be able to obtain the clients trust and encourage them to practice e-Banking, also, to maintain the services provided by the banks and ensure safety, cyber security and risks control should be given a high priority in the e-banking area. The aim of the study is to carry out risk assessment on the e-banking services and determine the cyber threats, cyber attacks, and vulnerabilities that are facing the e-banking area specifically in the Kingdom of Bahrain. To collect relevant data, structured interviews were taken place with e-banking experts in different banks. Then, collected data where used as in input to the risk management framework provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which was the model used in the study to assess the risks associated with e-banking services. The findings of the study showed that the cyber threats are commonly human errors, technical software or hardware failure, and hackers, on the other hand, the most common attacks facing the e-banking sector were phishing, malware attacks, and denial-of-service. The risks associated with the e-banking services were around the moderate level, however, more controls and countermeasures must be applied to maintain the moderate level of risks. The results of the study will help banks discover their vulnerabilities and maintain their online services, in addition, it will enhance the cyber security and contribute to the management and control of risks that are facing the e-banking sector.

Keywords: Cyber Security, Risk Assessment, E-banking, threats identification

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12 Developing Cyber Security Asset Mangement Framework for UK Rail

Authors: Shruti Kohli

Abstract:

The sophistication and pervasiveness of cyber-attacks are constantly growing, driven partly by technological progress, profitable applications in organized crime and state-sponsored innovation. The modernization of rail control systems has resulted in an increasing reliance on digital technology and increased the potential for security breaches and cyber-attacks. This research track showcases the need for developing a secure reusable scalable framework for enhancing cyber security of rail assets. A cyber security framework has been proposed that is being developed to detect the tell-tale signs of cyber-attacks against industrial assets.

Keywords: Cyber Security, rail asset, security threat, cyber ontology

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11 Cyber-Med: Practical Detection Methodology of Cyber-Attacks Aimed at Medical Devices Eco-Systems

Authors: Nir Nissim, Erez Shalom, Tomer Lancewiki, Yuval Elovici, Yuval Shahar

Abstract:

Background: A Medical Device (MD) is an instrument, machine, implant, or similar device that includes a component intended for the purpose of the diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease in humans or animals. Medical devices play increasingly important roles in health services eco-systems, including: (1) Patient Diagnostics and Monitoring; Medical Treatment and Surgery; and Patient Life Support Devices and Stabilizers. MDs are part of the medical device eco-system and are connected to the network, sending vital information to the internal medical information systems of medical centers that manage this data. Wireless components (e.g. Wi-Fi) are often embedded within medical devices, enabling doctors and technicians to control and configure them remotely. All these functionalities, roles, and uses of MDs make them attractive targets of cyber-attacks launched for many malicious goals; this trend is likely to significantly increase over the next several years, with increased awareness regarding MD vulnerabilities, the enhancement of potential attackers’ skills, and expanded use of medical devices. Significance: We propose to develop and implement Cyber-Med, a unique collaborative project of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and the Clalit Health Services Health Maintenance Organization. Cyber-Med focuses on the development of a comprehensive detection framework that relies on a critical attack repository that we aim to create. Cyber-Med will allow researchers and companies to better understand the vulnerabilities and attacks associated with medical devices as well as providing a comprehensive platform for developing detection solutions. Methodology: The Cyber-Med detection framework will consist of two independent, but complementary detection approaches: one for known attacks, and the other for unknown attacks. These modules incorporate novel ideas and algorithms inspired by our team's domains of expertise, including cyber security, biomedical informatics, and advanced machine learning, and temporal data mining techniques. The establishment and maintenance of Cyber-Med’s up-to-date attack repository will strengthen the capabilities of Cyber-Med’s detection framework. Major Findings: Based on our initial survey, we have already found more than 15 types of vulnerabilities and possible attacks aimed at MDs and their eco-system. Many of these attacks target individual patients who use devices such pacemakers and insulin pumps. In addition, such attacks are also aimed at MDs that are widely used by medical centers such as MRIs, CTs, and dialysis engines; the information systems that store patient information; protocols such as DICOM; standards such as HL7; and medical information systems such as PACS. However, current detection tools, techniques, and solutions generally fail to detect both the known and unknown attacks launched against MDs. Very little research has been conducted in order to protect these devices from cyber-attacks, since most of the development and engineering efforts are aimed at the devices’ core medical functionality, the contribution to patients’ healthcare, and the business aspects associated with the medical device.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Cyber Security, medical device, Detection, attack

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10 USBware: A Trusted and Multidisciplinary Framework for Enhanced Detection of USB-Based Attacks

