Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Cultural tourism Related Abstracts

21 Potentials and Impediments in the Development of Ikeji Festival for Cultural Tourism

Authors: Ifegbo Lawrencia Ifegbo

Abstract:

Nigeria is a country with many ethnic groups and therefore endowed with festival of different types and nature, yet no concerted effort is committed towards their development for cultural tourism. This paper assessed the adequacy of tourism potential of the festivals, and most importantly investigated the impediments surrounding their non-development. Ikeji, a masquerade festival of the people of Arondizuogu clan in Imo State of Nigeria was selected for the study. Ethnographic research using observer-as-participant technique was used for conducting the study. This was supplemented by focused group discussion (FGD), key informant and unstructured interviews. The result revealed that there exist so much potentials like masquerading, cultural dances, native and highlife music, drumming, role reversals and traditional dishes in the festival. It was further deduced that poor supply of amenities and infrastructural facilities, insecurity of life, lack of trained indigenous experts in tourism, lack of awareness and publicity for the festival on the part of the host communities were responsible for the non-development into tourism destinations. The implication of this is that unless the government resolves to provide the needed resources for the development of the enormous festivals, and restores security and peace in the country, cultural tourism will rarely thrive in Nigeria.

Keywords: Tourism Development, Festivals, Cultural tourism, tourism potential, cultural resources

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20 Event-Led Strategy for Cultural Tourism Development: The Case of Liverpool as the 2008 European Capital of Culture

Authors: Yi-De Liu

Abstract:

Cultural tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing global tourism markets and the cultures are increasingly being used to promote cities and to increase their competitiveness and attractiveness. One of the major forms of cultural tourism development undertaken throughout Europe has been the staging of a growing number of cultural events. The event of European Capitals of Culture (ECOC) is probably the best example of the new trends of cultural tourism in Europe, which is therefore used in this article to demonstrate some of the key issues surrounding the event-led strategy for cultural tourism development. Based on the experience of the 2008 ECOC Liverpool, UK, the study’s findings point to a number of ways in which the ECOC constitutes a boost for the development of cultural tourism in terms of realising experience economy, enhancing city image, facilitating urban regeneration, promoting cultural production and consumption, as well as establishing partnerships. This study is concluded by drawing some critical factors that event and tourism organisers should consider.

Keywords: Cultural tourism, Event Tourism, cultural event, European capital of culture, Liverpool

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19 A Guideline of Development of Suansunandha Rajabhat University in Order to Promote the Cultural Tourism

Authors: Weera Weerasophon

Abstract:

This research aims to study and survey a potential in the areas affecting development and study of management factors affecting cultural tourism for Suansunandha Rajabhat University in a model of a qualitative research as a survey research. The sample population includes executives, faculty members, and persons related to university management of Suansunandha Rajabhat University, the total number is 5 persons. The researcher distributed in-depth interview form for tools used in the research. The obtained data was brought to conduct content analysis by brainstorming from expert academician to persons related to university management of Suansunandha Rajabhat University in order to consider readiness in cultural tourism management for Suansunandha Rajabhat University, to analyze and develop to be a guideline for the development of Suansunandha Rajabhat University for promoting cultural tourism. From the study results, it is found that the factors of readiness in management, planning, organizing, personnel management, leadership and guiding, coordination, controlling, budgeting and marketing could influence to be a guideline for development of Suansunandha Rajabhat Universiy in order to promote cultural tourism; therefore, the university should prepare more plans concerning related matters, as well as development, determining form and policy of Suansunandha Rajabhat University.

Keywords: Tourism Management, Cultural tourism, Suansunandha Rajabhat University, guideline of development

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18 The Study on the Tourism Routes to Create Interpretation for Promote Cultural Tourism in Bangnoi Floating Market, Bangkontee District, Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand

Authors: Pornnapat Berndt

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The purpose of this research is to study the tourism routes in Bangnoi Floating Market, Bangkhontee District, Samut Songkhram province, Thailand in order to create type and form of interpretation to promote cultural tourism based on local community and visitor requirement. To accomplish the goals and objectives, qualitative research will be applied. The research instruments used are observation, questionnaires, basic interviews, in-depth interviews, focus group, interviewed of key local informants including site visitors. The study also uses both primary data and secondary data. A Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as tables, percentage, mean and standard deviation were used for data analysis and summary. From research result, it is revealed that the local community requirement on types of interpretation conforms to visitors require which need guide post, guide book, etc. with up to date and informally content to present Bangnoi Floating Market which got the most demand score (3.78) considered as most wanted demand.

