Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Cultural Heritage Related Abstracts

46 Pilot Scale Production and Compatibility Criteria of New Self-Cleaning Materials

Authors: Jonjaua Ranogajec, Ognjen Rudic, Snezana Pasalic, Snezana Vucetic, Damir Cjepa

Abstract:

The paper involves a chain of activities from synthesis, establishment of the methodology for characterization and testing of novel protective materials through the pilot production and application on model supports. It summarizes the results regarding the development of the pilot production protocol for newly developed self-cleaning materials. The optimization of the production parameters was completed in order to improve the most important functional properties (mineralogy characteristics, particle size, self-cleaning properties and photocatalytic activity) of the newly designed nanocomposite material.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Compatibility, pilot production, self-cleaning materials

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45 Keypoints Extraction for Markerless Tracking in Augmented Reality Applications: A Case Study in Dar As-Saraya Museum

Authors: Mostafa Z. Ali, Jafar W. Al-Badarneh, Abdalkareem R. Al-Hawary, Abdulmalik M. Morghem, Rami S. Al-Gharaibeh

Abstract:

Archeological heritage is at the heart of each country’s national glory. Moreover, it could develop into a source of national income. Heritage management requires socially-responsible marketing that achieves high visitor satisfaction while maintaining high site conservation. We have developed an Augmented Reality (AR) experience for heritage and cultural reservation at Dar-As-Saraya museum in Jordan. Our application of this notion relied on markerless-based tracking approach. This approach uses keypoints extraction technique where features of the environment are identified and defined into the system as keypoints. A set of these keypoints forms a tracker for an augmented object to be displayed and overlaid with a real scene at Dar As-Saraya museum. We tested and compared several techniques for markerless tracking and then applied the best technique to complete a mosaic artifact with AR content. The successful results from our application open the door for applications in open archeological sites where markerless tracking is mostly needed.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Augmented Reality, keypoints extraction, virtual recreation

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44 Revolutions and Cyclic Patterns in Chinese Town Planning: The Case-Study of Shenzhen

Authors: Domenica Bona

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Colin Chant and David Goodman argue that historians of Chinese pre-industrial cities tend to underestimate revolutions and overestimate cyclic patterns: periods of peace and prosperity in the earl part of each d nast , followed b peasants’ rebellions and upheavals. Boyd described these cyclic patterns as part of the background of Chinese town planning and architecture. Thus old ideals of city planning-square plan, southward orientation and a palace along the central axis - are revived again and again in the ascendant phases of several d nastic c cles (e.g. Chang’an, Kaifen, and Beijing). Along this line of thought, m paper questions the relationship between the “magic square rule” and modern Chinese urban- planning. As a matter of fact, the classical theme of “cosmic Taoist urbanism” is still a reference for planning cities and new urban developments, whenever there is the intention to express nationalist ideals and “cultural straightforwardness.” Besides, some case studies can be related to “modern d nasties”: the first Republic under the Kuo Min Tang, the red People’s Republic and the post-Maoist open country of Deng Xiao Ping. Considering the project for the new capital of Nanjing in the Thirties, Beijing’s Tianan Men area in the ifties, and Shenzhen’s utian CBD in late 20th century, I argue that cyclic patterns are still in place, though with deformations related to westernization, private interests and lack of spirituality. How far new Chinese cities are - or simply seem to be - westernized? Symbolism, invisible frameworks, repeating features and behavioural patterns make urban China just “superficiall” western. This can be well noticed in cities previousl occupied b foreigners, like Hong Kong, or in newly founded ones, like Shenzhen, where both Asians and non-Asian people can feel the gender-shift from New-York-like landscapes to something else. Current planning in main metropolitan areas shows a blurred relationship between public policies and private investments: two levels of decisions and actions, one addressing the larger scale and infrastructures, the other concerning the micro scale and development of single plots. While zoning is instrumental in this process, master plans are often laid out over a very poor cartography, so much that any relation between the formal characters of new cities and the centuries-old structure of the related territory gets lost.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Cultural Heritage, China, contemporary cities, shenzhen

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43 Cultural Heritage, Manga, and Film: Japanese Tourism at Petit Trianon, Versailles

Authors: Denise C. I. Maior-Barron

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This conference presentation proposes to discuss the Japanese tourist perception of Marie Antoinette, at the heritage site which represents the home par excellence of the last Queen of France: Petit Trianon, Versailles. The underpinning analysis has a two-fold aim of firstly identifying the elements that contributed at the said perception and secondly of placing this in the wider context of tabi (travel) culture. The contribution of the presentation lies in its relevance to the analysis of postmodern trends of Japanese travel culture in relation to the consumption of European cultural heritage, through an insight into Japanese contemporary perception of heritage sites and their associated historical figures subject to controversy. Based upon the author’s doctoral studies field research at Petit Trianon - survey led in situ between 2010-2012, applied with the questionnaire method on a total of 307 respondents out of which 53 Japanese nationals - the media sources that were revealed to have had a direct influence on these nationals’ perception of Marie Antoinette, were Riyoko Ikeda’s shōjo manga La Rose de Versailles (1972) and Sofia Coppola’s film Marie-Antoinette (2006). The interpretation of the survey results through an assessment of visitor discourse determined the research methodology to be qualitative as opposed to quantitative, thus what confirmed the empirical hypothesis of the survey was a pattern of perception instead of percentages. Consequently, the interpretation focused on the answers to the questions relating to the image of Marie Antoinette in relation to historical knowledge, cultural background and last but not least media influences.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Film, manga, tabi

