Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Cultural Context Related Abstracts

3 Understanding Jordanian Women's Values and Beliefs Related to Prevention and Early Detection of Breast Cancer

Authors: Khlood F. Salman, Richard Zoucha, Hani Nawafleh


Introduction: Jordan ranks the fourth highest breast cancer prevalence after Lebanon, Bahrain, and Kuwait. Considerable evidence showed that cultural, ethnic, and economic differences influence a woman’s practice to early detection and prevention of breast cancer. Objectives: To understand women’s health beliefs and values in relation to early detection of breast cancer; and to explore the impact of these beliefs on their decisions regarding reluctance or acceptance of early detection measures such as mammogram screening. Design: A qualitative focused ethnography was used to collect data for this study. Settings: The study was conducted in the second largest city surrounded by a large rural area in Ma’an- Jordan. Participants: A total of twenty seven women, with no history of breast cancer, between the ages of 18 and older, who had prior health experience with health providers, and were willing to share elements of personal health beliefs related to breast health within the larger cultural context. The participants were recruited using the snowball method and words of mouth. Data collection and analysis: A short questionnaire was designed to collect data related to socio demographic status (SDQ) from all participants. A Semi-structured interviews guide was used to elicit data through interviews with the informants. Nvivo10 a data manager was utilized to assist with data analysis. Leininger’s four phases of qualitative data analysis was used as a guide for the data analysis. The phases used to analyze the data included: 1) Collecting and documenting raw data, 2) Identifying of descriptors and categories according to the domains of inquiry and research questions. Emic and etic data is coded for similarities and differences, 3) Identifying patterns and contextual analysis, discover saturation of ideas and recurrent patterns, and 4) Identifying themes and theoretical formulations and recommendations. Findings: Three major themes were emerged within the cultural and religious context; 1. Fear, denial, embarrassment and lack of knowledge were common perceptions of Ma’anis’ women regarding breast health and screening mammography, 2. Health care professionals in Jordan were not quick to offer information and education about breast cancer and screening, and 3. Willingness to learn about breast health and cancer prevention. Conclusion: The study indicated the disparities between the infrastructure and resourcing in rural and urban areas of Jordan, knowledge deficit related to breast cancer, and lack of education about breast health may impact women’s decision to go for a mammogram screening. Cultural beliefs, fear, embarrassments as well as providers lack of focus on breast health were significant contributors against practicing breast health. Health providers and policy makers should provide resources for the establishment health education programs regarding breast cancer early detection and mammography screening. Nurses should play a major role in delivering health education about breast health in general and breast cancer in particular. A culturally appropriate health awareness messages can be used in creating educational programs which can be employed at the national levels.

Keywords: beliefs, ethnography, Cultural Context, breast health, mammogram screening

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2 The Impact of Building Technologies on Local Identity of Urban Settlements

Authors: Eman Nagi Gowid Selim


Nowadays, the relevance of places to people has been questioned from different perspectives. This is attributed to the fact that many international concrete blocks were used to create multi-use public spaces in neighborhoods based on the techniques of mass-productions concepts that became one of the most effective ways in building construction, replacing the local and traditional built environment. During the last decades, the world has become increasingly globalized and citizen more mobilized, and thus, ignoring the social and environmental dimensions of the local identity. The main enquiries of the research are “How did building technologies affect urban settlement’s identity?” and “What are the impacts of technologies and globalization on local identities in urban spaces? “From this perspective, the research presents firstly, a historical review that shows how old civilizations enhance their local identities using the newly discovered building materials in each era in different urban settlement and fabrics without losing the identity. The second part of the research highlights the different approaches of building technologies and urban design to present a clear understanding of ways of applying and merging between different methodologies to achieve the most efficient urban space design. The third part aims at analyzing some international and national case studies where the form and structure of particular spaces are vital to identifying the morphological elements of urban settlements and the links existing between them. In addition, it determines how the building materials are used to enrich the vocabulary of the local identity. This part ends with the deduction of the guidelines for the integration of the environmental and social dimensions within the building technologies` approaches to enhance the sustainability of local identities and thus, ending up with redefining "Urban Identity" to guide future research in such cultural areas. Finally, the research uses the comparative methodology for applying the deduced guidelines on a national case study namely “Othman`s Towers” in corniche El Maadi, and then ends up by some results in the form of strategies for future researcher, that identifies how to ensure local identity in urban settlements using new building materials and technologies to achieve social and environmental comfort within the cultural areas.

Keywords: Cultural Context, Building Technologies, Urban Spaces, participatory design, environmental approach, social dimension

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1 Reader Reception of Cultural Context for Chinese Translation of Scientific and Technical Discourse: An Empirical Study

Authors: Caiwen Wang, Yuling Liu


Scientific and technical discourse is non-literary, and so it is often regarded as merely informative, free of the cultural context of both the source and the target language. Thus it is supposed that translators of sci-tech texts do not need to consider cultural factors in the translation process as readers only care for the information conveyed. This paper takes a different standpoint and shows that cultural context plays an important part in scientific and technical texts and thereafter in bridging the gap between different cultural communities of readers. The paper argues that the common cultural context for members of the same cultural community, such as morals, customs, and values, also underpins the sci-tech discourse of various text types, and therefore may pose difficulties for readers of a different cultural community if this is re-presented or translated literally. The research hypothesises that depending on how it is re-presented or translated; cultural context can either encourage or discourage readers’ reading experience and subsequently their interest to read and use translation texts. Drawing upon the Reception Theory by Hans Robert Jauss, the research investigates the relationship between cultural context and scientific and technical translation from English to Chinese. Citing 55 examples of sci-tech translations from magazines, newspapers and the website of Shell, a major international oil and gas company, the research shows that the source texts for these 55 cases all have bearing on the source cultural context, and translators will need to address this in the translation process instead of doing literal translation to be merely correct. The research then interviews 15 research subjects for their views of the translations. By assessing readers’ reception and perception of translated Chinese sci-tech discourse, the research concludes that cultural context contributes to the quality of scientific and technical translation in an important way and then discusses the implications of the findings for training scientific and technical translators.

Keywords: Reception Theory, Cultural Context, Chinese translation, scientific and technical texts

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