Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Crystal structure Related Abstracts

14 Gap Formation into Bulk InSb Crystals Grown by the VDS Technique Revealing Enhancement in the Transport Properties

Authors: Dattatray Gadkari, Dilip Maske, Manisha Joshi, Rashmi Choudhari, Brij Mohan Arora

Abstract:

The vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique has been applied to the growth of bulk InSb crystals. The concept of practical stability is applied to the case of detached bulk crystal growth on earth in a simplified design. By optimization of the set up and growth parameters, 32 ingots of 65-75 mm in length and 10-22 mm in diameter have been grown. The results indicate that the wetting angle of the melt on the ampoule wall and the pressure difference across the interface are the crucial factors effecting the meniscus shape and stability. Taking into account both heat transfer and capillarity, it is demonstrated that the process is stable in case of convex menisci (seen from melt), provided that pressure fluctuations remain in a stable range. During the crystal growth process, it is necessary to keep a relationship between the rate of the difference pressure controls and the solidification to maintain the width of gas gap. It is concluded that practical stability gives valuable knowledge of the dynamics and could be usefully applied to other crystal growth processes, especially those involving capillary shaping. Optoelectronic properties were investigated in relation to the type of solidification attached and detached ingots growth. These samples, room temperature physical properties such as Hall mobility, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and microhardness achieved for antimonide samples grown by VDS technique have shown the highest values gained till at this time. These results reveal that these crystals can be used to produce InSb with high mobility for device applications.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Electronic materials, Defects, Alloys, Optical Microscopy, Crystal structure, Crystal Growth, Solidification, etching, Hall effect

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13 Enhancement in Seebeck Coefficient of MBE Grown Un-Doped ZnO by Thermal Annealing

Authors: M. Asghar, K. Mahmood, F. Malik, Lu Na, Y-H Xie, Yasin A. Raja, I. Ferguson

Abstract:

In this paper, we have reported an enhancement in Seebeck coefficient of un-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on silicon (001) substrate by annealing treatment. The grown ZnO thin films were annealed in oxygen environment at 500°C – 800°C, keeping a step of 100°C for one hour. Room temperature Seebeck measurements showed that Seebeck coefficient and power factor increased from 222 to 510 µV/K and 8.8×10^-6 to 2.6×10^-4 Wm^-1K^-2 as annealing temperature increased from 500°C to 800°C respectively. This is the highest value of Seebeck coefficient ever reported for un-doped MBE grown ZnO according to best of our knowledge. This observation was related with the improvement of crystal structure of grown films with annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrated that full width half maximum (FWHM) of ZnO (002) plane decreased and crystalline size increased as the annealing temperature increased. Photoluminescence study revealed that the intensity of band edge emission increased and defect emission decreased as annealing temperature increased because the density of oxygen vacancy related donor defects decreased with annealing temperature. This argument was further justified by the Hall measurements which showed a decreasing trend of carrier concentration with annealing temperature.

Keywords: Crystal structure, ZnO, MBE, thermoelectric properties, annealing temperature

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12 Influence of Acceptor Dopant on the Physicochemical and Transport Properties of Textured BaCe0.5Zr0.3ln0.2O3−Δ Materials (Ln = Yb, Y, Cd, Sm, Nd)

Authors: J. Lyagaeva, D. Medvedev, A. Brouzgou, A. Demin, P. Tsiakaras

Abstract:

The investigation of highly conductive and chemically stable electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is a necessity. The aim of the present work is to study the influence of acceptor dopant on the functional properties of textured BaCe0.5Zr0.3Ln0.2O3−δ (Ln = Yb, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd) ceramics. The X-Ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, dilatometry and 4-probe dc method of conductivity measurements were used. It was found that the mean grain size of ceramics increases (from 1.4 to 3.2 μm), thermal expansion coefficient grows (from 7.6•10–6 to 10.7•10–6 К–1), but ionic conductivity decreases (from 14 to 3 mS cm–1 at 900°С), when ionic radii of impurity acceptor increases from 0.868 Å (Yb3+) to 0.983 Å (Nd3+).

