Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

CSR Related Abstracts

27 Corporate Socially Responsible and Financial Performance in the Tourism-Related Industries

Authors: Yu Shan Wang

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Different from other industries, the structure of the tourism industry depends to a large degree the environmental and cultural resources. The industry has to undertake social responsibilities for its commercial behaviour. This paper refers to the seven dimensions of the KLD STATS in 1991-2011 as the indicator to CSR practices. The purpose is to investigate what CSR activities create significant impacts on accounting-based financials and firm values by delving into different CSR dimensions. Meanwhile, this paper takes into consideration S&P 500 and control variables (firm sizes and financial leverage). In fact, the commercial behavior of the tourism-related industry may result in negative impacts on the economy and the society. Therefore, this paper classifies a positive set of CSR elements and a negative set of CSR elements for the tourism-related industry in order to examine their respective effects on short-term profitability and long-term firm values. This can shed light on which CSR dimensions exhibit significant impacts on CFP better than holistic CSR indicators, and hence provide more useful information to investors and corporates. This paper uses quantile regressions to avoid the impact of outliers in the data set. This helps to offer specific information so that companies can make informed decisions.

Keywords: Tourism, Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, firm value, corporate financial performance, CFP

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26 Varieties of Capitalism and Small Business CSR: A Comparative Overview

Authors: Stéphanie Looser, Walter Wehrmeyer

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Given the limited research on Small and Mediumsized Enterprises’ (SMEs) contribution to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and even scarcer research on Swiss SMEs, this paper helps to fill these gaps by enabling the identification of supranational SME parameters and to make a contribution to the evolving field of these topics. Thus, the paper investigates the current state of SME practices in Switzerland and across 15 other countries. Combining the degree to which SMEs demonstrate an explicit (or business case) approach or see CSR as an implicit moral activity with the assessment of their attributes for “variety of capitalism” defines the framework of this comparative analysis. According to previous studies, liberal market economies, e.g. in the United States (US) or United Kingdom (UK), are aligned with extrinsic CSR, while coordinated market systems (in Central European or Asian countries) evolve implicit CSR agendas. To outline Swiss small business CSR patterns in particular, 40 SME owner-managers were interviewed. The transcribed interviews were coded utilising MAXQDA for qualitative content analysis. A secondary data analysis of results from different countries (i.e., Australia, Austria, Chile, Cameroon, Catalonia (notably a part of Spain that seeks autonomy), China, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong (a special administrative region of China), Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan, UK, US) lays groundwork for this comparative study on small business CSR. Applying the same coding categories (in MAXQDA) for the interview analysis as well as for the secondary data research while following grounded theory rules to refine and keep track of ideas generated testable hypotheses and comparative power on implicit (and the lower likelihood of explicit) CSR in SMEs retrospectively. The paper identifies Swiss small business CSR as deep, profound, “soul”, and an implicit part of the day-to-day business. Similar to most Central European, Mediterranean, Nordic, and Asian countries, explicit CSR is still very rare in Swiss SMEs. Astonishingly, also UK and US SMEs follow this pattern in spite of their strong and distinct liberal market economies. Though other findings show that nationality matters this research concludes that SME culture and its informal CSR agenda are strongly formative and superseding even forces of market economies, nationally cultural patterns, and language. In a world of “big business”, explicit “business case” CSR, and the mantra that “CSR must pay”, this study points to a distinctly implicit small business CSR model built on trust, physical closeness, and virtues that is largely detached from the bottom line. This pattern holds for different cultural contexts and it is concluded that SME culture is stronger than nationality leading to a supra-national, monolithic SME CSR approach. Hence, classifications of countries by their market system or capitalism, as found in the comparative capitalism literature, do not match the CSR practices in SMEs as they do not mirror the peculiarities of their business. This raises questions on the universality and generalisability of management concepts.

Keywords: CSR, Small, comparative study, cultures of capitalism, medium-sized enterprises

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25 Case Study: Institutionalization of CSR Activities of MRGC through an NGO (OSDI)

Authors: Aasim Siddiqui

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In a country where 45.6 per cent of the total population lives below the poverty line, according to the Human Development Report 2014 by UNDP, an increasing number of private companies are now dedicating their resources to remedy this situation of chronic poverty. Most corporations in Pakistan now have a separate and dedicated department for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), albeit with varying goals and hence different strategies for achieving those goals. Similarly, Marine Group of Companies (MRGC) also has a robust CSR policy which the group implements through a Non-Government Organization (NGO) called Organization for Social Development Initiatives (OSDI). This organization, which operates under the ambit of MRGC’s CSR division, has a concentrated focus on helping the poorest communities in the rural areas of Pakistan to break out of intergenerational poverty. This paper maps the theoretical strategies as well as practical activities undertaken by OSDI for poverty alleviation via rural development in Pakistan. To obtain in-depth information of demographics, livelihood and socio-economic indicators in OSDI’s focused districts; a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies was used during the course of this research. The paper highlights and explains OSDI’s unique three-pronged approach which aims at reducing poverty through income generation via the livelihood assistance program and through the provision of access to the most basic services (including health and education) via the community development and food security programs. Modeled on the concept of capacity building, OSDI’s modus operandi is centered on disbursing timely microcredit facilities to farmers who can benefit from these funds by investing in productive assets to foster financial capability for the future. With a focus on increasing the income of poor farmers, OSDI’s approach is to integrate all the socio-economic facets: education, health and sanitation and food security, to induce a sustained positive impact on their living standards.