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42 Souk Waqif in Old Doha, Qatar: Cultural Heritage, Urban Regeneration, and Sustainability

Authors: Djamel Boussaa

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Cultural heritage and tourism have become during the last two decades dynamic areas of development in the world. The idea of heritage is crucial to the critical decision-making process as to how irreplaceable resources are to be utilized by people of the present or conserved for future generations in a fast changing world. In view of the importance of ‘heritage’ to the development of a tourist destination the emphasis on developing appropriate adaptive reuse strategies cannot be overemphasized. In October 1999, the 12th general assembly of the ICOMOS in Mexico stated, that in the context of sustainable development, two interrelated issues need urgent attention, cultural tourism and historic towns and cities. These two issues underscore the fact that historic resources are non-renewable, belonging to all of humanity. Without adequate adaptive reuse actions to ensure a sustainable future for these historic resources, may lead to their complete vanishing. The growth of tourism and its role in dispersing cultural heritage to everyone is developing rapidly. According to the World Tourism Organization, natural and cultural heritage resources are and will remain motivating factors for travel in the foreseeable future. According to the experts, people choose travel destinations where they can learn about traditional and distinct cultures in their historic context. The Qatar rich urban heritage is now being recognized as a valuable resource for future development. This paper discusses the role of cultural heritage and tourism in regenerating Souk Waqif, and consequently the city of Doha. Therefore, in order to use cultural heritage wisely, it will be necessary to position heritage as an essential element of sustainable development, giving particular attention to cultural heritage and tourism. The research methodology is based on an empirical survey of the situation, based on several visits, meetings and interviews with the local heritage players. The rehabilitation project initiated since 2004 will be examined and assessed. Therefore, there is potential to assess the situation and propose directions for a sustainable future to this historic landmark. Conservation for the sake of conservation appears to be an outdated concept. Many irreplaceable natural and cultural sites are being compromised because local authorities are not giving economic consideration to the value of rehabilitating such sites. The question to be raised here is 'How can cultural heritage be used wisely for tourism without compromising its social sustainability within the emerging global world?'

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Tourism, Economy, Social Sustainability, Regeneration

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41 The Effect of Ethnic and Boko Haram Insurgency in the Economic Development of Cultural Heritage and Tourism Industries in Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Juliana Abara, Dayo Keshi

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Through cultural heritage materials, nations witness significant boom in the world of art and tourism as well as attract foreign investors and tourists to the benefit of the regions and countries where they are located. There are notable heritage sites which record visits by tourists in their thousands annually. According to UNESCO the cultural heritage reflects the life of the community, its history and its identity. Its preservation helps to rebuild broken communities, re-establish their identities, and link their past with their present and future. During any form of conflict or war, a lot happen. People die, houses destroyed and every other thing in the society suffers. Wars and conflicts in various countries have claimed antiquities, heritage materials, contemporary Arts, Galleries, Museums, Archives and very important Monuments and Heritage sites. My Paper deals with the effects of insurgencies and conflicts on cultural heritage and tourism industries in Nigeria and how they can be protected and restored so as to yield the desirable economic gains. Preceding from the premise that conflict of any type puts our cultural heritage at risk; this paper also explores the practical challenges and opportunities available to us in the face of incessant ethnic and Boko Haram (western education is abomination) insurgents and their wanton destruction of lives and properties. There will be a review of relevant literature and documents on the effects of violence on heritage materials and tourism industries in Nigeria particularly and other parts of the world in generally .My paper also highlights the activities the National Council for Arts and Culture as well as other Cultural Agencies in Nigeria have employed to sensitize the stakeholders, the youth, the elderly, and the community at large on the need for peaceful co-existence so as to collectively strive to safeguard and secure our cultural heritage in the face of all these challenges for posterity and desirable economic gains.