Keywords: Crystal structure, SOFC, acceptor dopant, proton-conducting

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11 Structural, Electrochemical and Electrocatalysis Studies of a New 2D Metal-Organic Coordination Polymer of Ni (II) Constructed by Naphthalene-1,4-Dicarboxylic Acid; Oxidation and Determination of Fructose

Authors: Zohreh Derikvand

Abstract:

One new 2D metal-organic coordination polymer of Ni(II) namely [Ni2(ndc)2(DMSO)4(H2O)]n, where ndc = naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and DMSO= dimethyl sulfoxide has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 possesses a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear nickel(II) building blocks in which two crystallographically independent Ni2+ ions are bridged by ndc2– ligands and water molecule. The ndc2– ligands adopt μ3 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a two-dimensional coordination framework. The two independent NiII cations are surrounded by dimethyl sulfoxide and naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylate molecules in distorted octahedron geometry. In the crystal structures of 1 there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements and C-H–π stacking interactions. Electrochemical behavior of [Ni2(ndc)2(DMSO)4(H2O)]n, (Ni-NDA) on the surface of carbon nanotube (CNTs) glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was described. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Oxidation of fructose on the surface of modified electrode was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the results showed that the Ni-NDA/CNTs film displays excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards fructose oxidation.

Keywords: Impedance spectroscopy, Electrocatalysis, Crystal structure, naphthalene-1, coordination polymer

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10 Synthesis, Structural and Vibrational Studies of a New Lacunar Apatite: LIPB2CA2(PO4)3

Authors: A. Chari, A. El Bouari, B. Orayech, A. Faik, J. M. Igartua

Abstract:

The phosphate is a natural resource of great importance in Morocco. In order to exploit this wealth, synthesis and studies of new a material based phosphate, were carried out. The apatite structure present o lot of characteristics, One of the main characteristics is to allow large and various substitutions for both cations and anions. Beside their biological importance in hard tissue (bone and teeth), apatites have been extensively studied for their potential use as fluorescent lamp phosphors or laser host materials.The apatite have interesting possible application fields such as in medicine as materials of bone filling, coating of dental implants, agro chemicals as artificial fertilizers. The LiPb2Ca2(PO4)3 was synthesized by the solid-state method, its crystal structure was investigated by Rietveld analysis using XRPD data. This material crystallizes with a structure of lacunar apatite anion deficit. The LiPb2Ca2(PO4)3 is hexagonal apatite at room temperature, adopting the space group P63/m (ITA No. 176), Rietveld refinements showed that the site 4f is shared by three cations Ca, Pb and Li. While the 6h is occupied by the Pb and Li cations. The structure can be described as built up from the PO4 tetrahedra and the sixfold coordination cavities, which delimit hexagonal tunnels along the c-axis direction. These tunnels are linked by the cations occupying the 4 f sites. Raman and Infrared spectroscopy analyses were carried out. The observed frequencies were assigned and discussed on the basis of unit-cell group analysis and by comparison to other apatite-type materials.

Keywords: Crystal structure, Phase Transition, apatite, Lacunar, Rietveldmethod, LiPb2Ca2(PO4)3

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9 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Nucleating Agents

Authors: Rabindranath Jana, Keka Rana, Plabani Basu

Abstract:

Nucleating agents are widely used to modify the properties of various polymers. The rate of crystallization and the size of the crystals have a strong impact on mechanical and optical properties of a polymer. The addition of nucleating agents to the semi-crystalline polymers provides a surface on which the crystal growth can start easily. As a consequence, fast crystal formation will result in many small crystal domains so that the cycle times for injection molding may be reduced. Moreover, the mechanical properties e.g., modulus, tensile strength, heat distortion temperature and hardness may increase. In the present work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as nucleating agents for the crystallization of poly (e-caprolactone)diol (PCL). Thus nanocomposites of PCL filled with MWNTs were prepared by solution blending. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests were carried out to study the effect of CNTs on on-isothermal crystallization of PCL. The polarizing optical microscopy (POM), and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were used to study the morphology and crystal structure of PCL and its nanocomposites. It is found that MWNTs act as effective nucleating agents that significantly shorten the induction period of crystallization and however, decrease the crystallization rate of PCL, exhibiting a remarkable decrease in the Avrami exponent n, surface folding energy σe and crystallization activation energy ΔE. The carbon-based fillers act as templates for hard block chains of PCL to form an ordered structure on the surface of nanoparticles during the induction period, bringing about some increase in equilibrium temperature. The melting process of PCL and its nanocomposites are also studied; the nanocomposites exhibit two melting peaks at higher crystallization temperature which mainly refer to the melting of the crystals with different crystal sizes however, PCL shows only one melting temperature.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Crystal structure, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, poly(e-caprolactone)diol, nonisothermal crystallization, nucleation

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8 Synthesis Modified Electrodes with Au/Pt Nanoparticles and Two New Coordination Polymers of Ag(I) and Cu(II) Constructed by Pyrazine and 3-Nitrophthalic Acid as a Novel Electrochemical Sensing Platform

Authors: Zohreh Derikvand, Hadis Cheraghi, Azadeh Azadbakht, Vaclav Eigner, Michal Dusek

Abstract:

Two new one and two dimensional metal organic coordination polymers of Cu(II), [Cu(3-nph)2(H2O)2pz]n (1) and Ag(I), {[Ag(3-nph)pz].H2O}n (2) with pyrazine (pz) and 3- nitrophthalic acid (3-nph) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. We used these compounds to preparation modified electrode with Au/Pt nanosparticles in order to investigation electrochemistry and electrocatalysis activities. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ag(I) coordination polymer shows a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear silver (I) building blocks in which two crystallographically Ag+ ions are connected to each other by a covalent bond. The pyrazine ligands adopt μ2 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a one and two -dimensional coordination framework in 1 and 2. The two AgI cations are surrounded by pyrazine and 3-nitrophthalate mono anions and indicate distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal structures of Ag(I) complex there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements, C–O•••π and π–π stacking interactions. In Cu(II) coordination polymer, the coordination geometry around Cu(II) atom is a distorted octahedron. Interestingly, the structural analysis illustrates that the strong and weak hydrogen bond accompanied with C–H•••π and C–O•••π stacking interactions assemble the crystal structure of 1 and 2 into fascinating 3D supramolecular architecture.

Keywords: Electrocatalysis, Crystal structure, coordination polymer

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7 Insight into Structure and Functions of of Acyl CoA Binding Protein of Leishmania major

Authors: Rohit Singh Dangi, Ravi Kant Pal, Monica Sundd

Abstract:

Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a housekeeping protein which functions as an intracellular carrier of acyl-CoA esters. Given the fact that the amastigote stage (blood stage) of Leishmania depends largely on fatty acids as the energy source, of which a large part is derived from its host, these proteins might have an important role in its survival. In Leishmania major, genome sequencing suggests the presence of six ACBPs, whose function remains largely unknown. For functional and structural characterization, one of the ACBP genes was cloned, and the protein was expressed and purified heterologously. Acyl-CoA ester binding and stoichiometry were analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry and Dynamic light scattering. Our results shed light on high affinity of ACBP towards longer acyl-CoA esters, such as myristoyl-CoA to arachidonoyl-CoA with single binding site. To understand the binding mechanism & dynamics, Nuclear magnetic resonance assignments of this protein are being done. The protein's crystal structure was determined at 1.5Å resolution and revealed a classical topology for ACBP, containing four alpha-helical bundles. In the binding pocket, the loop between the first and the second helix (16 – 26AA) is four residues longer from other extensively studied ACBPs (PfACBP) and it curls upwards towards the pantothenate moiety of CoA to provide a large tunnel space for long acyl chain insertion.