Keywords: Sustainability, Rural, Poverty, CSR

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24 An Exploratory Study to Investigate the Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Luxury Brand Avoidance in India

Authors: Glyn Atwal, Douglas Bryson

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The rapid expansion of a consumer class in India has also coincided with an increasing awareness of social and environmental issues. The overall objective of this study explores to what extent Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can lead to luxury brand avoidance within an Indian context. In-depth interviews were conducted with luxury consumers in New Delhi. The demographic breakdown of those interviewed was 16 males and 9 females, aged between 21 and 44. Antecedents of brand avoidance could be sorted according to two main categories. The first category was consumer dissatisfaction due to poor product or service performance. Customer service, particularly within the hospitality sector, was identified as a defining source of brand avoidance. The second category was negative stereotypes of brand users. A salient finding was that no single participant explicitly identified CSR as a source of brand avoidance. However, the interviews revealed that luxury consumers are in fact concerned about CSR issues but assume that international luxury brands have a positive record on CSR performance. Interestingly, participants placed greater emphasis on the broader interpretation of ‘corporate reputation’ rather than specific social or environmental issues to determine the CSR performance of a luxury brand. The findings reported in this exploratory study suggest that Indian luxury consumers do value the overall CSR performance of luxury brands expressed as a brand responsibility or brand reputation, and this is a potential source of brand avoidance. International luxury brands need, therefore, consider developing but also communicating a positive CSR strategy in order to reduce the risk of customers forming negative opinions about the brand.

Keywords: CSR, Luxury, brand avoidance

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23 A Corporate Social Responsibility View on Bribery Control in Business Relationships

Authors: Irfan Ameer

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Bribery control in developing countries is the biggest challenge for multinational enterprises (MNEs). Bribery practices are socially embedded and institutionalized, and therefore may achieve collective legitimacy in the society. MNEs often have better and strict norms, codes and standards about such corrupt practices. Bribery in B2B sales relationships has been researched but studies focusing on the role of firm in controlling bribery are scarce. The main objective of this paper is to explore MNEs strategies to control bribery in an environment where bribery is institutionalized. This qualitative study uses narrative approach and focuses on key events, actors and their role in controlling bribery in B2B sales relationships. The context of this study is pharmaceutical industry of Pakistan and data is collected through 23 episodic interviews supported by secondary data. The Corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature e.g. CSR three domain model and CSR pyramid is used to make sense of MNEs strategies to control bribery in developing countries. Results show that MNEs’ bribery control strategies are rather emerging based on the role of some key stakeholders and events which shape bribery strategies. Five key bribery control strategies were found through which MNEs can control both demand and supply side of bribery: bribery related codes development; bribery related codes implementation; focusing on competitive advantage; find mutually beneficial ethical solution; and collaboration with ethical stakeholders. The results also highlight the problems associated with each strategy. Study is unique in a sense that it focuses on stakeholders having unethical interests and provides guidelines to MNEs in controlling bribery practices in B2B sales relationships.

Keywords: developing countries, Bribery, CSR, narrative research, B2B sales, MNEs

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22 The Ethical Healthcare Paradigm with in Corporate Framework: CSR for Equitable Access to Drugs

Authors: Abhay Vir Singh Kanwar

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The pharmaceutical industry today is a multi-billion dollar business and yet disadvantages people in many corners of the globe who are still dying in large numbers from curable illnesses for lack of access to drugs. The astronomical prices of essential and life-saving drugs is not just an economic problem that can be settled through clever market strategies but is an ethical issue, given the accumulated wealth of today’s humanity and the sense of global justice that it increasingly comes to share. In this paper, I make a very practical argument for what I shall call ‘the ethical healthcare paradigm’, which, I propose, can replace the economistic paradigm that can still drive the healthcare sector without creating spillover effects on the market. Taking off from the ethical-philosophical argument for recognizing every individual’s right to capability to be healthy, I shall come to the focused practical proposal of the cost-rationalization and universal availability of essential, life-saving drugs through the undertaking of research and development funding for drug innovation by the business establishment as such in terms of the concept of CSR. The paper will first expose the concepts of basic and fundamental capabilities in relation to education and health, after which it will focus on the right to capability to be healthy of every person. In the third section, it will discuss the ‘ethical healthcare paradigm’ as opposed to the economistic health paradigm and will argue that the patient will have to be considered the primary stakeholder of this paradigm or the very ‘subject’ of healthcare. The next section will be on an ethical-historical critique of the pharmaceutical industry’s profit driven economism. The section after that will look at the business operation and the stages in the life cycle of a drug that comes to the market in order to understand the risks, strengths and problems of the pharmaceutical industry. Finally, the paper will discuss the concept of CSR in relation to the ethical healthcare paradigm in order to propose CSR funding in research and development for innovation on drugs so that life-saving drugs can be made available to every sick person cost-effectively.