Authors: Nir Nissim, Ran Yahalom, Tomer Lancewiki, Yuval Elovici, Boaz Lerner

Abstract:

Background: Attackers increasingly take advantage of innocent users who tend to use USB devices casually, assuming these devices benign when in fact they may carry an embedded malicious behavior or hidden malware. USB devices have many properties and capabilities that have become the subject of malicious operations. Many of the recent attacks targeting individuals, and especially organizations, utilize popular and widely used USB devices, such as mice, keyboards, flash drives, printers, and smartphones. However, current detection tools, techniques, and solutions generally fail to detect both the known and unknown attacks launched via USB devices. Significance: We propose USBWARE, a project that focuses on the vulnerabilities of USB devices and centers on the development of a comprehensive detection framework that relies upon a crucial attack repository. USBWARE will allow researchers and companies to better understand the vulnerabilities and attacks associated with USB devices as well as providing a comprehensive platform for developing detection solutions. Methodology: The framework of USBWARE is aimed at accurate detection of both known and unknown USB-based attacks by a process that efficiently enhances the framework's detection capabilities over time. The framework will integrate two main security approaches in order to enhance the detection of USB-based attacks associated with a variety of USB devices. The first approach is aimed at the detection of known attacks and their variants, whereas the second approach focuses on the detection of unknown attacks. USBWARE will consist of six independent but complimentary detection modules, each detecting attacks based on a different approach or discipline. These modules include novel ideas and algorithms inspired from or already developed within our team's domains of expertise, including cyber security, electrical and signal processing, machine learning, and computational biology. The establishment and maintenance of the USBWARE’s dynamic and up-to-date attack repository will strengthen the capabilities of the USBWARE detection framework. The attack repository’s infrastructure will enable researchers to record, document, create, and simulate existing and new USB-based attacks. This data will be used to maintain the detection framework’s updatability by incorporating knowledge regarding new attacks. Based on our experience in the cyber security domain, we aim to design the USBWARE framework so that it will have several characteristics that are crucial for this type of cyber-security detection solution. Specifically, the USBWARE framework should be: Novel, Multidisciplinary, Trusted, Lightweight, Extendable, Modular and Updatable and Adaptable. Major Findings: Based on our initial survey, we have already found more than 23 types of USB-based attacks, divided into six major categories. Our preliminary evaluation and proof of concepts showed that our detection modules can be used for efficient detection of several basic known USB attacks. Further research, development, and enhancements are required so that USBWARE will be capable to cover all of the major known USB attacks and to detect unknown attacks. Conclusion: USBWARE is a crucial detection framework that must be further enhanced and developed.

Keywords: Cyber Security, Device, Detection, USB, attack

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9 Cyber Security Situational Awareness among Students: A Case Study in Malaysia

Authors: Yunos Zahri, Ab Hamid R. Susanty, Ahmad Mustaffa

Abstract:

This paper explores the need for a national baseline study on understanding the level of cyber security situational awareness among primary and secondary school students in Malaysia. The online survey method was deployed to administer the data collection exercise. The target groups were divided into three categories: Group 1 (primary school aged 7-9 years old), Group 2 (primary school aged 10-12 years old), and Group 3 (secondary school aged 13-17 years old). A different questionnaire set was designed for each group. The survey topics/areas included Internet and digital citizenship knowledge. Respondents were randomly selected from rural and urban areas throughout all 14 states in Malaysia. A total of 9,158 respondents participated in the survey, with most states meeting the minimum sample size requirement to represent the country’s demographics. The findings and recommendations from this baseline study are fundamental to develop teaching modules required for children to understand the security risks and threats associated with the Internet throughout their years in school. Early exposure and education will help ensure healthy cyber habits among millennials in Malaysia.

Keywords: Cyber Security, Cyber Security Education, cyber security awareness, school students

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8 Digital Forensics Compute Cluster: A High Speed Distributed Computing Capability for Digital Forensics

Authors: Daniel Gonzales, Zev Winkelman, Trung Tran, Ricardo Sanchez, Dulani Woods, John Hollywood

Abstract:

We have developed a distributed computing capability, Digital Forensics Compute Cluster (DFORC2) to speed up the ingestion and processing of digital evidence that is resident on computer hard drives. DFORC2 parallelizes evidence ingestion and file processing steps. It can be run on a standalone computer cluster or in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud. When running in a virtualized computing environment, its cluster resources can be dynamically scaled up or down using Kubernetes. DFORC2 is an open source project that uses Autopsy, Apache Spark and Kafka, and other open source software packages. It extends the proven open source digital forensics capabilities of Autopsy to compute clusters and cloud architectures, so digital forensics tasks can be accomplished efficiently by a scalable array of cluster compute nodes. In this paper, we describe DFORC2 and compare it with a standalone version of Autopsy when both are used to process evidence from hard drives of different sizes.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Digital Forensics, Cyber Security, spark, Kubernetes, Kafka