Keywords: Interpretation, Cultural tourism, local community, tourism route, stakeholders participated

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17 The World Heritage List: A Big Data Spatial Econometrics Approach to Sites Promoting the Brand

Authors: David Wuepper, Marc Patry

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UNESCO’s World Heritage program requests the inscribed locations to promote the World Heritage brand by clearly presenting information about it on-site. Based on feedback from over 319,000 visitors at 791 locations, we create an index that shows how much the World Heritage sites actually brand themselves as such. We find great heterogeneity throughout the list and explain this econometrically mostly with the economic benefit for the sites but also with cultural brand preferences, which are highest in Asia, followed by Europe and North America. We also find a positive relationship between World Heritage branding and conservation status and a U-shaped relationship between visitor numbers and WH branding. Based on our findings, we recommend to make clear World Heritage branding mandatory for all sites.

Keywords: Spatial econometrics, Cultural tourism, Heritage Conservation, Brand Equity, UNESCO World Heritage, collective brand

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16 The Created of Interpretation to Promote Cultural Tourism for Sai Temple’ Local Boat Museum in Bangkhontee District, Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand

Authors: Teera Intararuang

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This research aims to study guidelines to developed Sai Temple’ local boat museum to be as cultural tourism attraction and explored villagers requirement in term of type and format of interpretation which they want to promote their cultural tourism for Sai Temple, Kradangnga sub-district, Bang Khon Tee district, Samut Songkhram province. However, this article will explores only the requirement of type and format of interpretation which 40 villagers of Ruam Sai Pattana 789 purposed to promote Sai temple. The procedures are In-depth Interview, Observation, Focus Group by discussing ideas. After that the information received is synthesized and analyzed. From research result, it is revealed that the local community’ requirement on types and format of interpretation as brochure with up to date, faithfully and formally content to present Sai Temple which got the most demand score (3.82) considered as most wanted demand.

Keywords: Interpretation, Cultural tourism, museum, boat museum, brochure, Bangkhontee district, Samut Songkhram province

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15 Marketing Mix for Tourism in the Chonburi Province

Authors: Pisit Potjanajaruwit

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The objectives of the study were to determine the marketing mix factors that influencing tourist’s destination decision making for cultural tourism in the Chonburi province. Both quantitative and qualitative data were applied in this study. The samples of 400 cases for quantitative analysis were tourists (both Thai and foreign) who were interested in cultural tourism in the Chonburi province, and traveled to cultural sites in Chonburi and 14 representatives from provincial tourism committee of Chonburi and local tourism experts. Statistics utilized in this research included frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and multiple regression analysis. The study found that Thai and foreign tourists are influenced by different important marketing mix factors. The important factors for Thai respondents were physical evidence, price, people, and place at high importance level. For foreign respondents, physical evidence, price, people, and process were high importance level, whereas, product, place, and promotion were moderate importance level.

Keywords: Decision Making, Cultural tourism, Chonburi Province, marketing mixed

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14 The Strategy of Traditional Religious Culture Tourism: Taking Taiwan Minhsiung Infernal Lord Festival for Example

Authors: Ching-Yi Wang

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The purpose of this study is to explore strategies for integrate Minhsiung environments and cultural resources for Infernal Lord Festival. Minhsiung Infernal Lord Festival is one of the famous religious event in Chia-Yi County, Taiwan. This religious event and the life of local residents are inseparable. Minhsiung Infernal Lord Festival has a rich cultural ceremonies meaning and sentiment of local concern. This study apply field study, document analysis and interviews to analyze Minhsiung Township’s featured attractions and folklore events. The research results reveal the difficulties and strategies while incorporating culture elements into culture tourism. This study hopes to provide innovative techniques for the purpose of prolonging the feasibility of future development of the tradition folk culture.

