Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

cross-linking Related Abstracts

6 Interaction of Histone H1 with Chromatin-associated Protein HMGB1 Studied by Microscale Thermophoresis

Authors: Michal Štros, Eva Polanská, Šárka Pospíšilová


HMGB1 is an architectural protein in chromatin, acting also as a signaling molecule outside the cell. Recent reports from several laboratories provided evidence that a number of both the intracellular and extracellular functions of HMGB1 may depend on redox-sensitive cysteine residues of the protein. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed that mild oxidization of HMGB1 resulted in a conformational change of the protein due to formation of an intramolecular disulphide bond by opposing Cys23 and Cys45 residues. We have demonstrated that redox state of HMGB1 could significantly modulate the ability of the protein to bind and bend DNA. We have also shown that reduced HMGB1 could easily displace histone H1 from DNA, while oxidized HMGB1 had limited capacity for H1 displacement. Using microscale thermophoresis (MST) we have further studied mechanism of HMGB1 interaction with histone H1 in free solution or when histone H1 was bound to DNA. Our MST analysis indicated that reduced HMGB1 exhibited in free solution > 1000 higher affinity of for H1 (KD ~ 4.5 nM) than oxidized HMGB1 (KD <10 M). Finally, we present a novel mechanism for the HMGB1-mediated modulation of histone H1 binding to DNA.

Keywords: Interaction, histone H1, HMGB1, redox state, cross-linking, DNA bending, DNA end-joining, microscale thermophoresis

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5 Degradation Mechanism of Automotive Refinish Coatings Exposed to Biological Substances: The Role of Cross-Linking Density

Authors: M. Mahdavi, M. Mohseni, R. Rafiei, H. Yari


Environmental factors can deteriorate the automotive coatings significantly. Such as UV radiations, humidity, hot-cold shock and destructive chemical compounds. Furthermore, some natural materials such as bird droppings and tree gums have the potential to degrade the coatings as well. The present work aims to study the mechanism of degradation for two automotive refinish coating (PU based) systems exposed to two types of biological materials, i.e. Arabic gum and the simulated bird dropping, pancreatin. To reach this goal, effects of these biological materials on surface properties and appearance were studied using different techniques including digital camera, FT-IR spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and gloss measurements. In addition, the thermo-mechanical behavior of coatings was examined by DMTA. It was found that cross-linking had a crucial role on the biological resistance of clear coat. The higher cross-linking enhanced biological resistance.

Keywords: cross-linking, refinish clear coat, pancreatin, Arabic gum, biological degradation

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4 Collagen Hydrogels Cross-Linked by Squaric Acid

Authors: Joanna Skopinska-Wisniewska, Anna Bajek, Marta Ziegler-Borowska, Alina Sionkowska


Hydrogels are a class of materials widely used in medicine for many years. Proteins, such as collagen, due to the presence of a large number of functional groups are easily wettable by polar solvents and can create hydrogels. The supramolecular network capable to swelling is created by cross-linking of the biopolymers using various reagents. Many cross-linking agents has been tested for last years, however, researchers still are looking for a new, more secure reactants. Squaric acid, 3,4-dihydroxy 3-cyclobutene 1,2- dione, is a very strong acid, which possess flat and rigid structure. Due to the presence of two carboxyl groups the squaric acid willingly reacts with amino groups of collagen. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of addition of squaric acid on the chemical, physical and biological properties of collagen materials. The collagen type I was extracted from rat tail tendons and 1% solution in 0.1M acetic acid was prepared. The samples were cross-linked by the addition of 5%, 10% and 20% of squaric acid. The mixtures of all reagents were incubated 30 min on magnetic stirrer and then dialyzed against deionized water. The FTIR spectra show that the collagen structure is not changed by cross-linking by squaric acid. Although the mechanical properties of the collagen material deteriorate, the temperature of thermal denaturation of collagen increases after cross-linking, what indicates that the protein network was created. The lyophilized collagen gels exhibit porous structure and the pore size decreases with the higher addition of squaric acid. Also the swelling ability is lower after the cross-linking. The in vitro study demonstrates that the materials are attractive for 3T3 cells. The addition of squaric acid causes formation of cross-ling bonds in the collagen materials and the transparent, stiff hydrogels are obtained. The changes of physicochemical properties of the material are typical for cross-linking process, except mechanical properties – it requires further experiments. However, the results let us to conclude that squaric acid is a suitable cross-linker for protein materials for medicine and tissue engineering.

