Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Curcumin Related Abstracts

32 Influence of Natural Gum on Curcumin Supersaturationin Gastrointestinal Fluids

Authors: Patcharawalai Jaisamut, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee, Kamonthip Wiwattanawongsa

Abstract:

Supersaturation of drugs in the gastrointestinal tract is one approach to increase the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The stabilization of a supersaturated state was achieved by adding precipitation inhibitors that may act through a variety of mechanisms.In this study, the effect of the natural gums, acacia, gelatin, pectin and tragacanth on curcumin supersaturation in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) (pH 1.2), fasted state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) (pH 1.6), and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) (pH 6.8)was investigated. The results indicated that all natural gums significantly increased the curcum insolubility (about 1.2-6-fold)when compared to the absence of gum, and assisted in maintaining the supersaturated drug solution. Among the tested gums, pectin at 3% w/w was the best precipitation inhibitor with a significant increase in the degree of supersaturation about 3-fold in SGF, 2.4-fold in FaSSGF and 2-fold in SIF.

Keywords: Curcumin, Supersaturation, solubility, precipitation inhibitor

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31 Beneficial Effects of Curcumin against Stress Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulphonic Acid in Colon

Authors: Souad Mouzaoui, Bahia Djerdjouri

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Oxidative stress is one of the main factors involved in the onset and chronicity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of a potent natural antioxidant, curcumin (Cur) on colitis and mitochondrial dysfunction in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Rectal instillation of the chemical irritant TNBS (30 mg kg-1) induced the disruption of distal colonic architecture and a massive inflammatory cells influx to the mucosa and submucosa layers. Under these conditions, daily administration of Cur (25 mg kg-1) efficiently decreased colitis scores in the inflamed distal colon by reducing leukocyte infiltrate as attested by reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Moreover, the levels of nitrite, an end product of inducible NO synthase activity (iNOS) and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation increased in a time depending manner in response to TNBS challenge. Conversely, the markers of the antioxidant pool, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) were drastically reduced. Cur attenuated oxidative stress markers and partially restored CAT and GSH levels. Moreover, our results expanded the effect of Cur on TNBS-induced colonic mitochondrial dysfunction. In fact, TNBS induced mitochondrial swelling and lipids peroxidation. These events reflected in the opening of mitochondrial transition pore and could be an initial indication in the cascade process leading to cell death. TNBS inhibited also mitochondrial respiratory activity, caused overproduction of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-.) and reduced level of mitochondrial GSH. Nevertheless, Cur reduced the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by TNBS and restored colonic mitochondrial function. In conclusion, our results showed the critical role of oxidative stress in TNBS-induced colitis. They highlight the role of colonic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by TNBS, as a potential source of oxidative damages. Due to its potent antioxidant properties, Cur opens a promising therapeutic approach against oxidative inflammation in IBD.

Keywords: Mitochondria, Oxidative Stress, Curcumin, colitis, TNBS

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30 Curcumin Attenuates Angiogenesis in Liver Fibrosis and Inhibits Angiogenic Properties of Hepatic Stellate Cells

Authors: Li Chen, Feng Zhang, Yin Lu, Shizhong Zheng, Xiaojing Zhu, Desong Kong, Xiaoping Zhang

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Sinusoidal pathological angiogenesis is a novel therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. We demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated fibrotic injury and sinusoidal angiogenesis in rat liver with fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride. Curcumin reduced the expression of angiogenic markers in fibrotic liver. Experiments in vitro showed that the viability and vascularization of rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) were not impaired by curcumin. Further investigations showed that curcumin inhibited VEGF expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by disrupting PDGF-βR/ERK and mTOR pathways. HSC motility and vascularization were also suppressed by curcumin via blocking PDGF-βR/FAK/RhoA cascade. Gain- or loss-of-function analyses revealed that activation of PPARγ was required for curcumin to inhibit angiogenic properties of HSCs. We concluded that curcumin attenuated sinusoidal angiogenesis in liver fibrosis possibly by targeting HSCs via a PPARγ activation-dependent mechanism. PPARγ could be a target molecule for reducing pathological angiogenesis during liver fibrosis.

Keywords: Curcumin, angiogenesis, hepatic stellate cell, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ

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29 Expanding the Therapeutic Utility of Curcumin

Authors: Azza H. El-Medany, Hanan H. Hagar, Omnia A. Nayel, Jamila H. El-Medany

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In search for drugs that can target cancer cell micro-environment in as much as being able to halt malignant cellular transformation, the natural dietary phytochemical curcumin was currently assessed in DMH-induced colorectal cancer rat model. The study enrolled 50 animals divided into a control group (n=10) and DMH-induced colorectal cancer control group (n=20) (20mg/kg-body weight for 28 weeks) versus curcumin-treated group (n=20) (160 mg/kg suspension daily oral for further 8 weeks). Treatment by curcumin succeeded to significantly decrease the percent of ACF and tended to normalize back the histological changes retrieved in adenomatous and stromal cells induced by DMH. The drug also significantly elevated GSH and significantly reduced most of the accompanying biochemical elevations (namely MDA, TNF-α, TGF-β and COX2) observed in colonic carcinomatous tissue, induced by DMH, thus succeeding to revert that of MDA, COX2 and TGF-β back to near normal as justified by being non-significantly altered as compared to normal controls. The only exception was PAF that was insignificantly altered by the drug. When taken together, it could be concluded that curcumin possess the potentiality to halt some of the orchestrated cross-talk between cancerous transformation and its micro-environmental niche that contributes to cancer initiation, progression and metastasis in this experimental cancer colon model. Envisioning these merits to a drug with already known safety preferentiality, awaits final results of current ongoing clinical trials, before curcumin can be added to the new therapeutic armamentarium of anticancer therapy.