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7 Cyber Security in Russia: Offense, Defense and Strategy in Cyberspace

Authors: Da Eun Sung

Abstract:

In today’s world, cyber security has become an important international agenda. As the information age has arrived, the need for cyber defense against cyber attacks is mounting, and the significance of cyber cooperation in the international community is drawing attention. Through the course, international society has agreed that the institutionalization of international norms dealing with cyber space and cyber security is crucial ever. Nevertheless, the West, led by the United States of America, and 'the East', composed of Russia and China, have shown conflicting views on forming international norms and principles which would regulate and ward off the possible threats in cyber space. Thus, the international community hasn’t yet to reach an agreement on cyber security. In other words, the difference between both sides on the approach and understanding of principles, objects, and the definition has rendered such. Firstly, this dissertation will cover the Russia’s perception, strategy, and definition on cyber security through analyzing primary source. Then, it will delve into the two contrasting cyber security strategy between Russia and the US by comparing them. And in the conclusion, it will seek the possible solution for the cooperation in the field of cyber security. It is quite worthwhile to look into Russia’s views, which is the main counterpart to the US in this field, especially when the efforts to institutionalize cyber security by the US-led international community have met with their boundaries, and when the legitimacy of them have been challenged.

Keywords: Cyber Security, Russia, cyber security strategic, international relation in cyberspace

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6 System Security Impact on the Dynamic Characteristics of Measurement Sensors in Smart Grids

Authors: Yiyang Su, Jörg Neumann, Jan Wetzlich, Florian Thiel

Abstract:

Smart grid is a term used to describe the next generation power grid. New challenges such as integration of renewable and decentralized energy sources, the requirement for continuous grid estimation and optimization, as well as the use of two-way flows of energy have been brought to the power gird. In order to achieve efficient, reliable, sustainable, as well as secure delivery of electric power more and more information and communication technologies are used for the monitoring and the control of power grids. Consequently, the need for cybersecurity is dramatically increased and has converged into several standards which will be presented here. These standards for the smart grid must be designed to satisfy both performance and reliability requirements. An in depth investigation of the effect of retrospectively embedded security in existing grids on it’s dynamic behavior is required. Therefore, a retrofitting plan for existing meters is offered, and it’s performance in a test low voltage microgrid is investigated. As a result of this, integration of security measures into measurement architectures of smart grids at the design phase is strongly recommended.

Keywords: Smart Grid, Protocols, Cyber Security, Performance, Security Standards

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5 Off-Policy Q-learning Technique for Intrusion Response in Network Security

Authors: Zheni S. Stefanova, Kandethody M. Ramachandran

Abstract:

With the increasing dependency on our computer devices, we face the necessity of adequate, efficient and effective mechanisms, for protecting our network. There are two main problems that Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) attempt to solve. 1) To detect the attack, by analyzing the incoming traffic and inspect the network (intrusion detection). 2) To produce a prompt response when the attack occurs (intrusion prevention). It is critical creating an Intrusion detection model that will detect a breach in the system on time and also challenging making it provide an automatic and with an acceptable delay response at every single stage of the monitoring process. We cannot afford to adopt security measures with a high exploiting computational power, and we are not able to accept a mechanism that will react with a delay. In this paper, we will propose an intrusion response mechanism that is based on artificial intelligence, and more precisely, reinforcement learning techniques (RLT). The RLT will help us to create a decision agent, who will control the process of interacting with the undetermined environment. The goal is to find an optimal policy, which will represent the intrusion response, therefore, to solve the Reinforcement learning problem, using a Q-learning approach. Our agent will produce an optimal immediate response, in the process of evaluating the network traffic.This Q-learning approach will establish the balance between exploration and exploitation and provide a unique, self-learning and strategic artificial intelligence response mechanism for IDS.

