Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

crude extracts Related Abstracts

3 Crude Extracts of Medicinal Plants Can Inhibit Some Bacteria of Clinical Importance in Minced Meat

Authors: Chika C. Ogueke, Ijeoma M. Agunwah

Abstract:

The antimicrobial activities and preservative potentials of crude extracts of Alstonia boonei stem bark and Euphorbia hirta leaves were studied. Soxhlet extraction and cold ethanol extraction methods were used for the extraction of the dried and ground plant samples. Well in agar diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial screening at different concentrations of 25mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 100mg/ml and 200mg/ml on E.coli and B.subtilis. The preservative effects of the extracts at 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% singly and in combination were determined in minced meat using E. coli and B. subtilis as test isolates. Phytochemical analysis was also conducted on the extracts using standard analytical methods. E.hirta cold and A.boonei cold extracts gave the highest zone of growth inhibition on E. coli and B.substilis with 20mm zone diameter at 200mg/ml concentration. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides. A.boonei at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% produced a log cycle reduction on the growth of E.coli. Mixture of A. boonei and E. hirta extracts (1:1) at 0.1% and 0.2% also produced a log cycle reduction on the growth of E.coli and B. subtilis, however the A. boonei extracts had more significant effect on the isolates. The observed antimicrobial activities are attributed to the phytochemicals identified in the extracts. The results reveal the potentials of plant extracts as natural antimicrobial preservatives in minced meat. Thus the crude extracts can act as inhibitors of bacteria in a food system. Upon further purification better results may be obtained.

Keywords: antimicrobial preservative, crude extracts, minced meat, test isolates

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2 Influence of Cucurbitacin-Containing Phytonematicides on Growth of Rough Lemon (Citrus jambhiri)

Authors: Raisibe V. Mathabatha, Phatu W. Mashela, Nehemiah M. Mokgalong

Abstract:

Occasional incidence of phytotoxicity in Nemarioc-BL and Nemafric-AL phytonematicides to crops raises credibility challenges that could negate their registration as commercial products. Responses of plants to phytonematicides are characterized by the existence of stimulation, neutral and inhibition phases, with the mid-point of the former being referred to as the Mean Concentration Stimulation Point (MSCP = Dm + Rh/2). The objective of this study was to determine the MCSP and the overall sensitivity (∑k) of Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides to rough lemon seedling rootstocks using the Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Dosage (CARD) computer-based model. Two parallel greenhouse experiments were initiated, with seven dilutions of each phytonematicide arranged in a randomised complete block design, replicated nine times. Six-month-old rough lemon seedlings were transplanted into 20-cm-diameter plastic pots, filled with steam-pasteurised river sand (300°C for 3 h) and Hygromix-T growing mixture. Treatments at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 164% dilutions were applied weekly at 300 ml/plant. At 84 days after the treatments, analysis of variance-significant plant variables was subjected to the CARD model to generate appropriate biological indices. Computed MCSP values for Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides on rough lemon were 29 and 38%, respectively, whereas ∑k values were 1 and 0, respectively. At the applied concentrations, rough lemon seedlings were highly sensitive to Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides.

Keywords: crude extracts, cucurbitacins, effective microbes, fruit extracts

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1 Influence of Cucurbitacin-Containing Phytonematicides on Nematode Biocontrol Agent: Trichoderma harzianum

Authors: Phatu W. Mashela, Jacqueline T. Madaure

Abstract:

Cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides consistently suppress root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematode population densities. However, the impact of these products on nematode biocontrol agents is not documented. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides on growth of Trichoderma harzianum under in vitro conditions. The two phytonematicides were separately prepared to concentrations of 3% and used in poison plate assays. After exposure at different times from 0 to 72 h, there was 100% mycelial growth of T. harzianum. In conclusion, at the recommended concentrations of phytonematicides used in managing nematode population densities, there was no evidence of suppressive effects on growth of T. harzianum by the two phytonematicides.

Keywords: Botanicals, ethnomedicinal plants, crude extracts, Cucurbitacin B, cucumis africanus, cucumis myriocarpus, cucurbitacin a

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