Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

critical review Related Abstracts

2 Development and Implementation of E-Disease Surveillance Systems for Public Health Southern Africa: A Critical Review

Authors: Taurai T. Chikotie, Bruce W. Watson

Abstract:

The manifestation of ‘new’ infectious diseases and the re-emergence of ‘old’ infectious diseases now present global problems and Southern Africa has not been spared from such calamity. Although having an organized public health system, countries in this region have failed to leverage on the proliferation in use of Information and Communication Technologies to promote effective disease surveillance. Objective: The objective of this study was to critically review and analyse the crucial variables to consider in the development and implementation of electronic disease surveillance systems in public health within the context of Southern Africa. Methodology: A critical review of literature published in English using, Google Scholar, EBSCOHOST, Science Direct, databases from the Centre for Disease Control (CDC and articles from the World Health Organisation (WHO) was undertaken. Manual reference and grey literature searches were also conducted. Results: Little has been done towards harnessing the potential of information technologies towards disease surveillance and this has been due to several challenges that include, lack of funding, lack of health informatics experts, poor supporting infrastructure, an unstable socio-political and socio-economic ecosystem in the region and archaic policies towards integration of information technologies in public health governance. Conclusion: The Southern African region stands to achieve better health outcomes if they adopt the use of e-disease surveillance systems in public health. However, the dynamics and complexities of the socio-economic, socio-political and technical variables would need addressing to ensure the successful development and implementation of e-disease surveillance systems in the region.

Keywords: Disease surveillance, Public Health Informatics, Southern Africa, critical review

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1 National Standard of Canada for Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace: A Critical Review

Authors: Lucie Côté, Isabelle Rodier

Abstract:

The main objective of the research was to identify demonstrated mechanisms promoting psychological well-being and psychological health in the workplace, and to take a critical look at the 'National Standard of Canada for Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace - Prevention, Promotion and Guidance to Staged Implementation (Standard)' as a mechanism to promote the psychological well-being and psychological health in the workplace. A review of the scientific literature was conducted, and a case study was done using data from a Canadian federal department. The following six mechanisms with an efficiency supported by most of the studies reviewed were identified: improving psychological well-being in the workplace literacy; strengthening the resilience of employees; creating an environmentally friendly and healthy workplace; promoting a healthy lifestyle; taking into account psychological characteristics in the drafting of job descriptions and tasks during the hiring process; and offering psychological self-care tools. The Standard offers several mechanisms beyond those previously identified and their implementation can be demanding. Research based on objective data and addressing the magnitude of the effect would be required.

Keywords: workplace, Psychological Health, critical review, national standard of Canada

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