Keywords: Healthcare, Patient, CSR, capability approach

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21 Corporate Social Responsibility: An Ethical or a Legal Framework?

Authors: Pouira Askary

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Indeed, in our globalized world which is facing with various international crises, the transnational corporations and other business enterprises have the capacity to foster economic well-being, development, technological improvement and wealth, as well as causing adverse impacts on human rights. The UN Human Rights Council declared that although the primary responsibility to protect human rights lie with the State but the transnational corporations and other business enterprises have also a responsibility to respect and protect human rights in the framework of corporate social responsibility. In 2011, the Human Rights Council endorsed the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, a set of guidelines that define the key duties and responsibilities of States and business enterprises with regard to business-related human rights abuses. In UN’s view, the Guiding Principles do not create new legal obligations but constitute a clarification of the implications of existing standards, including under international human rights law. In 2014 the UN Human Rights Council decided to establish a working group on transnational corporations and other business enterprises whose mandate shall be to elaborate an international legally binding instrument to regulate, in international human rights law, the activities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises. Extremely difficult task for the working group to codify a legally binding document to regulate the behavior of corporations on the basis of the norms of international law! Concentration of this paper is on the origins of those human rights applicable on business enterprises. The research will discuss that the social and ethical roots of the CSR are much more institutionalized and elaborated than the legal roots. Therefore, the first step is to determine whether and to what extent corporations, do have an ethical responsibility to respect human rights and if so, by which means this ethical and social responsibility is convertible to legal commitments.

Keywords: Development, Human Rights, Ethics, International Law, CSR, Sustainable Business

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20 The Relational Approach under the Angle of the CSR

Authors: Fatima El Kandoussi, Hind Benouakrim, Afafe El Amrani El Hassani

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CSR in the relational approach is imposed today as a matter of concerns lighthouses in the academic environment and managerial. This study presents the issues of the CSR dimension in the field of relationship marketing. This exploratory research was conducted with two groups of Moroccan enterprises having the label of the CSR /CGEM. It presents a better understanding of the approaches taken by the companies interviewed in a CSR and contributed to understand the reasons that lead them to adopt the process of CSR and also allows explaining how these enterprises maintain their relationship with the most important customers in a context of CSR.

Keywords: Business, Relationship Marketing, CSR, Stakeholders

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19 The Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility to Contribute the Isolated District and the Drop behind District to Overcome the Poverty, Study Cases: PT. Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC) Sanggata, East Borneo, Indonesia

Authors: Sri Suryaningsum

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The achievement ‘Best Practice Model’ holds by the government on behalf of the success implementation corporate social responsibility program that held on PT. Kaltim Prima Coal which had operation located in the isolated district in Sanggata, it could be the reference for the other companies to improve the social welfare in surrounding area, especially for the companies that have operated in the isolated area in Indonesia. The rule of Kaltim Prima Coal as the catalyst in the development progress to push up the independence of district especially for the district which has located in surrounding mining operation from village level to the regency level, those programs had written in the 7 field program in Corporate Social Responsibility, it was doing by stakeholders. The stakeholders are village government, sub-district government, Regency and citizen. One of the best programs that implement at PT. Kaltim Prima Coal is Regarding Resettlement that was completed based on Asian Development Bank Resettlement Best Practice and International Financial Corporation Resettlement Action Plan. This program contributed on the resettlement residences to develop the isolated and the neglected district.

Keywords: Poverty, CSR, mining industry, isolated, neglected

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18 Ecolabelling : Normative Power or Corporate Strategy? : A Study Case of Textile Company in Indonesia

Authors: Suci Lestari Yuana, Shofi Fatihatun Sholihah, Derarika Ensta Jesse

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Textile is one of buyer-driven industry which rely on label trust from the consumers. Most of textile manufacturers produce textile and textile products based on consumer demands. The company’s policy is highly depend on the dynamic evolution of consumers behavior. Recently, ecofriendly has become one of the most important factor of western consumers to purchase the textile and textile product (TPT) from the company. In that sense, companies from developing countries are encouraged to follow western consumers values. Some examples of ecolabel certificate are ISO (International Standard Organisation), Lembaga Ekolabel Indonesia (Indonesian Ecolabel Instution) and Global Ecolabel Network (GEN). The submission of national company to international standard raised a critical question whether this is a reflection towards the legitimation of global norms into national policy or it is actually a practical strategy of the company to gain global consumer. By observing one of the prominent textile company in Indonesia, this research is aimed to discuss what kind of impetus factors that cause a company to use ecolabel and what is the meaning behind it. Whether it comes from normative power or the strategy of the company. This is a qualitative research that choose a company in Sukoharjo, Central Java, Indonesia as a case study in explaining the pratice of ecolabelling by textitle company. Some deep interview is conducted with the company in order to get to know the ecolabelling process. In addition, this research also collected some document which related to company’s ecolabelling process and its impact to company’s value. The finding of the project reflected issues that concerned several issues: (1) role of media as consumer information (2) role of government and non-government actors as normative agency (3) role of company in social responsibility (4) the ecofriendly consciousness as a value of the company. As we know that environmental norms that has been admitted internationally has changed the global industrial process. This environmental norms also pushed the companies around the world, especially the company in Sukoharjo, Central Java, Indonesia to follow the norm. The neglection toward the global norms will remained the company in isolated and unsustained market that will harm the continuity of the company. So, in buyer-driven industry, the characteristic of company-consumer relations has brought a fast dynamic evolution of norms and values. The creation of global norms and values is circulated by passing national territories or identities.

