Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2

cryo-milling Related Abstracts

2 Influence of Cryo-Grinding on Particle Size Distribution of Proso Millet Bran Fraction

Authors: Maja Benkovic, Dubravka Novotni, Bojana Voucko, Duska Curic, Damir Jezek, Nikolina Cukelj


Cryo-grinding is an ultra-fine grinding method used in the pharmaceutical industry, production of herbs and spices and in the production and handling of cereals, due to its ability to produce powders with small particle sizes which maintain their favorable bioactive profile. The aim of this study was to determine the particle size distributions of the proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) bran fraction grinded at cryogenic temperature (using liquid nitrogen (LN₂) cooling, T = - 196 °C), in comparison to non-cooled grinding. Proso millet bran is primarily used as an animal feed, but has a potential in food applications, either as a substrate for extraction of bioactive compounds or raw material in the bakery industry. For both applications finer particle sizes of the bran could be beneficial. Thus, millet bran was ground for 2, 4, 8 and 12 minutes using the ball mill (CryoMill, Retsch GmbH, Haan, Germany) at three grinding modes: (I) without cooling, (II) at cryo-temperature, and (III) at cryo-temperature with included 1 minute of intermediate cryo-cooling step after every 2 minutes of grinding, which is usually applied when samples require longer grinding times. The sample was placed in a 50 mL stainless steel jar containing one grinding ball (Ø 25 mm). The oscillation frequency in all three modes was 30 Hz. Particle size distributions of the bran were determined by a laser diffraction particle sizing method (Mastersizer 2000) using the Scirocco 2000 dry dispersion unit (Malvern Instruments, Malvern, UK). Three main effects of the grinding set-up were visible from the results. Firstly, grinding time at all three modes had a significant effect on all particle size parameters: d(0.1), d(0.5), d(0.9), D[3,2], D[4,3], span and specific surface area. Longer grinding times resulted in lower values of the above-listed parameters, e.g. the averaged d(0.5) of the sample (229.57±1.46 µm) dropped to 51.29±1.28 µm after 2 minutes grinding without LN₂, and additionally to 43.00±1.33 µm after 4 minutes of grinding without LN₂. The only exception was the sample ground for 12 minutes without cooling, where an increase in particle diameters occurred (d(0.5)=62.85±2.20 µm), probably due to particles adhering to one another and forming larger particle clusters. Secondly, samples with LN₂ cooling exhibited lower diameters in comparison to non-cooled. For example, after 8 minutes of non-cooled grinding d(0.5)=46.97±1.05 µm was achieved, while the LN₂ cooling enabled collection of particles with average sizes of d(0.5)=18.57±0.18 µm. Thirdly, the application of intermediate cryo-cooling step resulted in similar particle diameters (d(0.5)=15.83±0.36 µm, 12 min of grinding) as cryo-milling without this step (d(0.5)=16.33±2.09 µm, 12 min of grinding). This indicates that intermediate cooling is not necessary for the current application, which consequently reduces the consumption of LN₂. These results point out the potential beneficial effects of millet bran grinding at cryo-temperatures. Further research will show if the lower particle size achieved in comparison to non-cooled grinding could result in increased bioavailability of bioactive compounds, as well as protein digestibility and solubility of dietary fibers of the proso millet bran fraction.

Keywords: particle size distribution, ball mill, cryo-milling, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) bran

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1 Influence of Cryo-Grinding on Antioxidant Activity and Amount of Free Phenolic Acids, Rutin and Tyrosol in Whole Grain Buckwheat and Pumpkin Seed Cake

Authors: B. Voucko, M. Benkovic, N. Cukelj, S. Drakula, D. Novotni, S. Balbino, D. Curic


Oxidative stress is considered as one of the causes leading to metabolic disorders in humans. Therefore, the ability of antioxidants to inhibit free radical production is their primary role in the human organism. Antioxidants originating from cereals, especially flavonoids and polyphenols, are mostly bound and indigestible. Micronization damages the cell wall which consecutively results in bioactive material to be more accessible in vivo. In order to ensure complete fragmentation, micronization is often combined with high temperatures (e.g., for bran 200°C) which can lead to degradation of bioactive compounds. The innovative non-thermal technology of cryo-milling is an ultra-fine micronization method that uses liquid nitrogen (LN2) at a temperature of 195°C to freeze and cool the sample during milling. Freezing at such low temperatures causes the material to become brittle which ensures the generation of fine particles while preserving the bioactive content of the material. The aim of this research was to determine if production of ultra-fine material with cryo-milling will result in the augmentation of available bioactive compounds of buckwheat and pumpkin seed cake. For that reason, buckwheat and pumpkin seed cake were ground in a ball mill (CryoMill, Retch, Germany) with and without the use of LN2 for 8 minutes, in a 50 mL stainless steel jar containing one grinding ball (Ø 25 mm) at an oscillation frequency of 30 Hz. The cryo-milled samples were cooled with LN2 for 2 minutes prior to milling, followed by the first cycle of milling (4 minutes), intermediary cooling (2 minutes), and finally the second cycle of milling (further 4 minutes). A continuous process of milling was applied to the samples ground without freezing with LN2. Particle size distribution was determined using the Scirocco 2000 dry dispersion unit (Malvern Instruments, UK). Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, while the total phenol content was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method, using the ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (Specord 50 Plus, Germany). The content of the free phenolic acids, rutin in buckwheat, tyrosol in pumpkin seed cake, was determined with an HPLC-PDA method (Agilent 1200 series, Germany). Cryo-milling resulted in 11 times smaller size of buckwheat particles, and 3 times smaller size of pumpkin seed particles than milling without the use of LN2, but also, a lower uniformity of the particle size distribution. Lack of freezing during milling of pumpkin seed cake caused a formation of agglomerates due to its high-fat content (21 %). Cryo-milling caused augmentation of buckwheat flour antioxidant activity measured by DPPH test (23,9%) and an increase in available rutin content (14,5%). Also, it resulted in an augmentation of the total phenol content (36,9%) and available tyrosol content (12,5%) of pumpkin seed cake. Antioxidant activity measured with the FRAP test, as well as the content of phenolic acids remained unchanged independent of the milling process. The results of this study showed the potential of cryo-milling for complete raw material utilization in the food industry, as well as a tool for extraction of aimed bioactive components.

Keywords: Bioactive, buckwheat, cryo-milling, ball-mill, pumpkin seed cake

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