Keywords: Challenges, Cultural Heritage, Tourism, Conflict, Insurgency

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40 Sense of Place in Historic City

Authors: Hiba Alkhalaf

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Historic cities and places of cultural significance is continuously under the pressure of economic development and social change that threaten its natural and cultural environment. The challenge here is to find a balance between preserving the cultural character while ensuring the socio-economic gains and continuity of its uniqueness. That is by sustaining the use, character, meaning and social interaction associated with the place, in other words the sense of place. The main argument here is what we attempt to conserve is the cultural physical and non-physical dimensions of the historic city. It is based on the proposition that what give the historic city its character is its strong sense of place- whether it is historic or current. When properly identified, its various dimensions (use, meaning and form) would help determine what to sustain and what not by making the development meaningfully related to the uniqueness of the historic place. Accordingly, those socio-economic features within the context of a changing historic environment needed to be clarified. This paper, thus, explores the various perspectives of the role of sense of place within the historic city and its connection to cultural heritage. It also reviews urban conservation practice as it is currently understood in the context of historic city development. It concludes that sense of place lies in complex interrelated relationships between various users of the place and the physical, economic, cultural, political, and environmental contexts in which they interact. This calls for the need to sustain the sense of place as part of the overall urban development and conservation strategies.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Urban development, Sense of place, historic urban areas

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39 Tourism and Urban Planning for Intermediate Cities: An Empirical Approach toward Cultural Heritage Conservation in Damavand, Iran

Authors: M. Elham Ghabouli

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Intermediate cities which also called medium size cities have an important role in the process of globalization. It is argued that, in some cases this type of cities may be depopulated or in otherwise may be transformed as the periphery of metropolitans so that the personal identity of the city and its local cultural heritage could suffer from its neighbor metropolitan. Over the last decades, the role of tourism in development process and the cultural heritage is increased. The effect of tourism in socio-economic growth makes motivation for study on tourism development in regional and urban planning process. Tourism potentially has a specific role in promoting sustainable development especially by its economic and socio-cultural effects. The positive role of tourism in local development and in cultural heritage should be empowered by urban and regional planning. Damavand is an intermediate city located in Tehran province, Iran. Considering its local specific characteristic like social structure, antiquities and natural monuments made a suitable case study for studying on urban tourism planning method. Focusing on recognition of historical and cultural heritage of Damavand, this paper tried to peruse cultural-historical heritage protecting issue through “base plan methodology” which is introduced as a first step of urban planning for intermediate cities.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Cultural Heritage, Tourism, intermediate cities

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38 Stemming the Decline of Cultural Festivals as a Way of Preserving the Nigerian Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Kuteb and Idoma Cultural Festivals

Authors: Inalegwu Stephany Akipu

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A cultural festival is characterized by feasting and celebration, with a day or period that has been set aside solely for this reason. Often expressed by an organized series of acts and performances, it forms a very important part of man’s cultural heritage. Nigeria is a country with many ethnic groups and diverse languages. Each of these ethnic groups has a plethora of festivals that depict their culture which is exhibited in many forms ranging from dancing to feasting and celebration. Being a very important aspect of man’s life, it is pertinent to document and optimally harness it. However, there is a significant decline of these practices in some areas in Nigeria while some areas have registered a total loss of same. It is the aim of this paper therefore, to appraise the factors responsible for this and also, to project ways of resuscitating these festivals which by the way are viable tools for revenue generation through tourism. Not only do festivals serve as a source of revenue, they also aid in national integration which in turn further enhances sustainable development. The interest of this paper will focus on the Kuteb people of Taraba State and the Idoma people of Benue State. The methodologies applied include primary (oral interviews) and secondary (consultation of written records on the subject matter) sources of data. It finally concludes by comparing the approaches that are in use by the ethnic groups in Nigeria who have successfully preserved this aspect their culture and suggestions are made as to how to apply same approaches to these two communities that form the subject of this paper.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Cultural Heritage, Nigeria, festival, national integration

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37 The Implication of Disaster Risk Identification to Cultural Heritage-The Scenarios of Flood Risk in Taiwan

Authors: Jieh-Jiuh Wang

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Disasters happen frequently due to the global climate changes today. The cultural heritage conservation should be considered from the perspectives of surrounding environments and large-scale disasters. Most current thoughts about the disaster prevention of cultural heritages in Taiwan are single-point thoughts emphasizing firefighting, decay prevention, and construction reinforcement and ignoring the whole concept of the environment. The traditional conservation cannot defend against more and more tremendous and frequent natural disasters caused by climate changes. More and more cultural heritages are confronting the high risk of disasters. This study adopts the perspective of risk identification and takes flood as the main disaster category. It analyzes the amount and categories of cultural heritages that might suffer from disasters with the geographic information system integrating the latest flooding potential data from National Fire Agency and Water Resources Agency and the basic data of cultural heritages. It examines the actual risk of cultural heritages confronting floods and serves as the accordance for future considerations of risk measures and preparation for reducing disasters. The result of the study finds the positive relationship between the disaster affected situation of national cultural heritages and the rainfall intensity. The order of impacted level by floods is historical buildings, historical sites indicated by municipalities and counties, and national historical sites and relics. However, traditional settlements and cultural landscapes are not impacted. It might be related to the taboo space in the traditional culture of site selection (concepts of disaster avoidance). As for the regional distribution on the other hand, cultural heritages in central and northern Taiwan suffer from more shocking floods, while the heritages in northern and eastern Taiwan suffer from more serious flooding depth.