Keywords: Waste Management, CSR, normative power, ecolabeling

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17 A Study on Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Rural Development

Authors: N. Amruth Raj, Suja S. Nair

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The last six decades have borne witness to a radical change in the private sectors relationship with both the state and civil society. Firms have been increasingly called upon to adopt strategies beyond the financial aspects of their operations and consider the social and environmental impact of their business activities. In this context, many companies have modified their policies and activities and engaged into Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) especially on Rural development in India. At the firm level, CSR is implemented through various practices, which aim to enhance the company’s social and environmental performance and may cover various topics. Examples of CSR practices are abundant in Andhra Pradesh relevant literature. For instance, in India especially at Andhra Pradesh companies like Amara Raaja requires from its suppliers to prohibit child labour, Nagarjuna Cements applies a series of programs for reducing its CO2 emissions, LANCO group of Industries addresses health and safety issues in the workplace whereas GVK works limited has adopted a series of policies for addressing human rights and environmental abuse related to its operations.

Keywords: Rural development, CSR, limitations, objectives, need

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16 Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Corporate Governance: Effectiveness of CSR in Human Rights

Authors: Md. Awal Hossain Mollah

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Corporate governance is playing a crucial role for ensuring social accountability and responsibility of business organization through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for the last two decades. In Bangladesh, CSR is a growing and popular concept and a recent development. Various business and corporate organizations are playing crucial role for helping vulnerable sections of our society now. For instance, Dutch Bangla Bank has been providing scholarship for under graduate and graduate students in our country which is very helpful for promoting poor and meritorious students in Bangladesh. In this study, how far CSR is playing its role for ensuring human right in Bangladesh will be examined with specific case studies. The study focus will reflect on both developed and developing nations based on literature review and possible empirical evidence.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Social Security, CSR, Bangladesh, graduate students, scholarships, Dutch angla Bank

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15 CSR Practices in Bali: An Exploratory Study on the Environmental Aspect

Authors: Trianasari, Gede Adi Yuniarta

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The tourism industry has been widely recognized as one of the world’s largest industries and is expected to have continuous growth. While it has positive impacts especially on the job markets and economic aspect, this industry also brings serious environmental impacts that may not be neglected. As such, the tourism industry is faced with increasing demands and challenges to deal with the environmental issues. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a way to show the firms’ concern on the societal and environmental aspects. In line with the increasing pressure on such responsibilities, a growing number of firms have involved in CSR activities. In Bali, the majority of both chained and locally owned hotels have shown their efforts on CSR practices. However, little is known about what and how they perform or implement such program especially within the environmental aspect. The importance of understanding what they focus on lays in the identification of areas that have received sufficient treatment and those that require more attention. Furthermore, also, it is especially essential considering that Bali is one of the worldly known destinations that have been facing numerous crucial issues on environment that may threaten the sustainability of the island and its people. This paper reports on the results of a study exploring the practices of CSR in hotels in Bali. Data were collected from 49 hotel managers and human resource managers in Bali across four major tourist areas, using semi structured interview method. The analysis was conducted qualitatively. The results showed that all hotels under study have implemented CSR activities in which environment was found to be the second key aspect, following the activities directly related to community aspect. Moreover, there were five major types of environmental action identified: beach cleaning, replantation, marine conservation, turtle conservation, mangrove, and garbage management. These findings suggest that hotels in Bali under study have shown their concern on the environment, however, less attention was given on attempt to reduce the environmental impacts of their operations. Mapping the types of environmental related CSR activities enhances the knowledge of and gives lights into the CSR literature especially from the perspective of Eastern practice.

Keywords: Sustainable Tourism, CSR, exploratory study, tourist object

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14 CSR and Its Internal Communication – Effects on the Employee Commitment

Authors: Silke Bustamante, Andrea Pelzeter, Andreas Deckmann, Rudi Ehlscheidt, Franziska Freudenberger