Keywords: Crystal structure, Calorimetry, acyl-coa binding protein (ACBP), acyl-coa esters, isothermal titration, Leishmania

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6 Vanadium (V) Complexes of a Tripodal Ligand, Their Characterization and Biological Implications

Authors: Mannar R. Maurya, Bhawna Uprety, Fernando Avecilla, Pedro Adão, J. Costa Pessoa

Abstract:

The reaction of the tripodal tetradentate dibasic ligand 6,6'–(2–(pyridin–2–yl)ethylazanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(2,4–di–tert–butylphenol), H2L1 I, with [VIVO(acac)2] in CH3CN gives the VVO–complex, [VVO(acac)(L1)] 1. Crystallization of 1 in CH3CN at ~0 ºC, gives dark blue crystals of 1, while at room temperature it affords dark green crystals of [{VVO(L1)}2µ–O] 3. Upon prolonged treatment of 1 in MeOH [VVO(OMe)(MeOH)(L1)] 2 is obtained. All three complexes are analyzed by single–crystal X–ray diffraction, depicting distorted octahedral geometry around vanadium. In the reaction of H2L1 with VIVOSO4 partial hydrolysis of the tripodal ligand results in elimination of the pyridyl fragment of L1 and the formation of H[VVO2(L2)] 4, containing the ONO tridentate ligand 6,6'–azanediylbis(methylene)bis(2,4–di–tert–butylphenol), H2L2 II. Compound 4, which was not fully characterized, undergoes dimerization in acetone yielding the hydroxido–bridged [{VVO(L2)}2µ–(HO)2] 5, having distorted octahedral geometry around each vanadium. In contrast, from a solution of 4 in acetonitrile, the dinuclear compound [{VVO(L2)}2µ–O] 6 is obtained, with trigonal bipyramidal geometry around each vanadium. The methoxido complex 2 is successfully employed as a functional catechol–oxidase mimic in the oxidation of catechol to o–quinone under air. The process is confirmed to follow a Michaelis–Menten type kinetics with respect to catechol, the Vmax and KM values obtained being 7.66×10–6 M min -1 and 0.0557 M, respectively, and the turnover frequency is 0.0541 min–1. Complex 2 is also used as a catalyst precursor for the oxidative bromination of thymol in aqueous medium. The selectivity shows quite interesting trends, namely when not using excess of primary oxidizing agent, H2O2 the para mono–brominated product corresponds to ~93 % of the products and no dibromo derivative is formed.

Keywords: Crystal structure, oxidovanadium (V) complexes, tripodal ligand, catechol oxidase mimetic activity

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5 Oxidovanadium(IV) and Dioxidovanadium(V) Complexes: Efficient Catalyst for Peroxidase Mimetic Activity and Oxidation

Authors: Mannar R. Maurya, Fernando Avecilla, Bithika Sarkar

Abstract:

Peroxidase activity is possibly successfully used for different industrial processes in medicine, chemical industry, food processing and agriculture. However, they bear some intrinsic drawback associated with denaturation by proteases, their special storage requisite and cost factor also. Now a day’s artificial enzyme mimics are becoming a research interest because of their significant applications over conventional organic enzymes for ease of their preparation, low price and good stability in activity and overcome the drawbacks of natural enzymes e.g serine proteases. At present, a large number of artificial enzymes have been synthesized by assimilating a catalytic center into a variety of schiff base complexes, ligand-anchoring, supramolecular complexes, hematin, porphyrin, nanoparticles to mimic natural enzymes. Although in recent years a several number of vanadium complexes have been reported by a continuing increase in interest in bioinorganic chemistry. To our best of knowledge, the investigation of artificial enzyme mimics of vanadium complexes is very less explored. Recently, our group has reported synthetic vanadium schiff base complexes capable of mimicking peroxidases. Herein, we have synthesized monoidovanadium(IV) and dioxidovanadium(V) complexes of pyrazoleone derivateis ( extensively studied on account of their broad range of pharmacological appication). All these complexes are characterized by various spectroscopic techniques like FT-IR, UV-Visible, NMR (1H, 13C and 51V), Elemental analysis, thermal studies and single crystal analysis. The peroxidase mimic activity has been studied towards oxidation of pyrogallol to purpurogallin with hydrogen peroxide at pH 7 followed by measuring kinetic parameters. The Michaelis-Menten behavior shows an excellent catalytic activity over its natural counterparts, e.g. V-HPO and HRP. The obtained kinetic parameters (Vmax, Kcat) were also compared with peroxidase and haloperoxidase enzymes making it a promising mimic of peroxidase catalyst. Also, the catalytic activity has been studied towards the oxidation of 1-phenylethanol in presence of H2O2 as an oxidant. Various parameters such as amount of catalyst and oxidant, reaction time, reaction temperature and solvent have been taken into consideration to get maximum oxidative products of 1-phenylethanol.

Keywords: NMR spectroscopy, Crystal structure, oxovanadium(IV)/dioxidovanadium(V) complexes, peroxidase mimic activity towards oxidation of pyrogallol, Oxidation of 1-phenylethanol

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4 X-Ray Crystallographic, Hirshfeld Surface Analysis and Docking Study of Phthalyl Sulfacetamide

Authors: Sanjay M. Tailor, Urmila H. Patel

Abstract:

Phthalyl Sulfacetamide belongs to well-known member of antimicrobial sulfonamide family. It is a potent antitumor drug. Structural characteristics of 4-amino-N-(2quinoxalinyl) benzene-sulfonamides (Phthalyl Sulfacetamide), C14H12N4O2S has been studied by method of X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/n with unit cell parameters a= 7.9841 Ǻ, b= 12.8208 Ǻ, c= 16.6607 Ǻ, α= 90˚, β= 93.23˚, γ= 90˚and Z=4. The X-ray based three-dimensional structure analysis has been carried out by direct methods and refined to an R-value of 0.0419. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N-H…N, N-H…O and π-π interactions. The Hirshfeld surfaces and consequently the fingerprint analysis have been performed to study the nature of interactions and their quantitative contributions towards the crystal packing. An analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots facilitates a comparison of intermolecular interactions, which are the key elements in building different supramolecular architectures. Docking is used for virtual screening for the prediction of the strongest binders based on various scoring functions. Docking studies are carried out on Phthalyl Sulfacetamide for better activity, which is important for the development of a new class of inhibitors.

Keywords: Crystal structure, docking, phthalyl sulfacetamide, hirshfeld surface analysis

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3 A One Dimensional Cdᴵᴵ Coordination Polymer: Synthesis, Structure and Properties

Authors: Z. Derikvand, M. Dusek, V. Eigner

Abstract:

One dimensional coordination polymer of Cdᴵᴵ based on pyrazine (pz) and 3-nitrophthalic acid (3-nphaH₂), namely poly[[diaqua bis(3-nitro-2-carboxylato-1-carboxylic acid)(µ₂-pyrazine) cadmium(II)]dihydrate], {[Cd(3-nphaH)2(pz)(H₂O)₂]. 2H₂O}ₙ was prepared and characterized. The asymmetric unit consists of one Cdᴵᴵ center, two (3-nphaH)– anions, two halves of two crystallographically distinct pz ligands, two coordinated and two uncoordinated water molecules. The Cdᴵᴵ cation is surrounded by four oxygen atoms from two (3-nphaH)– and two water molecules as well as two nitrogen atoms from two pz ligands in distorted octahedral geometry. Complicated hydrogen bonding network accompanied with N–O···π and C–O···π stacking interactions leads to formation of a 3D supramolecular network. Commonly, this kind of C–O–π and N–O···π interaction is detected in electron-rich CO/NO groups of (3-nphaH)– ligand and electron-deficient π-system of pyrazine.