Keywords: Risk management, Cultural Heritage, Flood, Preventive Conservation

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36 RF Plasma Discharge Equipment for Conservation Treatments of Paper Supports

Authors: Emil Ghiocel Ioanid, Viorica Frunză, Dorina Rusu, Ana Maria Vlad, Catalin Tanase, Simona Dunca

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The application of cold radio-frequency (RF) plasma in the conservation of cultural heritage became important in the last decades due to the positive results obtained in decontamination treatments. This paper presents an equipment especially designed for RF cold plasma application on paper documents, developed within a research project. The equipment allows the application of decontamination and cleaning treatments on any type of paper support, as well as the coating with a protective polymer. The equipment consists in a Pyrex vessel, inside which are placed two plane-parallel electrodes, capacitively coupled to a radio-frequency generator. The operating parameters of the equipment are: 1.2 MHz frequency, 50V/cm electric field intensity, current intensity in the discharge 100 mA, 40 W power in the discharge, the pressure varying from 5∙10-1 mbar to 5.5∙10-1 mbar, depending on the fragility of the material, operating in gaseous nitrogen. In order to optimize the equipment treatments in nitrogen plasma have been performed on samples infested with microorganisms, then the decontamination and the changes in surface properties (color, pH) were assessed. The analyses results presented in the table revealed only minor modifications of surface pH the colorimetric analysis showing a slight change to yellow. The equipment offers the possibility of performing decontamination, cleaning and protective coating of paper-based documents in successive stages, thus avoiding the recontamination with harmful biological agents.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, nitrogen plasma, paper support, radio-frequency

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35 Value from Environmental and Cultural Perspectives or Two Sides of the Same Coin

Authors: Vilém Pařil, Dominika Tóthová

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This paper discusses the value theory in cultural heritage and the value theory in environmental economics. Two economic views of the value theory are compared within the field of cultural heritage maintenance and within the field of the environment. The main aims are to find common features in these two differently structured theories under the layer of differently defined terms as well as really differing features of these two approaches, to clear the confusion which stems from different terminology as in fact these terms capture the same aspects of reality and to show possible inspiration these two perspectives can offer one another. Another aim is to present these two value systems in one value framework. First, important moments of the value theory from the economic perspective are presented, leading to the marginal revolution of (not only) the Austrian School. Then the theory of value within cultural heritage and environmental economics are explored. Finally, individual approaches are compared and their potential mutual inspiration searched for.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Environmental economics, Value Theory, existence value

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34 An Examination of Thai Tourists' Motivation Behavior and Perception of Cultural Heritage in Chiang Mai Province

Authors: Sujui Yang, Peeraya Somsak, Markus Blut

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This research examines the international tourists in Chiang Mai, Thailand. It aims to study non-Thai tourists’ of this region to better understand their behavior and motives influencing the choice of cultural heritage tourists in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The data includes questionnaires of 250 tourists in the study area. The most important motives influencing decisions choices are several concerning customers’ perspectives on tourist destinations in cultural heritage in Chiang Mai province. Thai tourists in Chiang Mai are single, 72.5 percent are in the age of 21-40 years old and 50% of sample group are from central and northern of Thailand. Tourists’ motives capture the factor loading as well as the corresponding show 5 components: relaxation motives, place/ physical motives, learning motives, image motives, and achievement motives.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, tourists motives, Chiang Mai, customers’ perspectives

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33 Management of Cultural Heritage: Bologna Gates

Authors: Alfonso Ippolito, Cristiana Bartolomei

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A growing demand is felt today for realistic 3D models enabling the cognition and popularization of historical-artistic heritage. Evaluation and preservation of Cultural Heritage is inextricably connected with the innovative processes of gaining, managing, and using knowledge. The development and perfecting of techniques for acquiring and elaborating photorealistic 3D models, made them pivotal elements for popularizing information of objects on the scale of architectonic structures.

Keywords: Databases, Cultural Heritage, non-contact survey

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32 The Emotional Experience of Urban Ruins and the Exploration of Urban Memory

Authors: Yan Jia China

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The ruins is a kind of historical intention, which is also the current real existence of developing city. Zen culture of ancient China has a profound esthetic emotion, similarly, the west establish the concept of aesthetics of relic along with the Romanism’s (such as Rousseau etc.) sentiment to historical ruins at the end of 18th century. Nowadays, with the decline of traditional industrial society as well as the rise of post-industrial age, contemporary society must face the ruins and garbage problem which is left by industrial society. Commencing from the perspective of emotion and memory, this paper analyzes the importance for emotional needs as well as their existing status of several projects, such as the Capital Steelworks in Beijing (industrial devastation), the Shibati old section in Chongqing (urban slums) and the Old Hurva Synagogue in Jerusalem (ruins of war). It emphasizes urban design which is started from emotion and the sustainable development of city memory through managing the urban ruins which is criticized by people with the perspective of ecology and art.

