Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

crude palm oil Related Abstracts

4 Enzymatic Remediation in Standard Crude Palm Oil for Superior Quality Oil

Authors: Norliza Saparin, Mohd Suria Affandi Yusoff, Haniza Ahmad, Ahmadilfitri Md Noor

Abstract:

Enzymatic remediation is applied in low free fatty acid (FFA) (<4%) crude palm oil (CPO) to investigate if further FFA reduction is able to take place to produce premium CPO (<1% FFA). There are four different lipase Candida Antartica brands used in this study. Samples submit to enzymatic remediation using rotary evaporator under 100mbar vacuum with rotation at 260rpm. Samples were taken at 4hours, 8hours and 24hours for analyses. FFA less than 1% was achieved after 24hours reaction with 1% enzyme and 2% glycerol. The FFA reduction was intensified with the presence of glycerol who provides more sites for fatty acid attachment. At 2% glycerol, 71-88% FFA was reduced whereas at 1% glycerol, 46-75% FFA reduced. However, partial glycerides was increased with presence of glycerol with 2% add in glycerol showed greater partial glycerides increment compared to 1% glycerol.

Keywords: Enzymes, glycerol, free fatty acid, crude palm oil

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3 Antioxidant Extraction from Indonesian Crude Palm Oil and Its Antioxidation Activity

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono, Puti Pertiwi

Abstract:

Crude palm oil (CPO) is a vegetable oil that came from a palm tree bunch. Palm oil tree was known as highest vegetable oil yield. It was grown across Equatorial County, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. The greenish red color on CPO was came from carotenoid antioxidant, which could be extracted and use separately as functional food and other purposes as antioxidant source. Another antioxidant that also found in CPO is tocopherol. The aim of the research work is to find antioxidant activity on CPO comparing to the synthetic antioxidant that available in a market. On this research work, antioxidant was extracted by using a mixture of acetone and n. hexane, while activity of the antioxidant extract was determine by DPPH method. The extracted matter was shown that their antioxidant activity was about 45% compare to pure tocopherol and beta carotene.

Keywords: DPPH, antioxidant, beta carotene, tocopherol, crude palm oil

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2 Crude Palm Oil Antioxidant Extraction and the Antioxidation Activity

Authors: Supriyono Supriyono, Sumardiyono Sumardiyono, Peni Pujiastuti, Dian Indriana Hapsari

Abstract:

Crude palm oil (CPO) is a vegetable oil that came from a palm tree bunch. The productivity of the oil is 12 ton/hectare/year. Thus palm oil tree was known as highest vegetable oil yield. It was grown across Equatorial County, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. The greenish-red color on CPO was come from carotenoid. Carotenoid is one of the antioxidants that could be extracted. Carotenoid could be used as functional food and other purposes. Another antioxidant that also found in CPO is tocopherol. The aim of the research work is to find antioxidant activity on CPO comparing to the synthetic antioxidant that available in a market. In this research work, antioxidant was extracted by a mixture of acetone and n.hexane, while the activity of the antioxidant extract was determined by DPPH method. Antioxidant activity of the extracted compound about 46% compared to pure tocopherol. While the solvent mixture compose by 90% acetone and 10% n. hexane meet the best on the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: DPPH, antioxidant, beta carotene, tocopherol, crude palm oil

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1 Water Footprint for the Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia

Authors: Vijaya Subramaniam, Loh Soh Kheang, Astimar Abdul Aziz

Abstract:

Water footprint (WFP) has gained importance due to the increase in water scarcity in the world. This study analyses the WFP for an agriculture sector, i.e., the oil palm supply chain, which produces oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB), crude palm oil, palm kernel, and crude palm kernel oil. The water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) method was used. This method analyses the water depletion index (WDI) based on the local blue water scarcity. The main contribution towards the WFP at the plantation was the production of FFB from the crop itself at 0.23m³/tonne FFB. At the mill, the burden shifts to the water added during the process, which consists of the boiler and process water, which accounted for 6.91m³/tonne crude palm oil. There was a 33% reduction in the WFP when there was no dilution or water addition after the screw press at the mill. When allocation was performed, the WFP reduced by 42% as the burden was shared with the palm kernel and palm kernel shell. At the kernel crushing plant (KCP), the main contributor towards the WFP 4.96 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil which came from the palm kernel which carried the burden from upstream followed by electricity, 0.33 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil used for the process and 0.08 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil for transportation of the palm kernel. A comparison was carried out for mills with biogas capture versus no biogas capture, and the WFP had no difference for both scenarios. The comparison when the KCPs operate in the proximity of mills as compared to those operating in the proximity of ports only gave a reduction of 6% for the WFP. Both these scenarios showed no difference and insignificant difference, which differed from previous life cycle assessment studies on the carbon footprint, which showed significant differences. This shows that findings change when only certain impact categories are focused on. It can be concluded that the impact from the water used by the oil palm tree is low due to the practice of no irrigation at the plantations and the high availability of water from rainfall in Malaysia. This reiterates the importance of planting oil palm trees in regions with high rainfall all year long, like the tropics. The milling stage had the most significant impact on the WFP. Mills should avoid dilution to reduce this impact.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Water Footprint, wave method, crude palm oil, crude palm kernel oil

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