Keywords: Folklore, Cultural tourism, Religious Tourism, Taiwan folk culture, Minhsiung Infernal Lord Festival

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13 Enabling Socio Cultural Sustainability of the "Thousand and One Churches" Archaeological Site

Authors: E. Erdogan, M. Ulusoy

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In terms of tourism, the concept of sustainability can be defined as preserving and developing natural, historical, cultural, social, and aesthetic values and enabling their permanency. Sustainable tourism aims to preserve natural, historical, cultural, and social resources, also by supporting economic progress protecting economic development and environmental values that emerge as a consequence of tourism activities. Cultural tourism feeds on sustainable cultural treasures inherently and is the most effective touristic activity. Traditional configurations and structural characteristics play an important role in generating cultural tourism in a region. Sustainable cultural tourism is related to trips upon people who embark with the aim of visiting culturally rich regions, learning about and observing fast-disappearing lifestyles and collecting cultural values as memories. With its huge tourism potential, Karadağ is the most significant cultural asset of the Karaman province, possessing unique riches in terms of cultural world history. Host to one of the most important Byzantine cities in Anatolia, Karadağ is like an open-air museum with its unparalleled architectural structures. There is a village named Madenşehir in the plain at the outskirts of Karadağ, near to which are located the “Thousand and One Churches” ruins. The 80-household house is located near the ruins in an area that been declared a 1st degree historic preservation district. stones gathered from local churches were used in the construction of these households. A ministry has assigned a new residential site near the boundaries of the 2nd degree preservation district, and the decision has been made to move the occupants to this area. The most important issue here is to enable locals’ sociocultural and socioeconomic sustainability. It is also important to build these structures in a manner compatible with the historical visual look, ecological system and environmental awareness. Therefore this new site will be planned as touristic area in terms of sustainable cultural tourism and in these new plans, shall fulfill functions oriented toward both tourists and locals. It is very important that this change be sustainable and also support cultural tourism.

Keywords: Cultural tourism, new village settlement, socio cultural sustainability, “thousand and one churches” site

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12 The Image of Cultural Tourism in the Tourists’ Point of View

Authors: Wanida Suwunniponth

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The purposes of this research were to investigate the perceived of a cultural image and loyalty of tourists toward the attraction at Banglumphu neighborhood in Bangkok and to study the relationship of the cultural image of Banglumphu community and loyalty to visit this area of the tourists. This study employed both quantitative approach and qualitative approach. In a quantitative research, a questionnaire was used to collect data from 300 systematic sampled tourists who visited Banglumphu area and the correlation analysis were used to analyze data. The results revealed that the overall tourists’ point of view toward Banglumphu cultural image was at a good level which lifestyle had the best image, followed by value and belief, physical dimension, community identity, tradition, and local wisdom. In addition, the overall aspect of tourists’ loyalty including satisfaction, word of mouths, and revisiting were at good levels which word of mouths received the highest value, followed by revisiting, and satisfaction, respectively. In addition, the relationship between cultural image in aspect on lifestyle, tradition, local wisdom, belief, community identity and loyalty to visit Banglumphu in each aspect on satisfaction, word of mouths, and revisiting were moderately correlated at the significant level of 0.05, except physical dimension was not correlated with each aspect of tourists’ loyalty.

Keywords: Image, Cultural tourism, loyalty, revisit

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11 The Interior Design Proposals of Buildings for Tourism Purposes

Authors: Şebnem Ertaş

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“Architecture” is one component of sustainable cultural tourism. The sustainability of architecture is possible through preservation and restoration activities. In Turkey, which has an important place in the world’s cultural heritage, several studies focused on the sustainability of the cultural heritage were done in terms of the principles of “preserve-use-sustain”. Within the scope of this study, a methodology will be proposed in order to obtain the development of different scenarios supporting sustainable tourism. Sille is an ancient village located on the Spice Road and Silk Road dating back to the Ottoman and Seljuk eras. However, in recent years it is protected as an archeological site. In the “Alternative Project Phase”, the streets and buildings which bring dynamism to trade are determined; among these, 10 major buildings in Hacı Ali Ağa Street are studied.