Keywords: Ecology, Cultural Heritage, emotion, urban ruins, sustainable urban memory

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31 The Analysis of the Role of Handicrafts in Consolidating Iran National Identity

Authors: Nadia Pourabbas Tahvildari

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National identity is formed in the process of time and in the community while influenced by the historical events. The country which has a more coherent national and historical identity would be successful as well as strengthening solidarity and social cohesion. Among the international community where the various likes challenge the subject of identity, taking into consideration the components which using identity seems to be very critical. Handicrafts as reflecting the historical and cultural characteristics of the product location can be used as an important component in order to introduce the culture and identity to be evaluated. As one of the most durable crafts for man, handicrafts have played a continuous role in sustaining human culture. Today without the presence of handicrafts, restoration of culture and national identity and religious beliefs of the past clans and people, is not only difficult but is even impossible also. Due to its brilliant historical experience and having rich culture and civilization, Iran has accomplished to the high competence in the field of traditional arts and handicrafts. This article is a scientific approach which by using descriptive – analytic method based on library studies tried to address the issue of handicrafts looking to examine the position of the industry to consolidate the national identity. Studies indicate that Iran as one of the original human habitats in the field of handicrafts has adequate enrichment and in case there will be an appropriate planning and investment away from oil-based industry, it would be beneficent. Furthermore, the quality and variety of handicrafts can be used as an essential yardstick for the consolidation of Iran national identity in the age of globalization.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts, Globalization, Iran national identity

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30 Cultural Heritage Resources for Tourism, Two Countries – Two Approaches: A Comparative Analysis of Cultural Tourism Products in Turkey and Austria

Authors: Irfan Arikan, George Christian Steckenbauer

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Turkey and Austria are examples for highly developed tourism destinations, where tourism providers use cultural heritage and regional natural resources to develop modern tourism products in order to be successful on increasingly competitive international tourism markets. The use and exploitation of these resources follow on the one hand international standards of tourism marketing (as ‘sustainability’). Therefore, we find highly comparable internationalized products in these destinations (like hotel products, museums, spas etc.). On the other hand, development standards and processes strongly depend on local, regional and national cultures, which influence the way how people work, cooperate, think and create. Thus, cultural factors also influence the attitude towards cultural heritage and natural resources and the way, how these resources are used for the creation of tourism products. This leads to differences in the development of tourism products on several levels: 1. In the selection of cultural heritage and natural resources for the product development process 2. In the processes, how tourism products are created 3. In the way, how providers and marketing organisations work with tourism products based on cultural heritage or natural resources. Aim of this paper is to discover differences in these dimensions by analysing and comparing examples of tourism products in Turkey and Austria, both countries with a highly developed, high professional tourism industry and rich experience of stakeholders in tourism industry in the field of product development and marketing. The cases are selected from the following fields: + Cultural tourism / heritage tourism + City tourism + Industrial heritage tourism + Nature and outdoor tourism + Health tourism The cases are analysed based on available secondary data (as several cases are scientifically described) and expert interviews with local and regional stakeholders of tourism industry and tourism experts. The available primary and secondary data will be analysed and displayed in a comparative structure that allows to derive answers to the above stated research question. The result of the project therefore will be a more precise picture about the influence of cultural differences on the use and exploitation of resources in the field of tourism that allows developing recommendations for tourism industry, which must be taken into consideration to assure cultural and natural resources are treated in a sustainable and responsible way. The authors will edit these culture-cross recommendations in form of a ‘check-list’ that can be used as a ‘guideline’ for tourism professionals in the field of product development and marketing and therefore connects theoretical research to the field of practical application and closes the gap between academic research and the field of tourism practice.

Keywords: Natural Resources, Turkey, Cultural Heritage, Austria

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29 The Impact of Technology on Cultural Heritage among Preschool Children

Authors: Adenike Akinrotimi

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Globally, education has been identified as vital tool for any form of development for any society (community); be it economic, social, political and cultural development. It is the determinant level of prosperity, welfare, security and sustenance of the people of a particular community. Education could be formal, informal and non-formal. Cultural development of an individual and of the community as it were is a lifelong process, where individual learns from daily experiences, exposure to the environment at home, at work, at play and it enriches human and environmental potentials. This type of education can be referred to as cultural heritage. It is built on learner participation and assimilation. Preschool programme also referred to as Early Childhood Education is critical to holistic development of a child cultural development inclusive. This paper examines the impact that technology has on cultural heritage among preschool children.