Keywords: Cyber Security, intrusion prevention, q-learning, optimal policy

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4 SAFECARE: Integrated Cyber-Physical Security Solution for Healthcare Critical Infrastructure

Authors: Francesco Lubrano, Fabrizio Bertone, Federico Stirano

Abstract:

Modern societies strongly depend on Critical Infrastructures (CI). Hospitals, power supplies, water supplies, telecommunications are just few examples of CIs that provide vital functions to societies. CIs like hospitals are very complex environments, characterized by a huge number of cyber and physical systems that are becoming increasingly integrated. Ensuring a high level of security within such critical infrastructure requires a deep knowledge of vulnerabilities, threats, and potential attacks that may occur, as well as defence and prevention or mitigation strategies. The possibility to remotely monitor and control almost everything is pushing the adoption of network-connected devices. This implicitly introduces new threats and potential vulnerabilities, posing a risk, especially to those devices connected to the Internet. Modern medical devices used in hospitals are not an exception and are more and more being connected to enhance their functionalities and easing the management. Moreover, hospitals are environments with high flows of people, that are difficult to monitor and can somehow easily have access to the same places used by the staff, potentially creating damages. It is therefore clear that physical and cyber threats should be considered, analysed, and treated together as cyber-physical threats. This means that an integrated approach is required. SAFECARE, an integrated cyber-physical security solution, tries to respond to the presented issues within healthcare infrastructures. The challenge is to bring together the most advanced technologies from the physical and cyber security spheres, to achieve a global optimum for systemic security and for the management of combined cyber and physical threats and incidents and their interconnections. Moreover, potential impacts and cascading effects are evaluated through impact propagation models that rely on modular ontologies and a rule-based engine. Indeed, SAFECARE architecture foresees i) a macroblock related to cyber security field, where innovative tools are deployed to monitor network traffic, systems and medical devices; ii) a physical security macroblock, where video management systems are coupled with access control management, building management systems and innovative AI algorithms to detect behavior anomalies; iii) an integration system that collects all the incoming incidents, simulating their potential cascading effects, providing alerts and updated information regarding assets availability.

Keywords: Cyber Security, Physical Security, defence strategies, impact propagation, integrated security

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3 Applications of AI, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning in Cyber Security

Authors: Hailyie Tekleselase

Abstract:

Deep learning is increasingly used as a building block of security systems. However, neural networks are hard to interpret and typically solid to the practitioner. This paper presents a detail survey of computing methods in cyber security, and analyzes the prospects of enhancing the cyber security capabilities by suggests that of accelerating the intelligence of the security systems. There are many AI-based applications used in industrial scenarios such as Internet of Things (IoT), smart grids, and edge computing. Machine learning technologies require a training process which introduces the protection problems in the training data and algorithms. We present machine learning techniques currently applied to the detection of intrusion, malware, and spam. Our conclusions are based on an extensive review of the literature as well as on experiments performed on real enterprise systems and network traffic. We conclude that problems can be solved successfully only when methods of artificial intelligence are being used besides human experts or operators.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Big Data, Cyber Security, Deep learning

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2 The Role of Access Control Techniques in Creating a Safe Cyberspace for Children

Authors: Sara Muslat Alsahali, Nout Mohammed Alqahtani

Abstract:

Digital technology has changed the world, and with the increasing number of children accessing the Internet, it has now become an integral part of children's lives from their early years. With the rapid development of digital technology, the risks children face on the internet also evolve from cyberbullying to misuse, sexual exploitation, and abuse of their private information over the Internet. Digital technology, with its advantages and disadvantages, is now a fact of our life. Therefore, knowledge of how to reduce its risks and maximize its benefits will help shape the growth and future of a new generation of digital citizens. This paper will discuss access control techniques that help to create secure cyberspace where children can be safe without depriving them of their rights and freedom to use the internet and preventing them from its benefits. Also, it sheds light on its challenges and problems by classifying the methods of parental controlling into two possibilities asynchronous and synchronous techniques and choosing YouTube as a case study of access control techniques.

Keywords: Access control, Cyber Security, kids, parental monitoring

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1 Improving Cyber Resilience in Mobile Field Hospitals: Towards an Assessment Model

Authors: Nasir Baba Ahmed, Nicolas Daclin, Marc Olivaux, Gilles Dusserre

Abstract:

The Mobile field hospital is critical in terms of managing emergencies in crisis. It is a sub-section of the main hospitals and the health sector, tasked with delivering responsive, immediate, and efficient medical services during a crisis. With the aim to prevent further crisis, the assessment of the cyber assets follows different methods, to distinguish its strengths and weaknesses, and in turn achieve cyber resiliency. The work focuses on assessments of cyber resilience in field hospitals with trends growing in both the field hospital and the health sector in general. This creates opportunities for the adverse attackers and the response improvement objectives for attaining cyber resilience, as the assessments allow users and stakeholders to know the level of risks with regards to its cyber assets. Thus, the purpose is to show the possible threat vectors which open up opportunities, with contrast to current trends in the assessment of the mobile field hospitals’ cyber assets.

Keywords: Cyber Security, cyber resilience, assessment framework, mobile field hospital

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