Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

crosslinking Related Abstracts

6 Crosslinking of Unsaturated Elastomers in Presence of Aromatic Chlorine-Containing Compounds

Authors: Shiraz M. Mammadov, Elvin M. Aliyev, Adil A. Garibov

Abstract:

The role of the disulfochloride benzene in unsaturated rubbers (SKIN, SKN-26) which is in the systems of SKIN+disulfochloride benzene and SKN-26+disulfochloride benzene was studied by the radiation exposure. By the usage of physical, chemical and spectral methods the changes in the molecular structure of the rubber were shown after irradiation by y-rays at 300 kGy. The outputs and the emergence of the crosslinking in the elastomers for each system depending on absorbed dose were defined. It is suggested that the mechanism of radiation occurs by the heterogeneous transformation of elastomers in the presence of disulfochloride benzene.

Keywords: Radiation, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, crosslinking, polyfunctional monomers, sensitizier, vulcanization

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5 Flame Retardant Study of Methylol Melamine Phosphate-Treated Cotton Fibre

Authors: Kasali Bello, Nurudeen Afolami Ayeni

Abstract:

Methylolmelamine with increasing degree of methylol substitution and the phosphates derivatives were used to resinate cotton fabric (CF). The resination was carried out at different curing time and curing temperature. Generally, the results show a reduction in the flame propagation rate of the treated fabrics compared to the untreated cotton fabric (CF). While the flame retardancy of methylolmelamine-treated fibre could be attributed to the degree of crosslinking of fibre-resin network which promotes stability, the methylolmelamine phosphate-treated fabrics show better retardancy due to the intumescences action of the phosphate resin upon decomposition in the resin – fabric network.

Keywords: flame retardant, crosslinking, cotton fabric, resination, methylolmelamine

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4 Synthesis of Crosslinked Konjac Glucomannan and Kappa Carrageenan Film with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Mujtahid Kaavessina, Fadilah

Abstract:

Crosslinked konjac glucomannan and kappa carrageenan film were prepared by chemical crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent. The effect crosslinking on the swelling degree was investigated. Konjac glucomanan and its mixture with kappa carragenan film was immersed in GA solution and then thermally cured. The obtained crosslinked film was washed and soaked in the ethanol to remove the unreacted GA. The obtained film was air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The infrared spectra and the value of swelling degree of obtained crosslinked film showed that glucomannan and kappa carrageenan was able to be crosslinked using glutaraldehyde by film immersion and curing method without catalyst. The crosslinked films were found to be pH sensitive, indicating a potential to be used in drug delivery polymer system.

Keywords: Swelling, crosslinking, carrageenan, glucomannan

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3 Mass Transfer of Paracetamol from the Crosslinked Carrageenan-Polyvinyl Alcohol Film

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina, Rieke Ulfha Noviyanti, Sri Sutriyani

Abstract:

In this research, carrageenan extracted from seaweed Eucheuma cottonii was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and then crosslinked using glutaraldehyde (GA). The obtained hydrogel films were applied to control the drug release rate of paracetamol. The aim of this research was to develop a mathematical model that can be used to describe the mass transfer rate of paracetamol from the hydrogel film into buffer solution. The effect of weight ratio carrageenan-PVA (5: 0, 1: 0.5, 1: 1, 1: 2, 0: 5) on the parameters of the mathematical model was investigated also. Based on the experimental data, the proposed mathematical model could describe the mass transfer rate of paracetamol. The weight ratio of carrageenan-PVA greatly affected the amount of paracetamol absorbed in the hydrogel film and the mass transfer rate of paracetamol.

Keywords: mass transfer, Hydrogel, glutaraldehyde, paracetamol, crosslinking, carrageenan-PVA

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2 The Effect of Solution pH of Chitosan on Antimicrobial Properties of Nylon 6,6 Fabrics

Authors: Nilüfer Yıldız Varan

Abstract:

The antimicrobial activities of chitosan against various bacteria and fungi are well known, and the antimicrobial activity of chitosan depends on pH. This study investigates the antimicrobial activity at different pH levels. Nylon 6,6 fabrics were treated with different chitosan solutions. Additionally, samples were treated also in basic conditions to see the antimicrobial activities. AATCC Test Method 100 was followed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity using Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 test inoculum. The pH of the chitosan solutions was controlled below 6.5 since chitosan shows its antimicrobial activity only in acidic conditions because of its poor solubility above 6.5. In basic conditions, the samples did not show any antimicrobial activity. It appears from SEM images that the bonded chitosan in the structures exists. In acidic media (ph < 6.5), all samples showed antimicrobial activity. No correlation was found between pH levels and antimicrobial activity in acidic media.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, chitosan, crosslinking, pH stability, nylon 6

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1 Delivery of Positively Charged Proteins Using Hyaluronic Acid Microgels

Authors: Elaheh Jooybar, Mohammad J. Abdekhodaie, Marcel Karperien, Pieter J. Dijkstra

Abstract:

In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) microgels were developed for the goal of protein delivery. First, a hyaluronic acid-tyramine conjugate (HA-TA) was synthesized with a degree of substitution of 13 TA moieties per 100 disaccharide units. Then, HA-TA microdroplets were produced using a water in oil emulsion method and crosslinked in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Loading capacity and the release kinetics of lysozyme and BSA, as model proteins, were investigated. It was shown that lysozyme, a cationic protein, can be incorporated efficiently in the HA microgels, while the loading efficiency for BSA, as a negatively charged protein, is low. The release profile of lysozyme showed a sustained release over a period of one month. The results demonstrated that the HA-TA microgels are a good carrier for spatial delivery of cationic proteins for biomedical applications.

Keywords: Protein Delivery, hyaluronic acid, crosslinking, microgel, inverse emulsion

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