Keywords: Supramolecular chemistry, Crystal structure, Cd coordination polymer

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2 Comparison of the Thermal Behavior of Different Crystal Forms of Manganese(II) Oxalate

Authors: B. Donkova, M. Nedyalkova, D. Mehandjiev

Abstract:

Sparingly soluble manganese oxalate is an appropriate precursor for the preparation of nanosized manganese oxides, which have a wide range of technological application. During the precipitation of manganese oxalate, three crystal forms could be obtained – α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG C2/c), γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG P212121) and orthorhombic MnC₂O₄.3H₂O (SG Pcca). The thermolysis of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O has been extensively studied during the years, while the literature data for the other two forms has been quite scarce. The aim of the present communication is to highlight the influence of the initial crystal structure on the decomposition mechanism of these three forms, their magnetic properties, the structure of the anhydrous oxalates, as well as the nature of the obtained oxides. For the characterization of the samples XRD, SEM, DTA, TG, DSC, nitrogen adsorption, and in situ magnetic measurements were used. The dehydration proceeds in one step with α-MnC₂O₄.2H2O and γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O, and in three steps with MnC₂O₄.3H2O. The values of dehydration enthalpy are 97, 149 and 132 kJ/mol, respectively, and the last two were reported for the first time, best to our knowledge. The magnetic measurements show that at room temperature all samples are antiferomagnetic, however during the dehydration of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O the exchange interaction is preserved, for MnC₂O₄.3H₂O it changes to ferromagnetic above 35°C, and for γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O it changes twice from antiferomagnetic to ferromagnetic above 70°C. The experimental results for magnetic properties are in accordance with the computational results obtained with Wien2k code. The difference in the initial crystal structure of the forms used determines different changes in the specific surface area during dehydration and different extent of Mn(II) oxidation during decomposition in the air; both being highest at α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O. The isothermal decomposition of the different oxalate forms shows that the type and physicochemical properties of the oxides, obtained at the same annealing temperature depend on the precursor used. Based on the results from the non-isothermal and isothermal experiments, and from different methods used for characterization of the sample, a comparison of the nature, mechanism and peculiarities of the thermolysis of the different crystal forms of manganese oxalate was made, which clearly reveals the influence of the initial crystal structure. Acknowledgment: 'Science and Education for Smart Growth', project BG05M2OP001-2.009-0028, COST Action MP1306 'Modern Tools for Spectroscopy on Advanced Materials', and project DCOST-01/18 (Bulgarian Science Fund).

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Crystal structure, Thermal Behavior, manganese oxalate

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1 Phase Equilibria in the Ln-Sr-Co-O Systems

Authors: Anastasiia Maklakova

Abstract:

The perovskite type oxides formed in the Ln-Me-Me/-O systems (where Ln – rare-earth, Me – alkaline earth metal, Me/ - 3-d metal) have potential applications as gas sensors, catalysts or cathode materials for IT-SOFCs due to the high values of mixed electronic -ionic conductivity and high oxygen diffusivity. Complex oxides in the Sr-(Pr,Gd)-Co-O systems were prepared via the glycerol-nitrate technique The phase composition was determined using a Shimadzu XRD-7000 diffractometer at room temperature in air. Phase identification was performed using the ICDD database. The structure was refined by the full-profile Rietveld method using Fullprof 2008 software. Gradual substitution of strontium by Pr or Gd leads to the decrease of unit cell parameters and unit cell volume that can be explained by the size factor. An introduction of Pr or Gd into the strontium cobaltite increases the oxygen content in samples.

Keywords: Crystal structure, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, phase equilibria, oxygen nonstoichiometry

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