Keywords: Hydrogel, collagen, cross-linking, squaric acid

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3 Viscoelastic Response of the Human Corneal Stroma Induced by Riboflavin/UVA Cross-Linking

Authors: C. Labate, M. P. De Santo, G. Lombardo, R. Barberi, M. Lombardo, N. M. Ziebarth


In the past decades, the importance of corneal biomechanics in the normal and pathological functions of the eye has gained its credibility. In fact, the mechanical properties of biological tissues are essential to their physiological function. We are convinced that an improved understanding of the nanomechanics of corneal tissue is important to understand the basic molecular interactions between collagen fibrils. Ultimately, this information will help in the development of new techniques to cure ocular diseases and in the development of biomimetic materials. Therefore, nanotechnology techniques are powerful tools and, in particular, Atomic Force Microscopy has demonstrated its ability to reliably characterize the biomechanics of biological tissues either at the micro- or nano-level. In the last years, we have investigated the mechanical anisotropy of the human corneal stroma at both the tissue and molecular levels. In particular, we have focused on corneal cross-linking, an established procedure aimed at slowing down or halting the progression of the disease known as keratoconus. We have obtained the first evidence that riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking induces both an increase of the elastic response and a decrease of the viscous response of the most anterior stroma at the scale of stromal molecular interactions.

Keywords: Atomic Force Spectroscopy, Viscoelasticity, cross-linking, corneal stroma

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2 Alterations of Molecular Characteristics of Polyethylene under the Influence of External Effects

Authors: Vigen Barkhudaryan


The influence of external effects (γ-, UV–radiations, high temperature) in presence of air oxygen on structural transformations of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) have been investigated dependent on the polymers’ thickness, the intensity and the dose of external actions. The methods of viscosimetry, light scattering, turbidimetry and gelation measuring were used for this purpose. The comparison of influence of external effects on LDPE shows, that the destruction and cross-linking processes of macromolecules proceed simultaneously with all kinds of external effects. A remarkable growth of average molecular mass of LDPE along with the irradiation doses and heat treatment exposure growth was established. It was linear for the mass average molecular mass and at the initial doses is mainly the result of the increase of the macromolecular branching. As a result, the macromolecular hydrodynamic volumes have been changed, and therefore the dependence of viscosity average molecular mass on the doses was going through the minimum at initial doses. A significant change of molecular mass, sizes and shape of macromolecules of LDPE occurs under the influence of external effects. The influence is limited only by diffusion of oxygen during -irradiation and heat treatment. At UV–irradiation the influence is limited both by diffusion of oxygen and penetration of radiation. Consequently, the molecular transformations are deeper and evident in case of -irradiation, as soon as the polymer is transformed in a whole volume. It was also established, that the mechanism of molecular transformations in polymers from the surface layer distinctly differs from those of the sample deeper layer. A comparison of the results of these investigations allows us to conclude, that the mechanisms of influence of investigated external effects on polyethylene are similar.

Keywords: High Temperature, LDPE, cross-linking, destruction, γ-radiations, UV-radiations

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1 Effect of Weave on Cotton Fabric to Improve the Durable Press Finish Rating

Authors: Mayur Kudale, Priyanka Panchal


Cellulose fibres, mainly cotton, are the most important kind of fibre used for manufacturing shirting fabric. However, to overcome its main disadvantage, that is it gets wrinkled after washing, is to use special kind of finish which is resin finish. This finish provides a resistance against shrinkage along with improved wet and dry wrinkle recovery to cellulosic textiles. The Durable Press (DP) finish uses a mechanism of cross-linking with polymers or resin to inhibit the easy movement of the cellulose chains. The purpose of these experimentations on the weave is to observe and compare the variations in properties after DP finish without adverse effect on strength of the fabric. In this work, we have prepared three types of fabric weaves viz. Plain, Twill and Sateen with their construction parameters intact. To get the projected results, this work uses three types of variables viz. concentration of Resin, Temperature and Time. Resultant of these variables is only change in weave or construction on DP finish which further opens the possibilities of improvement of DP either of mentioned weaves. The combined effect of such various parametric resin finish methodology will give the best method to improve the DP. However, the DP finish can cause a side effect of reduction in elasticity and flexibility of cellulosic fibres. The natural cellulose could loss abrasion resistance along with tear and tensile strength by applying DP finish. In this work, it is taken care that the tear strength of fabric will not drop below certain limit otherwise the fabric will tear down easily. In this work, it is found that there is a significant drop in tearing and tensile strength with the improvement of DP finish. Later on, it is also found that the twill weave has more percentage drop in tearing strength as compared to plain and sateen weave. There is major kind of observations obtained after this work. First, the mixing of cotton should be done properly to achieve the higher DP rating in plain weave. Second, the careful combination of warp, weft and fabric construction must be decided to avoid the high drop in tear and tensile strength in a twill weave. Third, the sateen weave has a good sheen and DP rating hence it can be used in shirting of gents and ladies dress materials. This concludes that to achieve higher DP ratings, use plain weave construction than twill and sateen because it has the lowest tear and tensile strength drop.

Keywords: cross-linking, concentration of resin, durable press (DP) finish, sheen, tear and tensile strength, weave

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