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CSR is associated with a great number of positive effects. This also includes the positive impact of CSR on the commitment of its employees. The internal CSR communication here takes the essential function as a mediator of the CSR performance of a company to the employees. The importance of CSR communication is, therefore, essential. Employees can usually only perceive the CSR efforts of a company if it is also communicated to them. Only if the employees perceive the CSR of their employer positively, the employer-CSR can also have a positive impact on their affective commitment. Therefore, organizational and individual factors are crucial and thus need to consider. This relationship between the organizational and individual factors was investigated in a qualitative case study in six companies of the German service sector. Expert interviews and focus group interviews were conducted and questionnaire-based ratings by company representatives were raised. Among the individual factors, in terms of CSR, the expectations and relevance of its employees, as well as the perception of CSR by the staff, are included. The organizational factors include the actual CSR performance and its communication. Ultimately, the impact of CSR on the commitment is examined with this holistic approach. The results show that the individual CSR perception does not always match the corporate CSR performance and its depiction in internal communication. Furthermore, employees have given suggestions on how CSR should be communicated by their employer. Knowledge memory systems (e.g. wiki) on the on hand and media-based information, on the other hand, were highlighted. Primarily the employee-related CSR is most important for the employees, whereas ecological CSR activities hardly play a role. The findings indicate the importance of CSR communication in the CSR concept as it provides the missing link between CSR performance and appreciation by an increase in commitment. It should only be communicated, what is done. CSR communication should also be carried out in a plausible and transparent way.

Keywords: CSR, Internal Communication, employee commitment, employer brand

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13 Corporate Philanthropy as a Source of Competitive Advantage

Authors: Mateusz Rak

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Objective: The paper aims to present various sources of competitive advantage which may occur when an enterprise strategically applies its concept of corporate philanthropy. Methodology: The review of the literature and available reports on the research regarding corporate philanthropy. Results: Strategic philanthropy is a positive phenomenon. Unfortunately, enterprises in Poland do not see all positive sides of such activities yet. Three kinds of corporate philanthropy may be described. They are to fulfil a social duty, improve the company reputation and gain a competitive edge. Practical implications: Showing enterprises the advantages of taking philanthropic actions, in particular, a large role of strategic philanthropy in gaining a competitive edge in the market as well as how to avoid negative consequences of corporate philanthropy. The paper presents corporate philanthropy on a few layers: as a CSR element, actions generating values in products, actions improving a corporate image in the market, altruist actions of employees.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, corporate philanthropy, corporate foundations

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12 Relationships between Social Entrepreneurship, CSR and Social Innovation: In Theory and Practice

Authors: Gyula Fülöp, Krisztina Szegedi, Ádám Bereczk

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The shared goal of social entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility and social innovation is the advancement of society. The business model of social enterprises is characterized by unique strategies based on the competencies of the entrepreneurs, and is not aimed primarily at the maximization of profits, but rather at carrying out goals for the benefit of society. Corporate social responsibility refers to the active behavior of a company, by which it can create new solutions to meet the needs of society, either on its own or in cooperation with other social stakeholders. The objectives of this article are to define concepts, describe and integrate relevant theoretical models, develop a model and introduce some examples of international practice that can inspire initiatives for social development.

Keywords: Social innovation, social entrepreneurship, Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR

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11 Integrating the Principles of Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): By Engaging the India Inc. With Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Authors: Radhika Ralhan

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With the formalization of 2030, Global Agenda for Sustainable Development nations have instantaneously geared up their efforts towards the implementation of a comprehensive list of global goals. The criticality of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is imperative, as it will define the course and pace of development for the next 15 years. This development will entail transformational shifts towards a green and inclusive growth. Leadership, investments and technology will constitute as key ingredients of this transformational shift and governance will emerge as a one of the most significant driver of the global 2030 agenda. Corporate Governance is viewed as one of the key force to accelerate the momentum of SDGs and initiate these transformational shifts. Many senior level leaders have reinstated their conviction that adopting a triple bottom line approach will play an imperative role in transforming the entire industrial sector. In the Indian context, the above occurrence bears an intriguing facet, as the framing of SDGs in the global scenario coincided with the emergence of mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Rules in India at national level. As one of the leading democracies in the world, India is among few countries to formally mandate companies to spend 2% from their CSR funds under Section 135 of The New Companies Act 2013. The overarching framework of SDGs correlates to the areas of CSR interventions as mentioned in the Schedule VII of Section 135. As one of the legitimate stakeholders, business leaders have expressed their commitments to their respective governments, to reorient the entire fabric of their companies to scale up global priorities. This is explicitly seen in the case of India where leading business entities have converged national government priorities of Clean India, Make in India and Skill India by actively participating in the campaigns and incorporating these programmes within the ambit of their CSR policies. However, the CSR Act has received mixed responses with associated concerns such as the onus of doing what the government has to do, mandatory reporting mechanisms, policy disclosures, personnel handling CSR portfolios etc. The overall objective of the paper, therefore, rests in analyzing the discourse of CSR and the perspectives of Indian Inc. in imbibing the principles of SDGs within their business polices and operations. Through primary and secondary research analysis, the paper attempts to outline the diverse challenges that are being faced by Indian businesses while establishing the business case of sustainable responsibility. Some of the principal questions that paper addresses are: What are the SDG priorities for India Inc. as per their respective industry sectors? How can corporate policies imbibe the SDGs principles? How can the global concerns in form of SDGs align with the national CSR mandate and development issues? What initiatives have been undertaken by the companies to integrate their long term business strategy and sustainability? The paper will also reinstate an approach or a way forward that will enable businesses to proceed beyond compliance and accentuate the principles of responsibility and transparency within their operational framework.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Sustainability, Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs, India Inc, section 135, new companies act 2013

