Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Crystal Growth Related Abstracts

6 Gap Formation into Bulk InSb Crystals Grown by the VDS Technique Revealing Enhancement in the Transport Properties

Authors: Dattatray Gadkari, Dilip Maske, Manisha Joshi, Rashmi Choudhari, Brij Mohan Arora


The vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique has been applied to the growth of bulk InSb crystals. The concept of practical stability is applied to the case of detached bulk crystal growth on earth in a simplified design. By optimization of the set up and growth parameters, 32 ingots of 65-75 mm in length and 10-22 mm in diameter have been grown. The results indicate that the wetting angle of the melt on the ampoule wall and the pressure difference across the interface are the crucial factors effecting the meniscus shape and stability. Taking into account both heat transfer and capillarity, it is demonstrated that the process is stable in case of convex menisci (seen from melt), provided that pressure fluctuations remain in a stable range. During the crystal growth process, it is necessary to keep a relationship between the rate of the difference pressure controls and the solidification to maintain the width of gas gap. It is concluded that practical stability gives valuable knowledge of the dynamics and could be usefully applied to other crystal growth processes, especially those involving capillary shaping. Optoelectronic properties were investigated in relation to the type of solidification attached and detached ingots growth. These samples, room temperature physical properties such as Hall mobility, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and microhardness achieved for antimonide samples grown by VDS technique have shown the highest values gained till at this time. These results reveal that these crystals can be used to produce InSb with high mobility for device applications.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Electronic materials, Defects, Alloys, Optical Microscopy, Crystal structure, Crystal Growth, Solidification, etching, Hall effect

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5 Growth and Characterization of Bis-Thiourea Nickel Barium Chloride Single Crystals

Authors: Rakesh Hajiyani, Chetan Chauhan, Harshkant Jethva, Mihir Joshi


Metal bis-thiourea type organo-metallic crystals are popular as non-linear optical materials. Bis-thiourea nickel barium chloride was synthesized and crystals were grown by slow aqueous solvent evaporation technique. The transparent and colorless crystals having maximum dimensions of 13 mm x 8 mm x 2.2 mm were obtained. The EDAX was carried out to estimate the content of nickel and barium in the grown crystals. The powder XRD analysis suggested orthorhombic crystal structure with unit cell parameters as: a= 9.70 Å, b= 10.68 Å and c= 17.95 Å. The FTIR spectroscopy study confirmed the presence of various functional groups. The UV-vis spectroscopy study indicated that the crystals were transparent in the visible region with 90% transmittance level further optical parameters were studied. From the TGA it was found that the crystals remained stable up to 170 0C and then decomposed through two decomposition stages. The dielectric study was carried out in the frequency range of applied field from 500 Hz to 1 MHz. The variations of dielectric constant, dielectric loss were studied with frequency. It was found that the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss decreased as the frequency of applied field increased. The results are discussed.

Keywords: Crystal Growth, TGA, dielectric study, optical parameters, organo-metallic crystals, powder xrd, slow evaporation technique

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4 Model Predictive Control Using Thermal Inputs for Crystal Growth Dynamics

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto, Takashi Shimizu


Recently, crystal growth technologies have made progress by the requirement for the high quality of crystal materials. To control the crystal growth dynamics actively by external forces is useuful for reducing composition non-uniformity. In this study, a control method based on model predictive control using thermal inputs is proposed for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials. The control system of crystal growth dynamics considered here is governed by the continuity, momentum, energy, and mass transport equations. To establish the control method for such thermal fluid systems, we adopt model predictive control known as a kind of optimal feedback control in which the control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control method for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials.

Keywords: Process Control, Optimal Control, Model Predictive Control, Crystal Growth

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3 Shaped Crystal Growth of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al Alloy Plates by the Micro Pulling down Method

Authors: Kei Kamada, Rikito Murakami, Masahiko Ito, Mototaka Arakawa, Yasuhiro Shoji, Toshiyuki Ueno, Masao Yoshino, Akihiro Yamaji, Shunsuke Kurosawa, Yuui Yokota, Yuji Ohashi, Akira Yoshikawa