Keywords: Interior Design, Cultural tourism, sustainability of architecture, Sille

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10 Heritage Preservation and Cultural Tourism; The 'Pueblos Mágicos' Program and Its Role in Preserving Traditional Architecture in Mexico

Authors: Claudia Rodríguez Espinosa, Erika Elizabeth Pérez Múzquiz

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The Pueblos Mágicos federal program tries to preserve the traditional environment of small towns (under 20,000 inhabitants), through economic investments, legislation, and legal aid. To access the program, it’s important to cover 8 requirements; one of them is the fourth, which considers ‘Promotion of symbolic and differentiated touristic attractions, such as architecture, emblematic buildings, festivities and traditions, artisan production, traditional cuisine, and touristic services that guarantee their commercialization along with assistantship and security services’. With this objective in mind, the Federal government of Mexico had developed local programs to protect emblematic public buildings in each of the 83 towns included in the Pueblos Mágicos program that involved federal and local administrations as well as local civil associations, like Adopte una Obra de Arte. In this paper, we present 3 different intervention cases: first the restoration project (now concluded) of the 16th century monastery of Santa María Magdalena in Cuitzeo, an enormous building which took 6 years to be completely restored. Second case, the public spaces intervention in Pátzcuaro, included the Plaza Grande or Vasco de Quiroga square, and the access to the arts and crafts house known as Casa de los once patios or eleven backyards house. The third case is the recovery project of the 16th century atrium of the Tzintzuntzan monastery that included the original olive trees brought by Franciscans monks to this town in the middle 1500’s. This paper tries to present successful preservation projects in 3 different scales: building, urban spaces and landscape; and in 3 different towns with the objective to preserve public architecture, public spaces and cultural traditions. Learn from foreign experiences, different ways to manage preservation projects focused on public architecture and public spaces.

Keywords: Public Policies, Cultural tourism, Traditional Architecture, heritage preservation

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9 The Water-Way Route Management for Cultural Tourism Promotion at Angsila District: Challenge and Opportunity

Authors: Teera Intararuang

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The purpose of this research is to study on the challenge and opportunity for waterway route management for promoting cultural tourism in Angsila District, Chonburi Province. To accomplish the goals and objectives, qualitative research will be applied. The research instruments used are observation, basic interviews, in-depth interviews, and interview key local performance. The study also uses both primary data and secondary data. From research result, it is revealed that all respondents had appreciated and strongly agree to promote their waterway route tourism as an intend for further increase for their income. However, it has some challenges to success this project due to natural obstacles such as water level, seasons and high temperature. Moreover, they lack financial support from government sectors also.

Keywords: Cultural tourism, way of life, Angsila community, waterway tourism route

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8 How Cultural Tourists Perceive Authenticity in World Heritage Historic Centers: An Empirical Research

Authors: Odete Paiva, Cláudia Seabra, José Luís Abrantes, Fernanda Cravidão

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There is a clear ‘cult of authenticity’, at least in modern Western society. So, there is a need to analyze the tourist perception of authenticity, bearing in mind the destination, its attractions, motivations, cultural distance, and contact with other tourists. Our study seeks to investigate the relationship among cultural values, image, sense of place, perception of authenticity and behavior intentions at World Heritage Historic Centers. From a theoretical perspective, few researches focus on the impact of cultural values, image and sense of place on authenticity and intentions behavior in tourists. The intention of this study is to help close this gap. A survey was applied to collect data from tourists visiting two World Heritage Historic Centers – Guimarães in Portugal and Cordoba in Spain. Data was analyzed in order to establish a structural equation model (SEM). Discussion centers on the implications of model to theory and managerial development of tourism strategies. Recommendations for destinations managers and promoters and tourist organizations administrators are addressed.

Keywords: cultural values, Cultural tourism, authenticity perception, behavior intentions, world heritage historic centers

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7 Tourist Cultural Literacy: Scale Development and Validation

Authors: Yun-Ru Tsai, Jo-Hui Lin

Abstract:

The cultural interactions between tourists and destination communities have received increased attention. Tourists play an important role in constructing a rewarding intercultural experience and cultural understanding. Cultural literacy is the ability for tourists to negotiate different cultures, this research aimed to develop a measurement of Tourist Cultural Literacy (TCL), the result provides a theoretical framework to assess how tourists interact with different cultural destinations. A pilot qualitative research was conducted in order to generate the initial items. In this study, the procedure of developing the TCL scale was divided into two parts. First, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted, a 25-item TCL scale was developed and six factors were identified: cultural sensitivity, appreciation of the culture, respect for the culture, knowledge of the culture, participate in the culture, and empathy for the culture. Second, confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling were employed, the six-factor model was verified, and was proven to have good fit, reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity. The study provides managerial implications for tourist management and education, the popularization of TCL might increase the respect and understanding between tourists and local societies as well as decrease the cultural shocks and negative social-cultural impacts derived from tourism activities, thereby reducing the maintenance cost of management and allowing tourists to obtain a better cultural experience. Future research suggestions are also provided.