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10 Corporate Social Responsibility Participation on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Different Job Characteristic Profiles

Authors: Min Woo Lee, Kyoung Seok Kim

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We made an effort to resolve a research question, which is about the relationship between employees’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) participation and their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and an effect of profiles of job characteristics. To test the question, we divided sample into two groups that have the profiles of each job characteristic. One group had high level on the five dimensions of job characteristic (D group), whereas another group had low level on the dimensions (R group). As a result, regression analyses showed that the relationship between CSR participation and OCB is positive in the D group, but the relationship is not significant in the R group. The results raise a question to the argument of recent studies showing that there is positive relationship between the CSR and the OCB. Implications and limitations are demonstrated in the conclusion.

Keywords: CSR, Cluster Analysis, job characteristics, OCB

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9 Using Businesses for Governance and Creating Sustainable Cities

Authors: Parisa Toloue Hayat Azar

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Businesses have been playing an important role in the economic growth and social welfare of cities; however, they generally have negative reputations regarding their impact on environmental issues regarding sustainability. However, some believe that by incorporating strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities, businesses will be able to solve problems in society, including environmental ones. Besides economic, social and environmental aspects, governance is another essential pillar for creating sustainable communities and cities. Governance plays a key role in the success of sustainable projects or creating long lasting legacies; an example of this can be creating circular supply chain with collaboration between different businesses, which in the end results in positive economic, social and environmental outcomes for everyone. Governance is a very important parameter in creating the legacy of low carbon and environmentally friendly city due to the fact that, besides building energy efficient buildings and infrastructure, citizens who are also part of the success of this system should know about how to behave and collaborate with others to make the system work. By deploying the philosophy of cultural historical activity theory, this paper explains how influential businesses have been and can be still used as a mediating tool for governance purposes, and succeed in creating shared value and lasting legacy within society.

Keywords: Business, Governance, Sustainability, CSR

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8 Revisiting Corporate Social Responsibility in the Lens of Board Accountability

Authors: Jingchen Zhao

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Corporate social responsibility (CSR), a major contemporary focus for companies, governments, NGOs and communities, is discussed from a multi-disciplinary perspective. The term is introduced and defined to achieve a combination of economic, social, environmental and philanthropic goals, and its adoption in company law legislations in a few jurisdictions is discussed. Despite its positive social and environmental impacts, the notion has been widely criticised for being ill-defined and fundamentally flawed in the domain of corporate law. The value and effectiveness of CSR have been interrogated for many reasons, always inter-related. This article aims to consider and address some of these problems and assess how CSR could be sharpened and made more effective through the lens of accountability, focussing on the rationale behind and the means of regulation of CSR. The article aims to achieve two interrelated goals. First, it examines the function of accountability in the arguments in favour of CSR by investigating the extent to which the notion of accountability could be used as a criterion for regulating CSR, so that companies may be held accountable for corporate decisions affecting their stakeholders. Second, this article will examine the scope and goals of CSR and board accountability, creating the possibility of a more comprehensive understanding of the two notions from an interactive perspective. In order to link CSR and accountability closely to generate a more appropriate definition of CSR that is could be more appropriately and effectively applied in corporate law, the concept of corporate social accountability (CSA) will be evaluated, with the aim of broadening its latitude beyond disclosure. This will involve a rigorous assessment of the process of fulfilling directors’ duties via questioning from stakeholder groups during meetings or committees, together with explanations and justifications from the board. This will be followed by discussions on enforcement measures in relation to the concept of CSA.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Corporate Law, CSR, board accountability

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7 The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility and Relationship Marketing on Relationship Maintainer and Customer Loyalty by Mediating Role of Customer Satisfaction

Authors: Anam Bhatti, Sumbal Arif, Mariam Mehar, Sohail Younas

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CSR has become one of the imperative implements in satisfying customers. The impartial of this research is to calculate CSR, relationship marketing, and customer satisfaction. In Pakistan, there is not enough research work on the effect of CSR and relationship marketing on relationship maintainer and customer loyalty. To find out deductive approach and survey method is used as research approach and research strategy respectively. This research design is descriptive and quantitative study. For data, collection questionnaire method with semantic differential scale and seven point scales are adopted. Data has been collected by adopting the non-probability convenience technique as sampling technique and the sample size is 400. For factor confirmatory factor analysis, structure equation modeling and medication analysis, regression analysis Amos software were used. Strong empirical evidence supports that the customer’s perception of CSR performance is highly influenced by the values.