Keywords: Curcumin, cyclooxygenase-2, dimethyl hydralazine, aberrant crypt foci, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, platelet activating factor

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28 Effect of Alginate and Surfactant on Physical Properties of Oil Entrapped Alginate Bead Formulation of Curcumin

Authors: Arpa Petchsomrit, Namfa Sermkaew, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee

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Oil entrapped floating alginate beads of curcumin were developed and characterized. Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH and Tween 80 were utilized to improve the solubility of the drug. The oil-loaded floating gel beads prepared by emulsion gelation method contained sodium alginate, mineral oil and surfactant. The drug content and % encapsulation declined as the ratio of surfactant was increased. The release of curcumin from 1% alginate beads was significantly more than for the 2% alginate beads. The drug released from the beads containing 25% of tween 80 was about 70% while a higher drug release was observed with the beads containing Cremophor EL or Cremohor RH (approximately 90%). The developed floating beads of curcumin powder with surfactant provided a superior drug release than those without surfactant. Floating beads based on oil entrapment containing the drug solubilized in surfactants is a new delivery system to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: Curcumin, alginate, floating drug delivery, oil entrapped bead

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27 Preparation and Optimization of Curcumin-HPβCD Complex Bioadhesive Vaginal Films for Vaginal Candidiasis by Factorial Design

Authors: H. G. Shivakumar, Umme Hani, M. D. Younus Pasha

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The purpose of this work was to design and optimize a novel vaginal drug delivery system for more effective treatment against vaginal candidiasis. To achieve a better therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance in the treatment for vaginal candidiasis, herbal antifungal agent Curcumin which is 2.5 fold more potent than fluconazole at inhibiting the adhesion of candida albicans has been formulated in a bio-adhesive vaginal film. Curcumin was formulated in bio-adhesive film formulations that could be retained in the vagina for prolonged intervals. The polymeric films were prepared by solvent evaporation and optimized for various physicodynamic and aesthetic properties. Curcumin HPβCD (Hydroxypropyl β Cyclodextrin) was first developed to increase the solubility of curcumin. The formation of the Curcumin HPβCD complex was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and FT-IR and evaluated for its solubility. Curcumin HPβCD complex was formulated in a bio-adhesive film using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934P and characterized. DSC and FT-IR data of Curcumin HPβCD indicate there was complex formation between the drug and HPβCD. The little moisture content (8.02±0.34% w/w) was present in the film, which helps them to remain stable and kept them from being completely dry and brittle. The mechanical properties, tensile strength, and percentage elongation at break reveal that the formulations were found to be soft and tough. The films showed good peelability, relatively good swelling index, and moderate tensile strength and retained vaginal mucosa up to 8 h. The developed Curcumin vaginal film could be a promising safe herbal medication and can ensure longer residence at the vagina and provide an efficient therapy for vaginal candidiasis.

Keywords: Curcumin, vaginal candidiasis, curcumin-HPβCD complex, bio-adhesive vaginal film

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26 Histological Study on the Effect of Bone Marrow Transplantation Combined with Curcumin on Pancreatic Regeneration in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Manal M. Shehata, Kawther M. Abdel-Hamid, Nashwa A. Mohamed, Marwa H. Bakr, Maged S. Mahmoud, Hala M. Elbadre

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Introduction: The worldwide rapid increase in diabetes poses a significant challenge to current therapeutic approaches. Therapeutic utility of bone marrow transplantation in diabetes is an attractive approach. However, the oxidative stress generated by hyperglycemia may hinder β-cell regeneration. Curcumin, is a dietary spice with antioxidant activity. Aim of work: The present study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic potential of curcumin, bone marrow transplantation, and their combined effects in the reversal of experimental diabetes. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male healthy albino rats were included in the present study.They were divided into two groups: Group І: (control group) included 10 rats. Group П: (diabetic group): included 40 rats. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Group II will be further subdivided into four groups (10 rats for each): Group II-a (diabetic control). Group II-b: rats were received single intraperitoneal injection of bone marrow suspension (un-fractionated bone marrow cells) prepared from rats of the same family. Group II-c: rats were treated with curcumin orally by gastric intubation for 6 weeks. Group II-d: rats were received a combination of single bone marrow transplantation and curcumin for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, blood glucose, insulin levels were measured and the pancreas from all rats were processed for Histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric examination. Results: Diabetic group, showed progressive histological changes in the pancreatic islets. Treatment with either curcumin or bone marrow transplantation improved the structure of the islets and reversed streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Combination of curcumin and bone marrow transplantation elicited more profound alleviation of streptozotocin-induced changes including islet regeneration and insulin secretion. Conclusion: The use of natural antioxidants combined with bone marrow transplantation to induce pancreatic regeneration is a promising strategy in the management of diabetes.

Keywords: Curcumin, diabtes, panceatic islets, bone marrow transplantation

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25 Treatment of Premalignant Lesions: Curcumin a Promising Non-Surgical Option

Authors: Heba A. Hazzah, Ragwa M. Farid, Maha M. A. Nasra, Mennatallah Zakria, Magda A. El Massik, Ossama Y. Abdallah

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Introduction: Curcumin (Cur) is a polyphenol derived from the herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric. It possesses diverse anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties following oral or topical administration. The buccal delivery of curcumin can be useful for both systemic and local disease treatments such as gingivitis, periodontal diseases, oral carcinomas, and precancerous oral lesions. Despite of its high activity, it suffers a limited application due to its low oral bioavailability, poor aqueous solubility, and instability. Aim: Preparation and characterization of curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles with a high loading capacity into a mucoadhesive gel for buccal application. Methodology: Curcumin was formulated as nanoparticles using different lipids, namely Gelucire 39/01, Gelucire 50/13, Precirol, Compritol, and Polaxomer 407 as a surfactant. The SLN were dispersed in a mucoadhesive gel matrix to be applied to the buccal mucosa. All formulations were evaluated for their content, entrapment efficiency, particle size, in vitro drug dialysis, ex vivo mucoadhesion test, and ex vivo permeation study using chicken buccal mucosa. Clinical evaluation was conducted on 15 cases suffering oral erythroplakia and erosive lichen planus. Results: The results showed high entrapment efficiency reaching almost 90 % using Gelucire 50, the loaded gel with Cur-SLN showed good adhesion property and 25 minutes in vivo residence time. In addition to stability enhancement for the Cur powder. All formulae did not show any drug permeated however, a significant amount of Cur was retained within the mucosal tissue. Pain and lesion sizes were significantly reduced upon topical treatment. Complete healing was observed after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: These results open a room for the pharmaceutical technology to optimize the use of this golden magical powder to get the best out of it. In addition, the lack of local anti-inflammatory compounds with reduced side effects intensifies the importance of studying natural products for this purpose.