Keywords: Cultural tourism, cultural literacy, scale development, tourism contact

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6 Development of Aboriginal Tribal Tourism: A Case Study of Hualien Truku Hongye Tribe in Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Chen Chien, Sheng-Jung Ou, Shang-Ling Hsu

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Many aboriginal tribes in the early modern began to actively promote tribal tourism. The tribe uses rich ecological environment and unique folk culture successfully attract crowds. In addition to the tribe in the construction level to consider the cultural heritage and living needs, in order to improve tribal tourism for the tribe to bring the benefits of all levels, as well as to avoid the tourism industry is too prosperous brought negative tourism impact. How to successfully create the conditions of mutual benefit of residents and tourists is an important issue common to many tribes. Hualien Turuku Hongye Tribe in Taiwan around the tourist resources are very rich. It is famous for its Hongye hot springs and Ruisui hot springs. Hongye tribe to develop tribal tourism is bound to use its own has three advantages: Truku culture, in the agricultural products experience and marketing, and the surrounding hot springs industry tourism benefits. Tribal Development Association in the past to promote these three advantages for tribal tourism. But due to the impact of many levels led to the tribes in the promotion of tourism on the ineffective. At present, in addition to the Hongye Tribal Development Association in promoting tribal tourism, local residents to promote cultural heritage workshop also gradually rise. Its purpose is to link local cultural resources, agricultural specialty resources, spa tourism industry, the revitalization of the internal development of the tribes at all levels. Each tribe to promote tribal tourism due to geographical environment, resource types have a different set of practices and patterns. This study explores the tourist opportunities and resource points of Hongye tribes, and tribal tourism has been to promote the operation practices and benefits. To understand the difficulties encountered in the implementation of tribal tourism and the impact of all levels. Reference successful development of domestic and foreign tourism tribal tribe case. Develop a questionnaire and using the questionnaire survey to understand tribal residents for the tribal tribes to promote tribal tourism views. Finally, it puts forward some suggestions and strategies to promote the tribal tourism in Hongye tribe.

Keywords: Cultural tourism, Tourism impact, aboriginal tribe, Hongye Tribe

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5 An Impact Assesment of Festive Events on Sustainable Cultural Heritage: İdrisyayla Village

Authors: Betül Gelengül Eki̇mci̇, Semra Günay Aktaş

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Festive, habitual activities celebrated on the specified date by a local community, are conducive to recognition of the region. The main function of festive events is to help gathering people via an annual celebration to create an atmosphere of understanding and the opportunity to participate in the joy of life. At the same time, festive events may serve as special occasions on which immigrants return home to celebrate with their family and community, reaffirming their identity and link to the community’s traditions. Festivals also support the local economy by bringing in different visitors to the region. The tradition of “Beet Brewing-Molasses Production,” which is held in İdrisyayla Village is an intangible cultural heritage with customs, traditions, and rituals carrying impacts of cuisine culture of Rumelian immigrants in the Ottoman. After the harvest of the beet plant in the autumn season of the year, Beet Brewing Molasses syrup is made by traditional production methods with co-op of the local community. Festive occurring brewing paste made process provided transmission of knowledge and experience to the young generations. Making molasses, which is a laborious process, is accompanied by folk games such as "sayacı," which is vital element of the festive performed in İdrisyayla. Performance provides enjoyable time and supporting motivation. Like other forms of intangible cultural heritage, “Beet Brewing-Molasses Festive in İdrasyayla is threatened by rapid urbanisation, young generation migration, industrialisation and environmental change. The festive events are threatened with gradual disappearance due to changes communities undergo in modern societies because it depends on the broad participation of practitioners. Ensuring the continuity of festive events often requires the mobilization of large numbers of individuals and the social, political and legal institutions and mechanisms of society. In 2015, Intangible cultural heritage research project with the title of "İdrisyayla Molasses Process" managed by the Eskişehir Governorship, City Directorate of Culture and Tourism and Anadolu University, project members took part in the festival organization to promote sustainability, making it visible, to encourage the broadest public participation possible, to ensure public awareness on the cultural importance. To preserve the originality of and encourage participation in the festive İdrisyayla, local associations, researchers and institutions created foundation and supports festive events, such as "sayacı" folk game, which is vital element of the festive performed in İdrisyayla. Practitioners find new opportunity to market İdrisyayla Molasses production. Publicity program through the press and exhibition made it possible to stress the cultural importance of the festive in İdrisyayla Village. The research reported here used a survey analysis to evaluate an affect of the festive after the spirit of the 2015 Festive in İdrisyayla Village. Particular attention was paid to the importance of the cultural aspects of the festival. Based on a survey of more than a hundred festival attendees, several recommendations are made to festival planners. Results indicate that the variety of festive activities and products offered for sale very important to attendees. The local participants care product sales rather than cultural heritage.