Keywords: Relationship Marketing, CSR, Customer Loyalty, Customer Satisfaction, Relationship maintainer

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6 Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance Complementarity in Multinational Enterprises of the EU and India: A Socio-Political Approach

Authors: Ana Paula Monte, Moses Pinto

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The present research analyses the interactions between various categories of corporate social responsibility (CSR) that mediate the relationship between CSR and financial performance in Multinational Enterprises (MNE) in light of the present socio-political factors prevalent in the countries under observation. In the research it has been hypothesized that the absence of consensus in the empirical literature on the CSR–financial performance relationship may be explained by the existence of synergies (Complementarities) between the different CSR components. Upon investigation about whether such relationships exist, a final unbalanced panel sample of 1000 observations taken from 100 Multinational Enterprises per year functioning in the Schengen countries and one south east Asian country namely: India, over the span of 10 years i.e. from the year 2008 to 2018 has been analyzed. The empirical analysis used in the research methodology employs dynamic Panel Data in time series specifically, the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) which had been used to detect the varying degrees of relationships between the CSR and financial performance parameters in the background of the socio-political factors prevailing in the countries at the time and also taking into account the bilateral treaty obligations between the countries under observation. The econometric model has employed the financial ratio namely the Return on Assets (ROA) as an indicator of financial performance in order to gauge the internal performance and valuation of a firm as opposed to the Tobin’s Q that provides for the external evaluation of a firm’s financial performance which may not always be accurate. The various CSR dimensions have demonstrated significant correlations to the ‘ROA’ which include some negatively associated correlations and one positively associated correlation that is highly significant throughout the analysis of the observations, namely the correlation between the ‘ROA’ and the CSR dimension: ‘Environment’. The results provide a deeper insight in the synergistic CSR activities that managers could adapt into their Firm’s CSR strategy in order to enhance the ‘ROA’ and also to understand which interactions between the CSR dimensions can be adapted together due to their positively correlated association with each other and the ROA. The future lines of research would be inclined to investigate the effects of socio-political factors on the ROA of the MNEs through better designed econometric models.

Keywords: CSR, Complementarity, Financial Performance, sociopolitical factors

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5 Accounting Propositions for Sustainability Performance Information Systems Introduction: Environmental Attributes from Croatian Hotels

Authors: Vanja Vejzagic, Jackie Brander Brown, Peter Schmidt

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Purpose: For some time now, the global hotel industry trends are strongly oriented towards sustainable development and environmental management accounting (EMA) should have the supporting role for hotel’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) management. The aim of this paper is thus to analyse and present data on the key steps leading toward the effective incorporation of EMA within hotel performance information systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research study is a continuation of the process carried out on the sample of 20 eco-hotels in the UK, a year ago. Research evidence was obtained via in-depth case studies on sample of 180 hotels (4 and 5 stars hotels) located in Croatia. Research was conducted through interviews with key personnel and an online survey which specifically focused on 10 business areas considered vital for successful EMA integration. Findings: The research results indicate a pattern by which hotels can determine the existing level of their sustainable (environmental) business. Furthermore, the management understanding of the sustainability concept was still proven to lead to a relatively subjective appreciation and presentation of sustainable hotel operations and their performance. It was determined that majority of analysed hotel organisations reflect typical short-term, financially oriented performance information systems. Steps for EMA introduction have been offered. Research Limitations/Implications: CSR is still a broad-set concept. Exploring the effects of EMA on such-like a defined management system may be subject to considerable influence of the respondent’s subjective perception of the concept. Originality/Value: This article should be of interest to higher education academics and careers staff who have an interest in CSR introduction and the ways of implementing its informational support for performance measurement.

Keywords: Sustainability, Hotel, Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, environmental management accounting, EMA

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4 Proactive Business Approaches in Human Rights: The Implications of Corporate Social Responsibility

Authors: Fatemeh Jalalvand

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The critical human rights problems such as extreme poverty, hunger, inequalities and gender discrimination need to be addressed by powerful and influential actors in the world. In today’s globalization, corporations have become one of the potent agents in the society. They are capable of generating economic growth, reducing poverty, and increasing the well-being of individuals, thereby contributing to the betterment of a broad spectrum of human rights. However, the discussion on how business can contribute to human rights has primarily focused on not violating them (reactive approach) rather than improving the conditions and solving the problems of human rights (proactive approach). In particular, the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in bringing proactivity of business in human rights has gained less attention. This paper develops a conceptual framework to examine the role of different categories of CSR, including discretionary, ethical, legal, instrumental and political CSR in encouraging the proactive contribution of corporations to the betterment of human rights. The five propositions, related to the conceptual framework, outline the relationships between five categories of CSR and proactivity of corporations in human rights. The findings indicate that discretionary CSR with voluntary nature might not be able to motivate any contribution of business in human rights. Moreover, ethical CSR and legal CSR might lead to reactive strategies of business toward human rights. Meanwhile, the economic incentives behind the notion of instrumental CSR could result in partial proactive engagement of corporations in human rights. Finally, the internal motives as profit and power besides the external duties might lead to the highest level of proactivity of corporations in human rights under the context of political CSR. The model developed offers a map for business to adopt proactive human rights strategies more systematically maintaining key profit-drivers like power and profit. In sum, instrumental and political categories of CSR might lead corporations to improve the conditions of human rights proactively.