Keywords: Education, Cultural Heritage, Technology, Pre-school

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28 Optimizing Protection of Medieval Glass Mosaic

Authors: J. Valach, S. Pospisil, S. Kuznecov

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The paper deals with experimental estimation of future environmental load on medieval mosaic of Last Judgement on entrance to St. Vitus cathedral on Prague castle. The mosaic suffers from seasonal changes of weather pattern, as well as rains, their acidity, deposition of dust and sooth particles from polluted air and also from freeze-thaw cycles. These phenomena influence state of the mosaic. The mosaic elements, tesserae are mostly made from glass prone to weathering. To estimate future procedure of the best maintenance, relation between various weather scenarios and their effect on the mosaic was investigated. At the same time local method for evaluation of protective coating was developed. Together both methods will contribute to better care for the mosaic and also visitors aesthetical experience.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Protection, Environmental Load, glass mosaic

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27 Revisiting the Historical Narratives of the Old Churches in Albay, Bikol Region, Philippines

Authors: Ruby Ann L. Ayo

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As cultural heritage reflects the historical origin of a certain group of people, it reveals their customs, traits, beliefs, practices and even values they hold on for years. One of the tangible examples of cultural heritage is the physical structures including the old churches. The study looked-into the existing historical narratives of the century Old Catholic churches in the Province of Albay, Bikol Region, Philippines: NuestraSeñora de Salvacion in Joroan, Tiwi, Albay; the Our Lady of the Gate in Daraga, Albay; the San Juan de Bautista in Tabaco City and the St. John the Baptist in Camalig, Albay. The historical narratives were analysed in terms of validity and reliability of the secondary documents with reference to the elements of history revealing consistency and adequacy of historical facts. The contents were examined using a modified Checklist of Historical Documents. The historical narratives were likewise submitted to the content expert for validation as regards historical authenticity and accuracy. The contents of the narratives were scrutinized according to the following codes: (1.1) the Patron Saints;(1.2) factors that paved to their constructions; (1.3) the people responsible for their constructions; (1.4) the misconceptions about their constructions; and (1.5) their contributions to Bikol heritage. Based on the codes, themes were identified as: (2.1) Marian Devotees and Christ-centered Patron Saints; (2.2) geographical, socio-political and cultural factors; (2.3) church and government officials; (2.4) misconceptions on the dates of constructions and original sites; and (2.5) popular pilgrim sites and well-admired architectural designs.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, historical narratives, old churches, historical validity and reliability, elements of history

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26 Applying Audience Development Programs in Museums for Raising Community Awareness towards Cultural Heritage Preservation: A Case Study of Alexandria National Museum

Authors: Samar F. Elkasrawy

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Museums play a significant role in their communities with respect to culture, history, environment, and social development. They are considered as important sites for families, tourists, school groups, cultural visitors and individuals, looking to enjoy, learn and expand their horizons. Aim of audience development programs is to support individuals and organizations to work together to deliver messages that will raise museums' profile for both existing and potential visitors. They recognize the particular role that museums play for communities, the audiences they seek to reach, the experience they seek to offer and the extent and nature of their collections. This study aims at using both the qualitative and quantitative approach to explore the important role that audience development programs in museums can play in raising awareness in their communities concerning cultural heritage preservation and tourism. The Alexandria National Museum is considered as a valuable case study. In depth interviews with museum managers and staff was conducted as well as an online questionnaire. The study also includes suggestions and guidelines for applying audience development programs in Egyptian museums.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Alexandria National Museum, audience development programs, tourism and preservation awareness

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25 Revival of Ancient Egyptian Food Habits: Preserving the Past and Living the Present

Authors: Dina M. Ezz El-Din

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A variety of sources on Ancient Egypt provides us with knowledge about its agricultural and eating habits. This wealth of information testifies that the ancient Egyptians disposed of a wide variety of food choices. Egyptian agricultural diet was complemented by livestock breeding (Cows, sheep, geese, ducks, quail, pigeons, pelicans, etc). Moreover, the ancient Egyptians planted and harvested large amounts of cereals and vegetables (onions, leeks, lettuces, garlic). They had a varied and well-balanced diet throughout their history. Like in modern times, their eating habits not only changed from one region to the other, but also these also differed according to social classes. The present research is a descriptive-analytical study that tackles eating habits and culinary experience of the ancient Egyptians in an attempt to revive and preserve Egyptians’ food heritage. It focuses on different meals that were prepared and consumed in different occasions, and the habits that can be traced in Egypt in modern times. It also suggests means of bringing to life the ancient Egyptians’ food experience through restaurants and other tourism activities.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, eating habits, ancient Egyptian food, preserving food traditions

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24 Augmented Reality and Storytelling in Cities: An Application to Lisbon Street Art

Authors: Francisco Guimaraes, Mauro Figueiredo, José Rodrigues

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Cities are spaces of memory with several zones (parts of cities) with their own history and cultural events. Today, cities are also marked by a form of intangible cultural heritage like street art, which creates a visual culture based on the process of reflection about the city and the world. To link these realities and create a personal user interaction with this cultural heritage it is important to capture the story and aesthetics, and find alternatives to immerse the user in these spaces of memory. To that end, this article presents a project which combines Augmented Reality technologies and concepts of Transmedia Storytelling applied to Lisbon City, using Street Art artifacts as markers in a framework of digital media-art.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Augmented Reality, street art, transmedia storytelling, digital media-art

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23 3D Point Cloud Model Color Adjustment by Combining Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Close Range Photogrammetry Datasets