Keywords: Pain, Curcumin, solid lipid nanoparticles, erythroplakia, mucoadhesive

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24 Concanavaline a Conjugated Bacterial Polyester Based PHBHHx Nanoparticles Loaded with Curcumin for the Ovarian Cancer Therapy

Authors: B. Hazer, Z. Karahaliloğlu, E. B. Denkbaş, E. Kilicay

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In this study, we have prepared concanavaline A (ConA) functionalized curcumin (CUR) loaded PHBHHx (poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate)) nanoparticles as a novel and efficient drug delivery system. CUR is a promising anticancer agent for various cancer types. The aim of this study was to evaluate therapeutic potential of curcumin loaded PHBHHx nanoparticles (CUR-NPs) and concanavaline A conjugated curcumin loaded NPs (ConA-CUR NPs) for ovarian cancer treatment. ConA was covalently connected to the carboxylic group of nanoparticles by EDC/NHS activation method. In the ligand attachment experiment, the binding capacity of ConA on the surface of NPs was found about 90%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the prepared nanoparticles were smooth and spherical in shape. The size and zeta potential of prepared NPs were about 228±5 nm and −21.3 mV respectively. ConA-CUR NPs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy which confirmed the existence of CUR and ConA in the nanoparticles. The entrapment and loading efficiencies of different polymer/drug weight ratios, 1/0.125 PHBHHx/CUR= 1.25CUR-NPs; 1/0.25 PHBHHx/CUR= 2.5CUR-NPs; 1/0.5 PHBHHx/CUR= 5CUR-NPs, ConA-1.25CUR NPs, ConA-2.5CUR NPs and ConA-5CUR NPs were found to be ≈ 68%-16.8%; 55%-17.7 %; 45%-33.6%; 70%-15.7%; 60%-17%; 51%-30.2% respectively. In vitro drug release showed that the sustained release of curcumin was observed from CUR-NPs and ConA-CUR NPs over a period of 19 days. After binding of ConA, the release rate was slightly increased due to the migration of curcumin to the surface of the nanoparticles and the matrix integrities was decreased because of the conjugation reaction. This functionalized nanoparticles demonstrated high drug loading capacity, sustained drug release profile, and high and long term anticancer efficacy in human cancer cell lines. Anticancer activity of ConA-CUR NPs was proved by MTT assay and reconfirmed by apoptosis and necrosis assay. The anticancer activity of ConA-CUR NPs was measured in ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3) and the results revealed that the ConA-CUR NPs had better tumor cells decline activity than free curcumin. The nacked nanoparticles have no cytotoxicity against human ovarian carcinoma cells. Thus the developed functionalized nanoformulation could be a promising candidate in cancer therapy.

Keywords: Curcumin, curcumin-PHBHHx nanoparticles, concanavalin A, concanavalin A-curcumin PHBHHx nanoparticles, PHBHHx nanoparticles, ovarian cancer cell

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23 Egg Production Performance of Old Laying Hen Fed Dietary Turmeric Powder

Authors: D. P. Rahardja, M. Rahman Hakim, V. Sri Lestari

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An experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of turmeric powder supplementation on egg production performance of old laying hens (104 weeks of age). There were 40 hens of Hysex Brown strain used in the study. They were caged individually, and randomly divided into 4 treatment groups of diet containing 0 (control), 1, 2 and 4 % oven dried turmeric powder for 3 periods of 4 weeks; Egg production (% hen day) and feed intake of the 4 treatment groups at the commencement of the experiment were not significantly different. In addition to egg production performance (%HD and egg weight), feed and water intakes were measured daily. The results indicated that feed intakes of the hen were significantly lowered when 4% turmeric powder supplemented, while there were no significant changes in water intakes. Egg production (%HD) were significantly increased and maintained at a higher level by turmeric powder supplementation up to 4% compared with the control, while the weight of eggs were not significantly affected. The research markedly demonstrated that supplementation of turmeric powder up to 4% could improve and maintain egg production performance of the old laying hen.

Keywords: Curcumin, feed and water intake, old laying hen, egg production

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22 PNIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles as Delivery Vehicles for Curcumin Against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: H. Tayefih, F. farajzade ahari, F. Zarghami, V. Zeighamian, N. Zarghami, Y. Pilehvar-soltanahmadi

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Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among women throughout the world. Natural compounds such as curcumin hold promise to treat a variety of cancers including breast cancer. However, curcumin's therapeutic application is limited, due to its rapid degradation and poor aqueous solubility. On the other hand, previous studies have stated that drug delivery using nanoparticles might improve the therapeutic response to anticancer drugs. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) (PNIPAAm–MAA) is one of the hydrogel copolymers utilized in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic potential of curcumin encapsulated within the NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticle, on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. In this work, polymeric nanoparticles were synthesized through the free radical mechanism, and curcumin was encapsulated into NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles. Then, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was measured by MTT assays. The evaluation of the results showed that curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA has more cytotoxic effect on the MCF-7 cell line and efficiently inhibited the growth of the breast cancer cell population, compared with free curcumin. In conclusion, this study indicates that curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA suppresses the growth of the MCF-7 cell line. Overall, it is concluded that encapsulating curcumin into the NIPAAm-MAA copolymer could open up new avenues for breast cancer treatment.

Keywords: drug delivery, Breast Cancer, Curcumin, PNIPAAm-MAA

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21 Synergistic Effects of Chrysin-Curcumin Loaded in PLGA-PEG Nanoparticles on Inhibiting Breast Cancer Cell Line Growth

Authors: A. Akbarzadeh, F. Zarghami, N. Zarghami, Y. Pilehvar-soltanahmadi, M. Mohammadinejad

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Breast cancer is known to be the most common cancer in women. Cyclin D1 is a proto-oncogene and over expression of cyclin D1 is directly associated with tumorgenesis. Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in more than 50% of breast cancer cases. Curcumin is derived from turmeric (curcuma longa) and chrysin is a component that could be extracted from many plants and honey. These two plants derived compounds are believed to assist in inhibition of the cancer cells growth and reducing cyclin D1 expression. In this work, the hypothesis is to combine curcumin and chrysin in order to analyze the potential synergistic effect in inhibition of cell proliferation and down regulation of cyclin D1. In addition, use of PLGA-PEG to improve bioavailability of pure curcumin and chrysin, while reinforcing the potential effect of this combination. PLGA-PEG nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized with FT-IR and 1HNMR methods. Although morphological features were analyzed by SEM. Afterward curcumin and chrysin were encapsulated with synthesized PLGA-PEG and MTT-assay was performed to measure cytotoxicity effect of these plant constitutes. T-47D cells were treated with proper concentration of these constituents and Real-time PCR was carried out to evaluate cyclin D1 expression levels. Curcumin, chrysin and combination of curcumin –chrysin in intact and nano-capsulated form affected T-47D cells in time and dose dependent manner and the combination of these compounds had synergistic effects. Real-time PCR results, revealed that curcumin, chrysin and combination of curcumin-chrysin in pure and encapsulated form inhibited cyclin D1 expression. Compared to pure components, different concentrations of nano-curcumin, nano chrysin and nano-combination caused further decline in cyclin D12 expression by 5-11%, 8-22% and 6-18% respectively. Our results demonstrated that, combination of chrysin-curcumin had synergistic effect and nano capsulated form of this component had grater inhibition on cyclin D1 expression.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Breast Cancer, Curcumin, chrysin, cyclin D1