Keywords: Cultural tourism, Agritourism, festival, sustainable cultural heritage

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4 The Development of Cultural Routes: The Case of Greece

Authors: Elissavet Kosta

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Introduction: In this research, we will propose the methodology, which is required for the planning of the cultural route in order to prepare substantiated proposals for the development and planning of cultural routes in Greece in the near future. Our research has started at 2016. Methodology in our research: Α combination of primary and secondary research will be used as project methodology. Furthermore, this study aims to follow a multidisciplinary approach, using dimensions of qualitative and quantitative data analysis models. Regarding the documentation of the theoretical part of the project, the method of secondary research will be mainly used, yet in combination with bibliographic sources. However, the data collection regarding the research topic will be conducted exclusively through primary research (questionnaires and interviews). Cultural Routes: The cultural route is defined as a brand name touristic product, that is a product of cultural tourism, which is shaped according to a specific connecting element. Given its potential, the cultural route is an important ‘tool’ for the management and development of cultural heritage. Currently, a constant development concerning the cultural routes is observed in an international level during the last decades, as it is widely accepted that cultural tourism has an important role in the world touristic industry. Cultural Routes in Greece: Especially for Greece, we believe, actions have not been taken to the systematic development of the cultural routes yet. The cultural routes that include Greece and have been design in a world scale as well as the cultural routes, which have been design in Greek ground up to this moment are initiations of the Council of Europe, World Tourism Organization UNWTO and ‘Diazoma’ association. Regarding the study of cultural routes in Greece as a multidimensional concept, the following concerns have arisen: Firstly, we are concerned about the general impact of cultural routes at local and national level and specifically in the economic sector. Moreover, we deal with the concerns regarding the natural environment and we delve into the educational aspect of cultural routes in Greece. In addition, the audience we aim at is both specific and broad and we put forward the institutional framework of the study. Finally, we conduct the development and planning of new cultural routes, having in mind the museums as both the starting and ending point of a route. Conclusion: The contribution of our work is twofold and lies firstly on the fact that we attempt to create cultural routes in Greece and secondly on the fact that an interdisciplinary approach is engaged towards realizing our study objective. In particular, our aim is to take advantage of all the ways in which the promotion of a cultural route can have a positive influence on the way of life of society. As a result, we intend to analyze how a cultural route can turn into a well-organized activity that can be used as social intervention to develop tourism, strengthen the economy and improve access to cultural goods in Greece during the economic crisis.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Cultural tourism, Greece, cultural routes

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3 Cultural Tourism in Mexico as a Strategy to Attract Chinese Tourists

Authors: Ruben Molina, Melissa Ochoa

Abstract:

The rapid expansion and facilities that the Chinese government has granted to its inhabitants to travel abroad has brought benefits to the economies of the countries where these tourists travel. Due to the great economic spill that these tourists make in their travels and the great potential they possess, they become one of the most attractive segments in the world, causing countries to seek to attract them for the profits. The Chinese tourist is a tourist who seeks to know the culture, culinary experiences, traditions and folklore of the place where they travel, more than seeking sun and beach. Mexico is a country that has a great mix of tourist products and services, which favors that the tourism offer focuses on the satisfaction of the needs and preferences of the different segments of international tourists who arrive in Mexico: sun and beach tourism and also cultural tourism. Mexico has 51 sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, of which 12 are natural, 37 are cultural and 2 are mixed. Despite the great tourist attraction of the country and the strategic importance of the sector for the economy, Mexico has not managed to have a large number of tourists or income from international tourism for 15 years. One way to increase the travel industry is to attract the Chinese tourist to Mexico, which is considered a priority by countries like the United States, France and Spain due to the advantages they entail. Therefore, this article will describe the tastes, preferences and habits of Chinese tourists coming to the most popular destinations in Mexico through a Likert scale and it will be described which are the most attractive cultural factors in Mexico for the Chinese tourists and will be proposing strategies of attraction for Mexico and its destinations.

Keywords: Strategic, Cultural tourism, Mexico, attraction, Chinese tourist

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2 Analyzing Strategic Alliances of Museums: The Case of Girona (Spain)

Authors: Raquel Camprubí

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Cultural tourism has been postulated as relevant motivation for tourist over the world during the last decades. In this context, museums are the main attraction for cultural tourists who are seeking to connect with the history and culture of the visited place. From the point of view of an urban destination, museums and other cultural resources are essential to have a strong tourist supply at the destination, in order to be capable of catching attention and interest of cultural tourists. In particular, museums’ challenge is to be prepared to offer the best experience to their visitors without to forget their mission-based mainly on protection of its collection and other social goals. Thus, museums individually want to be competitive and have good positioning to achieve their strategic goals. The life cycle of the destination and the level of maturity of its tourism product influence the need of tourism agents to cooperate and collaborate among them, in order to rejuvenate their product and become more competitive as a destination. Additionally, prior studies have considered an approach of different models of a public and private partnership, and collaborative and cooperative relations developed among the agents of a tourism destination. However, there are no studies that pay special attention to museums and the strategic alliances developed to obtain mutual benefits. Considering this background, the purpose of this study is to analyze in what extent museums of a given urban destination have established strategic links and relations among them, in order to improve their competitive position at both individual and destination level. In order to achieve the aim of this study, the city of Girona (Spain) and the museums located in this city are taken as a case study. Data collection was conducted using in-depth interviews, in order to collect all the qualitative data related to nature, strengthen and purpose of the relational ties established among the museums of the city or other relevant tourism agents of the city. To conduct data analysis, a Social Network Analysis (SNA) approach was taken using UCINET software. Position of the agents in the network and structure of the network was analyzed, and qualitative data from interviews were used to interpret SNA results. Finding reveals the existence of strong ties among some of the museums of the city, particularly to create and promote joint products. Nevertheless, there were detected outsiders who have an individual strategy, without collaboration and cooperation with other museums or agents of the city. Results also show that some relational ties have an institutional origin, while others are the result of a long process of cooperation with common projects. Conclusions put in evidence that collaboration and cooperation of museums had been positive to increase the attractiveness of the museum and the city as a cultural destination. Future research and managerial implications are also mentioned.

Keywords: Social Network Analysis, Competitiveness, Museums, Cultural tourism

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1 Significance of Preservation of Cultural Resources: A Case of Walled City of Lahore as a Micro-Destination

Authors: Menaahyl Seraj, Gokce Ozdemir

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Tourism at destinations is dependent on various resources such as archeology and architecture. The need to preserve those resources is of the utmost importance when long-term tourism development is aimed. Shahi Guzargah (Royal Trail) was subject to a preservation project that is a linear historical passage within the Walled City of Lahore. Even though Lahore with its congested streets, lacks proper infrastructure and economically weak but yet it has the potential of transforming it into a tourist destination. This study highlights the potential hidden in the preservation of cultural resources through proper and concrete planning of living heritage city, and how it improves socio-economic standards of the community and affects tourism. Semi-structured open-ended interview question-forms were used to collect qualitative data from 14 respective stakeholders of the walled city and 10 concerned officials. The results of the study show that the preservation of cultural resources impacts and accelerates positively the development process of a destination. All opinions and gathered information reflect the importance of cultural preservation and its effect on increasing tourism.

Keywords: Preservation, Cultural tourism, cultural resources, destination

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