Authors: M. Pepe, S. Ackermann, L. Fregonese, C. Achille

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3D models obtained with advanced survey techniques such as close-range photogrammetry and laser scanner are nowadays particularly appreciated in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology fields. In order to produce high quality models representing archaeological evidences and anthropological artifacts, the appearance of the model (i.e. color) beyond the geometric accuracy, is not a negligible aspect. The integration of the close-range photogrammetry survey techniques with the laser scanner is still a topic of study and research. By combining point cloud data sets of the same object generated with both technologies, or with the same technology but registered in different moment and/or natural light condition, could construct a final point cloud with accentuated color dissimilarities. In this paper, a methodology to uniform the different data sets, to improve the chromatic quality and to highlight further details by balancing the point color will be presented.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Photogrammetry, color models, laser scanner

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22 Geospatial Technologies in Support of Civic Engagement and Cultural Heritage: Lessons Learned from Three Participatory Planning Workshops for Involving Local Communities in the Development of Sustainable Tourism Practices in Latiano, Brindisi

Authors: Mark Opmeer

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The fruitful relationship between cultural heritage and digital technology is evident. Due to the development of user-friendly software, an increasing amount of heritage scholars use ict for their research activities. As a result, the implementation of information technology for heritage planning has become a research objective in itself. During the last decades, we have witnessed a growing debate and literature about the importance of computer technologies for the field of cultural heritage and ecotourism. Indeed, implementing digital technology in support of these domains can be very fruitful for one’s research practice. However, due to the rapid development of new software scholars may find it challenging to use these innovations in an appropriate way. As such, this contribution seeks to explore the interplay between geospatial technologies (geo-ict), civic engagement and cultural heritage and tourism. In this article, we discuss our findings on the use of geo-ict in support of civic participation, cultural heritage and sustainable tourism development in the southern Italian district of Brindisi. In the city of Latiano, three workshops were organized that involved local members of the community to distinguish and discuss interesting points of interests (POI’s) which represent the cultural significance and identity of the area. During the first workshop, a so called mappa della comunità was created on a touch table with collaborative mapping software, that allowed the participators to highlight potential destinations for tourist purposes. Furthermore, two heritage-based itineraries along a selection of identified POI’s was created to make the region attractive for recreants and tourists. These heritage-based itineraries reflect the communities’ ideas about the cultural identity of the region. Both trails were subsequently implemented in a dedicated mobile application (app) and was evaluated using a mixed-method approach with the members of the community during the second workshop. In the final workshop, the findings of the collaboration, the heritage trails and the app was evaluated with all participants. Based on our conclusions, we argue that geospatial technologies have a significant potential for involving local communities in heritage planning and tourism development. The participants of the workshops found it increasingly engaging to share their ideas and knowledge using the digital map of the touch table. Secondly, the use of a mobile application as instrument to test the heritage-based itineraries in the field was broadly considered as fun and beneficial for enhancing community awareness and participation in local heritage. The app furthermore stimulated the communities’ awareness of the added value of geospatial technologies for sustainable tourism development in the area. We conclude this article with a number of recommendations in order to provide a best practice for organizing heritage workshops with similar objectives.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Tourism Development, civic engagement, Geospatial Technologies

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21 Virtual and Augmented Reality Based Heritage Gamification: Basilica of Smyrna in Turkey

Authors: Tugba Saricaoglu

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This study argues about the potential representation and interpretation of Basilica of Smyrna through gamification. Representation can be defined as a key which plays a role as a converter in order to provide interpretation of something according to the person who perceives. Representation of cultural heritage is a hypothetical and factual approach in terms of its sustainable conservation. Today, both site interpreters and public of cultural heritage have varying perspectives due to their different demographic, social, and even cultural backgrounds. Additionally, gamification application offers diversion of methods suchlike video games to improve user perspective of non-game platforms, contexts, and issues. Hence, cultural heritage and video game decided to be analyzed. Moreover, there are basically different ways of representation of cultural heritage such as digital, physical, and virtual methods in terms of conservation. Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technologies are two of the contemporary digital methods of heritage conservation. In this study, 3D documented ruins of the Basilica will be presented in the virtual and augmented reality based technology as a theoretical gamification sample. Also, this paper will focus on two sub-topics: First, evaluation of the video-game platforms applied to cultural heritage sites, and second, potentials of cultural heritage to be represented in video game platforms. The former will cover the analysis of some case(s) with regard to the concepts and representational aspects of cultural heritage. The latter will include the investigation of cultural heritage sites which carry such a potential and their sustainable conversation. Consequently, after mutual collection of information from cultural heritage and video game platforms, a perspective will be provided in terms of interpretation of representation of cultural heritage by sampling that on Basilica of Smyrna by using VR and AR based technologies.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Digital Heritage, Gamification, Basilica of Smyrna

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20 Study and Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritages with the Use of Laser Scanner and Processing System for 3D Modeling Spatial Data

Authors: Julia Desiree Velastegui Caceres, Luis Alejandro Velastegui Caceres, Oswaldo Padilla, Eduardo Kirby, Francisco Guerrero, Theofilos Toulkeridis

Abstract:

It is fundamental to conserve sites of natural and cultural heritage with any available technique or existing methodology of preservation in order to sustain them for the following generations. We propose a further skill to protect the actual view of such sites, in which with high technology instrumentation we are able to digitally preserve natural and cultural heritages applied in Ecuador. In this project the use of laser technology is presented for three-dimensional models, with high accuracy in a relatively short period of time. In Ecuador so far, there are not any records on the use and processing of data obtained by this new technological trend. The importance of the project is the description of the methodology of the laser scanner system using the Faro Laser Scanner Focus 3D 120, the method for 3D modeling of geospatial data and the development of virtual environments in the areas of Cultural and Natural Heritage. In order to inform users this trend in technology in which three-dimensional models are generated, the use of such tools has been developed to be able to be displayed in all kinds of digitally formats. The results of the obtained 3D models allows to demonstrate that this technology is extremely useful in these areas, but also indicating that each data campaign needs an individual slightly different proceeding starting with the data capture and processing to obtain finally the chosen virtual environments.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Natural Heritage, laser scanner system

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19 Aitys as the Kazakh Traditional Music Genre in the Sense of Cognitive Musicology

Authors: Samal Abzhanova, Indira Makhazhan, Azamat Taigarayev, Perizat Yerlan, Batyrbay Gulbike

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Aitys is a competitional performance of two or more poets creating instantly the lyrics of music concerning the social issues accompanied with the traditional instrument dombra. It is an unique music genre, because it is not practical to create music and lyrics spontaneous in anywhere else. This research study tends to approach to this particular music genre Aitys and identify its significance not only in the sense of the Kazakh cultural heritage, but also from the perspective of personal development as the improvisational , oratory, public performance skills within the ability to think critically over the social problems and represent them in convenient to public form. Through conducting this research, this paper aims to reveal the importance and beneficence of aitys in terms of both prevalence of cultural heritage and its function in personal development of the singer. In order to answer to the research question, we conducted a survey and an in-depth interview with the students of Nazarbayev University. In the survey it was asked to answer the general questions about aitys and its importance, whereas in the interview part, we asked their opinion on the importance of aitys in improving the personal skills. The results of findings was more surprising than it was expected. They agreed that the aitys lessons, workshops and concerts have high outcomes in terms improvements of improvisational, oratory, and leadership skills. Students of NU as a representors of young generation have shown a great interest in aitys, and even more interested in the topics/social issues, where the poets have to defend their usually controversial position. To conclude, the research study has focused on the importance of the aitys in personal development of different leadership skills. The given research lead us to think about the aitys as a part of cognitive musicology, where within the learning of music it represents the process of cognition as well.

Keywords: Musicology, Cultural Heritage, Personal Development, kazakh language, aitys

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18 Determination of Weathering at Kilistra Ancient City by Using Non-Destructive Techniques, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: İsmail İnce, Osman Günaydin, Fatma Özer

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Stones used in the construction of historical structures are exposed to various direct or indirect atmospheric effects depending on climatic conditions. Building stones deteriorate partially or fully as a result of this exposure. The historic structures are important symbols of any cultural heritage. Therefore, it is important to protect and restore these historical structures. The aim of this study is to determine the weathering conditions at the Kilistra ancient city. It is located in the southwest of the Konya city, Central Anatolia, and was built by carving into pyroclastic rocks during the Byzantine Era. For this purpose, the petrographic and mechanical properties of the pyroclastic rocks were determined. In the assessment of weathering of structures in the ancient city, in-situ non-destructive testing (i.e., Schmidt hardness rebound value, relative humidity measurement) methods were applied.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Weathering, Kilistra ancient city, non-destructive techniques

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17 The Folksongs of Jharkhand: An Intangible Cultural Heritage of Tribal India

Authors: Walter Beck

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Jharkhand is newly constituted 28th State in the eastern part of India which is known for the oldest settlement of the indigenous people. In the State of Jharkhand in which broadly three language family are found namely, Austric, Dravidian, and Indo-European. Ex-Mundari, kharia, Ho Santali come from the Austric Language family. Kurukh, Malto under Dravidian language family and Nagpuri Khorta etc. under Indo-European language family. There are 32 Indigenous Communities identified as Scheduled Tribe in the State of Jharkhand. Santhal, Munda, Kahria, Ho and Oraons are some of the major Tribe of the Jharkhand state. Jharkhand has a Rich Cultural heritage which includes Folk art, folklore, Folk Dance, Folk Music, Folk Songs for which diversity can been seen from place to place, season to season and all traditional Culture and practices. The languages as well as the songs are vulnerable to dominant culture and hence needed to be protected. The collection and documentation of these songs in their natural setting adds significant contribution to the conservation and propagation of the cultural elements. This paper reflects to bring out the Originality of the Collected Songs from remote areas of the plateau of Sothern Jharkhand as a rich intangible Cultural heritage of the Country. The research was done through participatory observation. In this research project more than 100 songs which were never documented before.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Languages, India, indigenous people, songs

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