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20 Comparison between Effects of Free Curcumin and Curcumin Loaded NIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles on Telomerase and Pinx1 Gene Expression in Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: N. Zarghami, Y. Pilehvar-soltanahmadi, F. Badrzadeh, S. Jalilzadeh-Tabrizi, R. Zamani

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Herbal compounds such as curcumin which decrease telomerase and gene expression have been considered as beneficial tools for lung cancer treatment. In this article, we compared the effects of pure curcumin and curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles on telomerase and PinX1 gene expression in a lung cancer cell line. A tetrazolium-based assay was used for determination of cytotoxic effects of curcumin on the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line and telomerase and pinX1 gene expression was measured with real-time PCR. MTT assay showed that Curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA inhibited the growth of the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line in a time and dose-dependent manner. Our q-PCR results showed that the expression of telomerase gene was effectively reduced as the concentration of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA increased while expression of the PinX1 gene became elevated. The results showed that curcumin loaded NIPAAm-MAA exerted cytotoxic effects on the Calu-6 cell line through down-regulation of telomerase and stimulation of pinX1 gene expression. NIPPAm-MAA could be the good carrier for such kinds of hydrophobic agent.

Keywords: Curcumin, telomerase, NIPAAm-MAA, PinX1, lung cancer cells

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19 Synergistic Effect of Curcumin and Insulin on GLUT4 Translocation in C2C12 Cell

Authors: Javad Mohiti-Ardekani, Shabodin Asadii, Ali Moradi

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Introduction: Curcumin, the yellow pigment in turmeric, has been shown as an anti-diabetic agent for centuries but only in recent few years, its mechanism of action has been under investigation. Some studies showed that curcumin might exert its anti-diabetic effect via increasing glucose transporter isotype-4 (GLUT4) gene and glycoprotein contents in cells. To investigate this possibility, we investigate the effects of extract and commercial curcumin with and without insulin on GLUT4 translocation from intracellular compartments of nuclear or endoplasmic reticulum membranes (N/ER) into the cytoplasmic membrane (CM). Methods and Material: C2C12 myoblastic cell line were seeded in DMEM plus 20 % FBS and differentiated to myotubes using 2 % horse serum. After myotubes formation, 40 µmolar Extract and Commercial curcumin, with or without insulin as intervention, and as control 1 % DMSO were added for 3 h. Cells were washed and homogenized followed by ultracentrifuge fractionation, protein separation by SDS-PAGE and GLUT4 detection using semi-quantitative Western blotting. Data analysis was done by two independent samples t-test for comparison of mean ± SD of GLUT4 percent in categories. GLUT4 contents were higher in CM groups curcumin and curcumin with insulin in comparison to 1 % DMSO-treated myotubes control group. Results: As our results have shown extract and commercial curcumin induces GLUT4 translocation from intra-cell into cell surface. The results have also shown synergic effect of curcumin on translocation of GLUT4 from intra-cell into cell surface in the presence of 100 nm insulin. Discussion: We conclude that curcumin may be a choice of type-2 diabetes mellitus treatment because its extract and commercial enhances GLUT4 contents in CM where it facilitates glucose entrance into the cell. However, it is necessary to trace the signaling pathways which are activated by curcumin.

Keywords: Curcumin, insulin, GLUT4, Diabetes type-2

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18 Use of Curcumin in Radiochemotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis Patients: A Control Trial Study

Authors: Shivayogi Charantimath

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Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are effective for treating malignancies but are associated with side effects like oral mucositis. Chlorhexidine gluconate is one of the most commonly used mouthwash in prevention of signs and symptoms of mucositis. Evidence shows that chlorhexidine gluconate has side effects in terms of colonization of bacteria, bad breadth and less healing properties. Thus, it is essential to find a suitable alternative therapy which is more effective with minimal side effects. Curcumin, an extract of turmeric is gradually being studied for its wide-ranging therapeutic properties such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, antiseptic, chemo sensitizing and radio sensitizing properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical curcumin gel on radio-chemotherapy induced oral mucositis in cancer patients. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of curcumin gel in the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients undergoing radio chemotherapy and compare with chlorhexidine. The study was conducted in K.L.E. Society’s Belgaum cancer hospital. 40 oral cancer patients undergoing the radiochemotheraphy with oral mucositis was selected and randomly divided into two groups of 20 each. The study group A [20 patients] was advised Cure next gel for 2 weeks. The control group B [20 patients] was advised chlorhexidine gel for 2 weeks. The NRS, Oral Mucositis Assessment scale and WHO mucositis scale were used to determine the grading. The results obtained were calculated by using SPSS 20 software. The comparison of grading was done by applying Mann-Whitney U test and intergroup comparison was calculated by Wilcoxon matched pairs test. The NRS scores observed from baseline to 1st and 2nd week follow up in both the group showed significant difference. The percentage of change in erythema in respect to group A was 63.3% for first week and for second week, changes were 100.0% with p = 0.0003. The changes in Group A in respect to erythema was 34.6% for 1st week and 57.7% in second week. The intergroup comparison was significant with p value of 0.0048 and 0.0006 in relation to group A and group B respectively. The size of the ulcer score was measured which showed 35.5% [P=0.0010] of change in Group A for 1st and 2nd week showed totally reduction i.e. 103.4% [P=0.0001]. Group B showed 24.7% change from baseline to 1st week and 53.6% for 2nd week follow up. The intergroup comparison with Wilcoxon matched pair test was significant with p=0.0001 in group A. The result obtained by WHO mucositis score in respect to group A shows 29.6% [p=0.0004] change in first week and 75.0% [p=0.0180] change in second week which is highly significant in comparison to group B. Group B showed minimum changes i.e. 20.1% in 1st week and 33.3% in 2nd week. The p value with Wilcoxon was significant with 0.0025 in Group A for 1st week follow up and 0.000 for 2nd week follow up. Curcumin gel appears to an effective and safer alternative to chlorhexidine gel in treatment of oral mucositis.

