Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

crop yields Related Abstracts

3 Mechanical Soil: Effects of the Passage of Tractors on Agricultural Land

Authors: Anis Eloud, Ben Salah Nahla, Sayed Chehaibi

Abstract:

In order to improve and develop the Tunisian agriculture, the government has encouraged the introduction of modern technologies and has also promoted the adoption of innovative practices cultures. Indeed, the extensive use of mechanization can increase crop productivity but its inadequate application also has a negative impact on the ground caused by the phenomenon of compaction. Which will cause the loss of soil fertility and increased production costs. This problem is accentuated with increase the stress on contact wheel / ground. For this reason, the objective of this study is to simulate the footprint of the ground contact / tire two types of tractor after their passage. The method of this work is based on a simulation including passages from two different tractors on soil with similar characteristics. Simulation parameters were based on the choice of two tractors masses of 6500 kg and 4400 kg of soil and sandy loam in nature. The analysis was performed using specific software. The main results showed that the heaviest tractor caused a constraint wheel / rear floor exceeding 100 kPa. For cons, the second tractor has caused stress wheel / rear floor of 50 kPa. The comparison of the two results showed that 6500 kg tractor made a serious and excessive compaction which generated a negative impact on soil quality and crop yields.

Keywords: Soil, compaction, resistance to penetration, crop yields

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2 Analysis of Weather Variability Impact on Yields of Some Crops in Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: Olumuyiwa Idowu Ojo, Oluwatobi Peter Olowo

Abstract:

The study developed a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) database and mapped inter-annual changes in crop yields of cassava, cowpea, maize, rice, melon and yam as a response to inter-annual rainfall and temperature variability in Southwest, Nigeria. The aim of this project is to study the comparative analysis of the weather variability impact of six crops yield (Rice, melon, yam, cassava, Maize and cowpea) in South Western States of Nigeria (Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, Ondo, Ogun and Lagos) from 1991 – 2007. The data was imported and analysed in the Arch GIS 9 – 3 software environment. The various parameters (temperature, rainfall, crop yields) were interpolated using the kriging method. The results generated through interpolation were clipped to the study area. Geographically weighted regression was chosen from the spatial statistics toolbox in Arch GIS 9.3 software to analyse and predict the relationship between temperature, rainfall and the different crops (Cowpea, maize, rice, melon, yam, and cassava).

Keywords: GIS, temperature, Rainfall, Comparative Analysis, crop yields, weather variability

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1 Climate-Smart Agriculture for Sustainable Maize-Wheat Production: Effects on Crop Productivity, Profitability and Irrigation Water Use

Authors: S. K. Kakraliya, R. D. Jat, H. S. Jat, P. C. Sharma, M. L. Jat

Abstract:

The traditional rice-wheat (RW) system in the IGP of South Asia is tillage, water, energy, and capital intensive. Coupled with more pumping of groundwater over the years to meet the high irrigation water requirement of the RW system has resulted in over-exploitation of groundwater. Replacement of traditional rice with less water crops such as maize under climate-smart agriculture (CSA) based management (tillage, crop establishment and residue management) practices are required to promote sustainable intensification. Furthermore, inefficient nutrient management practices are responsible for low crop yields and nutrient use efficiencies in maize-wheat (MW) system. A 7-year field experiment was conducted in farmer’s participatory strategic research mode at Taraori, Karnal, India to evaluate the effects of tillage and crop establishment (TCE) methods, residue management, mungbean integration, and nutrient management practices on crop yields, water productivity and profitability of MW system. The main plot treatments included four combinations of TCE, residue and mungbean integration [conventional tillage (CT), conventional tillage with mungbean (CT + MB), permanent bed (PB) and permanent bed with MB (PB + MB] with three nutrient management practices [farmer’s fertilizer practice (FFP), recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) and site-specific nutrient management (SSNM)] using Nutrient Expert® as subplot treatments. System productivity, water use efficiency (WUE) and net returns under PB + MB were significantly increased by 25–30%, 28–31% and 35–40% compared to CT respectively, during seven years of experimentation. The integration of MB in MW system contributed ~25and ~ 28% increases in system productivity and net returns compared with no MB, respectively. SSNM based nutrient management increased the mean (averaged across 7 yrs) system productivity by 12- 15% compared with FFP. The study revealed that CSA based sustainable intensification (PB + MB) and SSNM approach provided opportunities for enhancing crop productivity, WUE and profitability of the MW system in India.

Keywords: Conservation agriculture, crop yields, Precision water and nutrient management, Permanent beds

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