Techniques of energy harvesting y have been widely developed in recent years, due to high demand on the power supply for ‘Internet of things’ devices such as wireless sensor nodes. In these applications, conversion technique of mechanical vibration energy into electrical energy using magnetostrictive materials n have been brought to attention. Among the magnetostrictive materials, Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are attractive materials due to the figure of merits such price, mechanical strength, high magnetostrictive constant. Up to now, bulk crystals of these alloys are produced by the Bridgman–Stockbarger method or the Czochralski method. Using these method big bulk crystal up to 2~3 inch diameter can be grown. However, non-uniformity of chemical composition along to the crystal growth direction cannot be avoid, which results in non-uniformity of magnetostriction constant and reduction of the production yield. The micro-pulling down (μ-PD) method has been developed as a shaped crystal growth technique. Our group have reported shaped crystal growth of oxide, fluoride single crystals with different shape such rod, plate tube, thin fiber, etc. Advantages of this method is low segregation due to high growth rate and small diffusion of melt at the solid-liquid interface, and small kerf loss due to near net shape crystal. In this presentation, we report the shaped long plate crystal growth of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys using the μ-PD method. Alloy crystals were grown by the μ-PD method using calcium oxide crucible and induction heating system under the nitrogen atmosphere. The bottom hole of crucibles was 5 x 1mm² size. A <100> oriented iron-based alloy was used as a seed crystal. 5 x 1 x 320 mm³ alloy crystal plates were successfully grown. The results of crystal growth, chemical composition analysis, magnetostrictive properties and a prototype vibration energy harvester are reported. Furthermore, continuous crystal growth using powder supply system will be reported to minimize the chemical composition non-uniformity along the growth direction.

Keywords: Crystal Growth, Fe-Al, micro-pulling-down method, Fe-Ga

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2 Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ Alloys with Tuneable Energy Band Gap on GaAs (100) Substrate Manufactured by a Modified Magnetron Co-Sputtering

Authors: Li Qian, Jinchao Tong, Daohua Zhang, Weijun Fan, Fei Suo


Photonic applications based on group IV semiconductors have always been an interest but also a challenge for the research community. We report manufacturing group IV Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ alloys with tuneable energy band gap on (100) GaAs substrate by a modified radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering. Images were taken by atomic force microscope, and scanning electron microscope clearly demonstrates a smooth surface profile, and Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ nano clusters are with the size of several tens of nanometers. Transmittance spectra were measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy that showed changing energy gaps with the variation in elementary composition. Calculation results by 8-band k.p method are consistent with measured gaps. Our deposition system realized direct growth of Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ thin film on GaAs (100) substrate by sputtering. This simple deposition method was modified to be able to grow high-quality photonic materials with tuneable energy gaps. This work provides an alternative and successful method for fabricating Group IV photonic semiconductor materials.

Keywords: Photonic, Crystal Growth, sputtering, GeSn

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1 Synthesis, Growth, Characterization and Quantum Chemical Investigations of an Organic Single Crystal: 2-Amino- 4-Methylpyridinium Quinoline- 2-Carboxylate

Authors: Anitha Kandasamy, Thirumurugan Ramaiah


Interestingly, organic materials exhibit large optical nonlinearity with quick responses and having the flexibility of molecular tailoring using computational modelling and favourable synthetic methodologies. Pyridine based organic compounds and carboxylic acid contained aromatic compounds play a crucial role in crystal engineering of NCS complexes that displays admirable optical nonlinearity with fast response and favourable physicochemical properties such as low dielectric constant, wide optical transparency and large laser damage threshold value requires for optoelectronics device applications. Based on these facts, it was projected to form an acentric molecule of π-conjugated system interaction with appropriately replaced electron donor and acceptor groups for achieving higher SHG activity in which quinoline-2-carboyxlic acid is chosen as an electron acceptor and capable of acting as an acid as well as a base molecule, while 2-amino-4-methylpyridine is used as an electron donor and previously employed in numerous proton transfer complexes for synthesis of NLO materials for optoelectronic applications. 2-amino-4-mehtylpyridinium quinoline-2-carboxylate molecular complex (2AQ) is having π-donor-acceptor groups in which 2-amino-4-methylpyridine donates one of its electron to quinoline -2-carboxylic acid thereby forming a protonated 2-amino-4-methyl pyridinium moiety and mono ionized quinoline-2-carboxylate moiety which are connected via N-H…O intermolecular interactions with non-centrosymmetric crystal packing arrangement at microscopic scale is accountable to the enhancement of macroscopic second order NLO activity. The 2AQ crystal was successfully grown by a slow evaporation solution growth technique and its structure was determined in orthorhombic crystal system with acentric, P212121, space group. Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals that O…H intermolecular interactions primarily contributed with 31.0 % to the structural stabilization of 2AQ. The molecular structure of title compound has been confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. The vibrational modes of functional groups present in 2AQ have been assigned by using FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The grown 2AQ crystal exhibits high optical transparency with lower cut-off wavelength (275 nm) within the region of 275-1500 nm. The laser study confirmed that 2AQ exhibits high SHG efficiency of 12.6 times greater than that of KDP. TGA-DTA analysis revealed that 2AQ crystal had a thermal stability of 223 °C. The low dielectric constant and low dielectric loss at higher frequencies confirmed good crystalline nature with fewer defects of grown 2AQ crystal. The grown crystal exhibits soft material and positive photoconduction behaviour. Mulliken atomic distribution and FMOs analysis suggested that the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding which lead to the enhancement of NLO activity. These properties suggest that 2AQ crystal is a suitable material for optoelectronic and laser frequency conversion applications.

Keywords: Crystal Growth, NLO activity, proton transfer complex, quantum chemical investigation

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