Keywords: Curcumin, chemotheraphy, mucositis, radiotheraphy

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17 Curcumin and Methotrexate Loaded Montmollilite Clay for Sustained Oral Drug Delivery Application

Authors: Subrata Kar, Banani Kundu, Papiya Nandy, Ruma Basu, Sukhen Das

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Natural montmorilollite clay is a common ingredient in pharmaceutical products, both as excipients and active support; hence considered as suitable candidate for Drug Delivery System. In this work, cationic detergent CTAB is used to increase the interlayer spacing of Na+-Montmoriollite clay to intercalate curcumin and methotrexate. Methotrexate is a folic acid antagonist, anti-proliferative and immunosuppressive agent; while curcumin is a bioactive constituent of rhizomes of Curcuma longa, possessing remarkable chemo-preventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The resultant inorganic-organic hybrids are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to confirm successful intercalation of curcumin and Methotrexate within clay layers. Pharmaceutical investigation of the hybrids is explored by studying the drug loading (%), encapsulation efficiency and release kinetics. Finally in-vitro studies are performed using cancer cells to find the effect of released curcumin to improve the sensitivity of clay bound methotrexate to ameliorate cell death compared to their effectiveness when used without the inorganic aluminosilicate vehicle.

Keywords: Curcumin, Anticancer Activity, montmorillonite, methotrexate, release kinetics, loading efficiency

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16 In vitro P-Glycoprotein Modulation: Combinatorial Approach Using Natural Products

Authors: Jagdish S. Patel, Piyush Chudasama

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Context: Over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays critical role in absorption of many drug candidates which results into lower bioavailability of the drug. P-glycoprotein also over expresses in many pathological conditions like diabetes, affecting the drug therapy. Modulation of P-gp expression using inhibitors can help in designing novel formulation enhancing the bioavailability of the drug in question. Objectives: The main focus of the study was to develop advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induced P-gp over expression in Caco-2 cells. Curcumin, piperine and epigallocatechin gallate were used to evaluate their P-gp inhibitory action using combinatorial approach. Materials and methods: Methylglyoxal (MG) induced P-gp over expression was checked in Caco-2 cells using real time PCR. P-gp inhibitory effects of the phytochemicals were measured after induction with MG alone and in combination of any two compounds. Cytotoxicity of each of the phytochemical was evaluated using MTT assay. Results: Induction with MG (100mM) significantly induced the over expression of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells after 24 hr. Curcumin, piperine and epigallocatechin gallate alone significantly reduced the level of P-gp within 6 hr of treatment period monitored by real time PCR. The combination of any two phytochemical also down regulated the expression of P-gp in cells. Combinations of Curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate have shown significant down regulation when compared with other two combinations. Conclusions: Combinatorial approach for down regulating the expression of P-gp, in pathological conditions like diabetes, has demonstrated promising approach for therapeutic purpose.

Keywords: Curcumin, piperine, p-glycoprotein, epigallocatechin gallate, p-gp inhibition

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15 Controlled Release of Curcumin from a Thermoresponsive Polypeptide Hydrogel for Anti-Tumor Therapy

Authors: I-Ming Chu, Chieh-Nan Chen, Ji-Yu Lin

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Polypeptide thermosensitive hydrogel is an excellent candidate as a smart device to deliver drugs and cells due to its remarkable biocompatibility, low gelation concentration, and respond to temperature stimuli, it can be easily injected as a polymer solution into the patient’s body where it undergoes gelation due to an elevation in temperature. Poly (ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether-poly (ethyl-l-glutamate) (mPEG-PELG) contains a hydrophobic side chain –C2H5 which is useful in encapsulating and stabilizing hydrophobic drugs. In this study, we plan to focus on the hydrophobic anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory drug curcumin, which due its insolubility in water, requires a proper carrier for delivery into the body. Our main concept is to use mPEG-PELG to stabilize curcumin, inject the curcumin-loaded hydrogel into the tumor site, and allow the enzymatically-sensitive hydrogel to be degraded by bodily fluids and release the drug. The polymers of interest have been successfully synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR, FT-IR, SEM, and CMC. Curcumin loading content and drug release were assayed using HPLC. Preliminary results show that these materials have potential as a delivery vehicle for poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: Curcumin, Hydrogel, Drug Release, polypeptide material

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14 Targeted Delivery of Sustained Release Polymeric Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Jamboor K. Vishwanatha

Abstract:

Among the potent anti-cancer agents, curcumin has been found to be very efficacious against various cancer cells. Despite multiple medicinal benefits of curcumin, poor water solubility, poor physiochemical properties and low bioavailability continue to pose major challenges in developing a formulation for clinical efficacy. To improve its potential application in the clinical area, we formulated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. The PLGA nanoparticles were formulated using solid-oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method and then characterized for percent yield, encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology, particle size, drug distribution within nanoparticles and drug polymer interaction. Our studies showed the successful formation of smooth and spherical curcumin loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a high percent yield of about 92.01±0.13% and an encapsulation efficiency of 90.88±0.14%. The mean particle size of the nanoparticles was found to be 145nm. The in vitro drug release profile showed 55-60% drug release from the nanoparticles over a period of 24 hours with continued sustained release over a period of 8 days. Exposure to curcumin loaded nanoparticles resulted in reduced cell viability of cancer cells compared to normal cells. We used a novel non-covalent insertion of a homo-bifunctional spacer for targeted delivery of curcumin to various cancer cells. Functionalized nanoparticles for antibody/targeting agent conjugation was prepared using a cross-linking ligand, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3), which has reactive carboxyl group to conjugate efficiently to the primary amino groups of the targeting agents. In our studies, we demonstrated successful conjugation of antibodies, Annexin A2 or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), to curcumin loaded PLGA nanoparticles for targeting to prostate and breast cancer cells. The percent antibody attachment to PLGA nanoparticles was found to be 92.8%. Efficient intra-cellular uptake of the targeted nanoparticles was observed in the cancer cells. These results have emphasized the potential of our multifunctional curcumin nanoparticles to improve the clinical efficacy of curcumin therapy in patients with cancer.