Keywords: Human Rights, CSR, proactive approach, reactive approach

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3 A Theoretical Framework: The Influence of Luxury Companies' Corporate Social Activities on Consumer Purchase Intention

Authors: Kveta Olsanova, Gina Cook, Marija Zlatic

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This paper discusses the theoretical framework suggesting the dependencies between luxury brands’ CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) variables and the purchase intention of luxury shoppers. The framework is based on a literature review and in-depth individual interviews with a sample of luxury users and buyers. The measures of the model are based on existing research and the authors' qualitative research results. The model suggests that purchase intention in the luxury segment is dependent on the luxury values (symbolic, experiential, functional and social), individual sustainable dimension (composed of societal, environmental and economic variables) and awareness of the brand’s CSR, the last two relationships being potentially moderated by certain conditions such as demographics and general attitudes towards CSR and sustainability. The model’s output is in the formulation of several hypotheses, to be tested in an upcoming quantitative study. The qualitative phase indicated that the perceived symbolic, functional and experiential value dimensions of luxury brands were stronger drivers of purchase intention compared to the sustainable dimension. The contribution of the research consists of highlighting CSR’s impact on customer purchase intent as a potential implication for luxury brand management due to two aspects: (i) consumer awareness of the existing CSR activities of luxury brands is low, and this might be challenged by the demands of Gen Z entrants into the lux industry as they are known for their positive approach to CSR; (ii) the UN’s SDGs will bring CSR to the attention of all industries, including currently 'CSR silent' segments represented by luxury. Our research should contribute to incorporation of strategic CSR into the policies and strategies of the luxury segment by providing evidence that luxury customers do care.

Keywords: Sustainability, CSR, purchase intention, luxury shoppers

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2 Sustainable Organization for Sustainable Strategy: An Empirical Evidence

Authors: Lucia Varra, Marzia Timolo

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The interest of scholars towards corporate sustainability has strengthened in recent years in parallel with the growing need to undertake paths of cultural and organizational change, as a way for greater competitiveness and stakeholders’ satisfaction. In fact, studies on the business sustainability, while on the one hand have integrated the three dimensions of sustainability that existed for some time in the economic approaches (economic, environmental and social dimensions), on the other hand did not give rise to an organic construct that puts together the aspects of strategic management with corporate social responsibility and even less with the organizational issues. Therefore some important questions remain open: Which organizational structure and which operational mechanisms are coherent or propitious to a sustainability strategy? Existing studies appear to be fragmented, although some aspects have shared importance: knowledge management, human resource, management, leadership, innovation, etc. The construction of a model of sustainable organization that supports the sustainability strategy no longer seems to be postponed, as is its connection with the main practices of measuring corporate social responsibility performance. The paper aims to identify the organizational characteristics of a sustainable corporate. To this end, from a theoretical point of view the work examines the main existing literary contributions and, from a practical point of view, it presents a business case referring to a service organization that for years has undertaken the sustainability strategy. This paper is divided into two parts: the first part concerns a review of the main articles on the strategic management topic and the main organizational issues raised by the literature, such as knowledge management, leadership, innovation, etc.; later, a modeling of the main variables examined by scholars and an integration of these with the international measurement standards of CSR is proposed. In the second part, using the methodology of the case study company, the hypotheses and the structure of the proposed model that aims to integrate the strategic issues with the organizational aspects and measurement of sustainability performance, are applied to an Italian company, which has some organizational and human resource management interventions are in place to align strategic decisions with the structure and operating mechanisms of the structure. The case presented supports the hypotheses of the model.

Keywords: Strategic Management, CSR, Sustainable Leadership, sustainable human resource management, sustainable organization

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1 The Ethical Imperative of Corporate Social Responsibility Practice and Disclosure by Firms in Nigeria Delta Swamplands: A Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Augustar Omoze Ehighalua, Itotenaan Henry Ogiri

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As a mono-product economy, Nigeria relies largely on oil revenues for its foreign exchange earnings and the exploration activities of firms operating in the Niger Delta region have left in its wake tales of environmental degradation, poverty and misery. This, no doubt, have created corporate social responsibility issues in the region. The focus of this research is the critical evaluation of the ethical response to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practice by firms operating in Nigeria Delta Swamplands. While CSR is becoming more popular in developed society with effective practice guidelines and reporting benchmark, there is a relatively low level of awareness and selective applicability of existing international guidelines to effectively support CSR practice in Nigeria. This study, haven identified the lack of CSR institutional framework attempts to develop an ethically-driven CSR transparency benchmark laced within a regulatory framework based on international best practices. The research adopts a qualitative methodology and makes use of primary data collected through semi-structured interviews conducted across the six core states of the Niger Delta Region. More importantly, the study adopts an inductive, interpretivist philosophical paradigm that reveal deep phenomenological insights into what local communities, civil society and government officials consider as good ethical benchmark for responsible CSR practice by organizations. The institutional theory provides for the main theoretical foundation, complemented by the stakeholder and legitimacy theories. The Nvivo software was used to analyze the data collected. This study shows that ethical responsibility is lacking in CSR practice by firms in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Furthermore, findings of the study indicate key issues of environmental, health and safety, human rights, and labour as fundamental in developing an effective CSR practice guideline for Nigeria. The study has implications for public policy formulation as well as managerial perspective.

Keywords: Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, Firms, Nigeria, Niger-Delta Swampland

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