Keywords: Cancer Therapy, Curcumin, sustained release, polymeric nanoparticles

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13 Molecular Signaling Involved in the 'Benzo(a)Pyrene' Induced Germ Cell DNA Damage and Apoptosis: Possible Protection by Natural Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Antagonist and Anti-Tumor Agent

Authors: Kuladip Jana

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Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] is an environmental toxicant present mostly in cigarette smoke and car exhaust, is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand that exerts its toxic effects on both male and female reproductive systems. In this study, the effect of B(a)P at different doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg /kg body weight) was studied on male reproductive system of rat. A significant decrease in cauda epididymal sperm count and motility along with the presence of sperm head abnormalities and altered epididymal and testicular histology were documented following B(a)P treatment. B(a)P treatment resulted apoptotic sperm cells as observed by TUNEL and Annexin V-PI assay with increased ROS, altered sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) with a simultaneous decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and GSH status. TUNEL positive apoptotic cells also observed in testis as well as isolated germ and Leydig cells following B(a)P exposure. Western Blot analysis revealed the activation of p38MAPK, cytosolic translocation of cytochrome-c, up-regulation of Bax and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with cleavage of PARP and down-regulation of BCl2 in testis upon B(a)P treatment. The protein and mRNA levels of testicular key steroidogenesis regulatory proteins like StAR, cytochrome P450 IIA1 (CYPIIA1), 3β HSD, 17β HSD showed a significant decrease in a dose dependent manner while an increase in the expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), active caspase- 9 and caspase- 3 following B(a)P exposure. We conclude that exposure of benzo(a)pyrene caused testicular gamatogenic and steroidogenic disorders by induction of oxidative stress, inhibition of StAR and other steroidogenic enzymes along with activation of p38MAPK and initiated caspase-3 mediated germ and Leydig cell apoptosis.The possible protective role of naturally occurring phytochemicals against B(a)P induced testicular toxicity needs immediate consideration. Curcumin and resveratrol separately were found to protect against B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis, and their combinatorial effect was more significant. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted their synergistic protective effect against B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3,8,9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, Apaf1.Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment thus prevented B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis. B(a)P induced testicular ROS generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 production. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ cells from B(a)P induced apoptosis.

Keywords: apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, Curcumin, Resveratrol, germ cell, benzo(a)pyrene

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12 Prediction of Anticancer Potential of Curcumin Nanoparticles by Means of Quasi-Qsar Analysis Using Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Ashwani Kumar, Ruchika Goyal, Sandeep Jain

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The experimental data for anticancer potential of curcumin nanoparticles was calculated by means of eclectic data. The optimal descriptors were examined using Monte Carlo method based CORAL SEA software. The statistical quality of the model is following: n = 14, R² = 0.6809, Q² = 0.5943, s = 0.175, MAE = 0.114, F = 26 (sub-training set), n =5, R²= 0.9529, Q² = 0.7982, s = 0.086, MAE = 0.068, F = 61, Av Rm² = 0.7601, ∆R²m = 0.0840, k = 0.9856 and kk = 1.0146 (test set) and n = 5, R² = 0.6075 (validation set). This data can be used to build predictive QSAR models for anticancer activity.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Curcumin, model, QSAR, anticancer potential, optimal descriptors

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11 Chitosan Doped Curcumin Gold Clusters Flexible Nanofiber for Wound Dressing and Anticancer Activities

Authors: Saravanan Govindaraju, Kyusik Yun

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The purpose of this study is to develop the chitosan doped curcumin gold cluster nanofiber for wound healing and skin cancer drug delivery applications. Chitosan is a typical marine polysaccharide composed of glucosamine and n-acetyl glucosamine biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. Curcumin is a natural bioactive molecule obtained from Curcuma longo, it mostly occurs in some Asian countries like India and China. It has naturally antioxidant, antimicrobial, wound healing and anticancer property. Due to this advantage, we prepared a combination of natural polymer chitosan with Curcumin and gold nanocluster nanofiber (CH-CUR-AuNCs nanofibers). The prepared nanofiber was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antibacterial studies were performed with E.coli and S.aureus. Antioxidant assay, drug release test, and cytotoxicity will be evaluated. Prepared nanofiber emits low intensity of red fluorescent. The FTIR confirm the presence of chitosan and Curcumin in the nanofiber. In vitro study clearly shows the antibacterial activity against the gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Particularly, synthesised nanofibers provide better antibacterial activity against gram negative than gram positive. Cytotoxicity study also provides better killing rate in cancer cell, biocompatible with normal cell. Prepared CH-CUR-AuNCs nanofibers provide the better killing rate to bacterial strains and cancer cells. Finally, prepared nanofiber can be possible to use for wound healing dressing, patch for skin cancer and other biomedical applications.

Keywords: Curcumin, Nanofibers, chitosan, gold clusters

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10 The Effect of Curcumin on Cryopreserved Bovine Semen

Authors: Eva Tvrda, Marek Halenar, Hana Greifová, Alica Mackovich, Faridullah Hashim, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

Oxidative stress associated with semen cryopreservation may result in lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm motility and fertilization ability. Curcumin (CUR), a natural phenol isolated from Curcuma longa Linn. has been presented as a possible supplement for a more effective semen cryopreservation because of its antioxidant properties. This study focused to evaluate the effects of CUR on selected oxidative stress parameters in cryopreserved bovine semen. 20 bovine ejaculates were split into two aliquots and diluted with a commercial semen extender containing CUR (50 μmol/L) or no supplement (control), cooled to 4 °C, frozen and kept in liquid nitrogen. Frozen straws were thawed in a water bath for subsequent experiments. Computer assisted semen analysis was used to evaluate spermatozoa motility, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was quantified by using luminometry. Superoxide generation was evaluated with the NBT test, and LPO was assessed via the TBARS assay. CUR supplementation significantly (P<0.001) increased the spermatozoa motility and provided a significantly higher protection against ROS (P<0.001) or superoxide (P<0.01) overgeneration caused by semen freezing and thawing. Furthermore, CUR administration resulted in a significantly (P<0.01) lower LPO of the experimental semen samples. In conclusion, CUR exhibits significant ROS-scavenging activities which may prevent oxidative insults to cryopreserved spermatozoa and thus may enhance the post-thaw functional activity of male gametes.

Keywords: Cryopreservation, Curcumin, Lipid Peroxidation, spermatozoa, reactive oxygen species, bulls

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9 Synthesis of Metal Curcumin Complexes with Iron(III) and Manganese(II): The Effects on Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Emel Yildiz, Nurcan Biçer, Fazilet Aksu, Arash Alizadeh Yegani

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Plants provide the wealth of bioactive compounds, which exert a substantial strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Recently, a lot of studies have explored the medicinal properties of curcumin, including antitumoral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-Alzheimer's disease effects. Metal complexes of curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) were synthesized with Mn(II) and Fe(III). The structures of synthesized metal complexes have been characterized by using spectroscopic and analytic methods such as elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, FT-IR, AAS, TG and argentometric titration. It was determined that the complexes have octahedral geometry. The effects of the metal complexes on the disorder of memory, which is an important symptom of Alzheimer's Disease were studied on lab rats with Plus-Maze Tests at Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory.

Keywords: Alzheimer Disease, Curcumin, Fe(III), Mn(II), beta amyloid 25-35

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8 Analysis of Active Compounds in Thai Herbs by near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Chaluntorn Vichasilp, Sutee Wangtueai

Abstract:

This study aims to develop a new method to detect active compounds in Thai herbs (1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in mulberry leave, anthocyanin in Mao and curcumin in turmeric) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRs). NIRs is non-destructive technique that rapid, non-chemical involved and low-cost determination. By NIRs and chemometrics technique, it was found that the DNJ prediction equation conducted with partial least square regression with cross-validation had low accuracy R2 (0.42) and SEP (31.87 mg/100g). On the other hand, the anthocyanin prediction equation showed moderate good results (R2 and SEP of 0.78 and 0.51 mg/g) with Multiplication scattering correction at wavelength of 2000-2200 nm. The high absorption could be observed at wavelength of 2047 nm and this model could be used as screening level. For curcumin prediction, the good result was obtained when applied original spectra with smoothing technique. The wavelength of 1400-2500 nm was created regression model with R2 (0.68) and SEP (0.17 mg/g). This model had high NIRs absorption at a wavelength of 1476, 1665, 1986 and 2395 nm, respectively. NIRs showed prospective technique for detection of some active compounds in Thai herbs.

Keywords: Curcumin, anthocyanin, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRs)

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7 Composite Electrospun Aligned PLGA/Curcumin/Heparin Nanofibrous Membranes for Wound Dressing Application

Authors: Jyh-Ping Chen, Yu-Tin Lai

Abstract:

Wound healing is a complicated process involving overlapping hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and maturation phases. Ideal wound dressings can replace native skin functions in full thickness skin wounds through faster healing rate and also by reducing scar formation. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is an U.S. FDA approved biodegradable polymer to be used as ideal wound dressing material. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of curcumin in decreasing the release of inflammatory cytokines, inhibiting enzymes associated with inflammations, and scavenging free radicals that are the major cause of inflammation during wound healing. Heparin has binding affinities to various growth factors. With the unique and beneficial features offered by those molecules toward the complex process of wound healing, we postulate a composite wound dressing constructed from PLGA, curcumin and heparin would be a good candidate to accelerate scarless wound healing. In this work, we use electrospinning to prepare curcumin-loaded aligned PLGA nanofibrous membranes (PC NFMs). PC NFMs were further subject to oxygen plasma modification and surfaced-grafted with heparin through carbodiimide-mediated covalent bond formation to prepare curcumin-loaded PLGA-g-heparin (PCH) NFMs. The nanofibrous membranes could act as three-dimensional scaffolds to attract fibroblast migration, reduce inflammation, and increase wound-healing related growth factors concentrations at wound sites. From scanning electron microscopy analysis, the nanofibers in each NFM are with diameters ranging from 456 to 479 nm and with alignment angles within  0.5°. The NFMs show high tensile strength and good water absorptivity and provide suitable pore size for nutrients/wastes transport. Exposure of human dermal fibroblasts to the extraction medium of PC or PCH NFM showed significant protective effects against hydrogen peroxide than PLGA NFM. In vitro wound healing assays also showed that the extraction medium of PCH NFM showed significantly better migration ability toward fibroblasts than PC NFM, which is further better than PLGA NFM. The in vivo healing efficiency of the NFMs was further evaluated by a full thickness excisional wound healing diabetic rat model. After 14 days, PCH NFMs exhibits 86% wound closure rate, which is significantly different from other groups (79% for PC and 73% for PLGA NFM). Real-time PCR analysis indicated PC and PCH NFMs down regulated anti-oxidative enzymes like glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are well-known transcription factors involved in cellular inflammatory responses to stimuli. From histology, the wound area treated with PCH NFMs showed more vascular lumen formation from immunohistochemistry of α-smooth muscle actin. The wound site also had more collagen type III (65.8%) expression and less collagen type I (3.5%) expression, indicating scar-less wound healing. From Western blot analysis, the PCH NFM showed good affinity toward growth factors from increased concentration of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) at the wound site to accelerate wound healing. From the results, we suggest PCH NFM as a promising candidate for wound dressing applications.

Keywords: Curcumin, Wound Dressing, heparin, nanofibrous membrane, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)

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6 The Effect of Eight-Week Medium Intensity Interval Training and Curcumin Intake on ICMA-1 and VCAM-1 Levels in Menopausal Fat Rats

Authors: Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo, Fatemeh Akbari Ghara

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Background and Purpose: Obesity is an increasing factor in cardiovascular disease and serum levels of cellular adhesion molecule. It plays an important role in predicting risk for coronary artery disease. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of eight weeks moderate intensity interval training and curcumin intake on ICAM-1 & VCAM-1 levels of menopausal fat rats. Materials and methods: in this study, 28 Wistar Menopausal fat rats aged 6-8 weeks with an average weight of 250-300 (gr) were randomly divided into four groups: control, curcumin supplement, moderate intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training + curcumin supplement. (7 rats each group). The training program was planned as 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 10 one-min sets with 50 percent intensity and the 2-minutes interval between sets in the first week. Subjects started with 14 meters per minute, and 2 (m/min) was added to increase their speed weekly until the speed of 28 (m/min) in the 8th week. Blood samples were taken 48 hours after the last training session, and ICAM-1 A and VCAM-1 levels were measured. SPSS software, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess the results. Results: The results showed that eight weeks of training and taking curcumin had significant effects on ICAM-1 levels of the rats (p ≤ 0.05). However, it had no significant effect on VCAM-1 levels in menopausal obese rates (p ≥ 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in eight weeks training and taking curcumin. Conclusion: Implementation of moderate intensity interval training and the use of curcumin decreased ICAM-1 significantly.

Keywords: Curcumin, Interval Training, VCAM, ICMA

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5 Curcumin Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Osteoarthritis: A Molecular Docking Study

Authors: F. Ambreen, A.Naheed

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Nitric oxide (NO) was found to play a catabolic role in the development of osteoarthritis. It is a toxic free radical gas generated during the metabolism of L-arginine by the enzyme Nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) is one of the isoform of NOS, and its overexpression leads to the excessive formation of NO that results in pathophysiological joint conditions. Several synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs and inhibitors are present to date, but all showed side effects and complications. Therefore, the pursuit of natural disease-modifying drugs remains a top priority. Curcumin is an active component of turmeric, and the past few decades have witnessed intense research devoted to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. The present study focused on curcumin and its derivatives in the search for new iNOS inhibitors for the treatment of osteoarthritis. We conducted a molecular docking study on curcumin and its four derivatives; cyclocurcumin, tetrahydrocurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin monoglucoside with iNOS using CLC Drug discovery work bench 3.02. We selected two co-crystallized ligands for this study; tetrahydrobiopterin and N-omega-propyl-L-arginine present in complex with the enzyme iNOS. Results showed the best binding affinity of N-omega-propyl-L-arginine with cyclocurcumin and curcumin monoglucoside that exhibit binding energies of -65.2 kcal/mol and -68 kcal/mol respectively. Whereas with tetrahydrobiopterin, best binding scores of -64.7 kcal/mol and -62.2 kcal/mol were found with tetrahydrocurcumin and demethoxycurcumin respectively. This information could open doors of research for the designing of novel drugs using herbs such as curcumin for the treatment of inflammatory joint diseases.

Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Molecular Docking, Curcumin, iNOS

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4 Curcumin and Its Analogues: Potent Natural Antibacterial Compounds against Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Prince Kumar, Shamseer Kulangara Kandi, Diwan S. Rawat, Kasturi Mukhopadhyay

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Staphylococcus aureus is the most pathogenic of all staphylococci, a major cause of nosocomial infections, and known for acquiring resistance towards various commonly used antibiotics. Due to the widespread use of synthetic drugs, clinicians are now facing a serious threat in healthcare. The increasing resistance in staphylococci has created a need for alternatives to these synthetic drugs. One of the alternatives is a natural plant-based medicine for both disease prevention as well as the treatment of chronic diseases. Among such natural compounds, curcumin is one of the most studied molecules and has been an integral part of traditional medicines and Ayurveda from ancient times. It is a natural polyphenolic compound with diverse pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancerous and antibacterial activities. In spite of its efficacy and potential, curcumin has not been approved as a therapeutic agent yet, because of its low solubility, low bioavailability, and rapid metabolism in vivo. The presence of central β-diketone moiety in curcumin is responsible for its rapid metabolism. To overcome this, in the present study, curcuminoids were designed by modifying the central β-diketone moiety of curcumin into mono carbonyl moiety and their antibacterial potency against S. aureus ATCC 29213 was determined. Further, the mode of action and hemolytic activity of the most potent curcuminoids were studied. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and in vitro killing kinetics were used to study the antibacterial activity of the designed curcuminoids. For hemolytic assay, mouse Red blood cells were incubated with curcuminoids and hemoglobin release was measured spectrophotometrically. The mode of action of curcuminoids was analysed by membrane depolarization assay using membrane potential sensitive dye 3,3’-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide (DiSC3(5)) through spectrofluorimetry and membrane permeabilization assay using calcein-AM through flow cytometry. Antibacterial screening of the designed library (61 curcuminoids) revealed excellent in vitro potency of six compounds against S. aureus (MIC 8 to 32 µg/ml). Moreover, these six compounds were found to be non-hemolytic up to 225 µg/ml that is much higher than their corresponding MIC values. The in vitro killing kinetics data showed five of these lead compounds to be bactericidal causing >3 log reduction in the viable cell count within 4 hrs at 5 × MIC while the sixth compound was found to be bacteriostatic. Depolarization assay revealed that all the six curcuminoids caused depolarization in their corresponding MIC range. Further, the membrane permeabilization assay showed that all the six curcuminoids caused permeabilization at 5 × MIC in 2 hrs. This membrane depolarization and permeabilization caused by curcuminoids found to be in correlation with their corresponding killing efficacy. Both these assays point out that membrane perturbations might be a primary mode of action for these curcuminoids. Overall, the present study leads us six water soluble, non-hemolytic, membrane-active curcuminoids and provided an impetus for further research on therapeutic use of these lead curcuminoids against S. aureus.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Curcumin, Staphylococcus aureus, minimum inhibitory concentration

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3 Protective Role of Curcumin against Ionising Radiation of Gamma Ray

Authors: Maitree Bhattacharyya, Turban Kar

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Curcumin, a dietary antioxidant has been identified as a wonder molecule to possess therapeutic properties protecting the cellular macromolecules from oxidative damage. In our experimental study, we have explored the effectiveness of curcumin in protecting the structural paradigm of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) when exposed to gamma irradiation. HSA, being an important transport protein of the circulatory system, is involved in binding of variety of metabolites, drugs, dyes and fatty acids due to the presence of hydrophobic pockets inside the structure. HSA is also actively involved in the transportation of drugs and metabolites to their targets, because of its long half-life and regulation of osmotic blood pressure. Gamma rays, in its increasing concentration, results in structural alteration of the protein and superoxide radical generation. Curcumin, on the other hand, mitigates the damage, which has been evidenced in the following experiments. Our study explores the possibility for protection by curcumin during the molecular and conformational changes of HSA when exposed to gamma irradiation. We used a combination of spectroscopic methods to probe the conformational ensemble of the irradiated HSA and finally evaluated the extent of restoration by curcumin. SDS - PAGE indicated the formation of cross linked aggregates as a consequence of increasing exposure of gamma radiation. CD and FTIR spectroscopy inferred significant decrease in alpha helix content of HSA from 57% to 15% with increasing radiation doses. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies complemented the spectroscopic measurements when lifetime decay was significantly reduced from 6.35 ns to 0.37 ns. Hydrophobic and bityrosine study showed the effectiveness of curcumin for protection against radiation induced free radical generation. Moreover, bityrosine and hydrophobic profiling of gamma irradiated HSA in presence and absence of curcumin provided light on the formation of ROS species generation and the protective (magical) role of curcumin. The molecular mechanism of curcumin protection to HSA from gamma irradiation is yet unknown, though a possible explanation has been proposed in this work using Thioflavin T assay. It was elucidated, that when HSA is irradiated at low dose of gamma radiation in presence of curcumin, it is capable of retaining the native characteristic properties to a greater extent indicating stabilization of molecular structure. Thus, curcumin may be utilized as a therapeutic strategy to protect cellular proteins.

Keywords: Curcumin, Gamma Radiation, human serum albumin, Bityrosine content, conformational change

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