Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Critical Care Related Abstracts

9 The Process of Critical Care Nursing Resilience in Workplace Adversity

Authors: Jennifer Jackson

Abstract:

Critical care nurses are at risk for burnout when confronted with sustained workplace adversity, which stems from a variety of social, structural, and environmental factors. Researchers have suggested that nurses can become resilient and overcome workplace adversity to achieve positive outcomes. The purpose of this study is to learn more about critical care nurses’ experiences with workplace adversity, and their process of becoming resilient. The research question will be: what is the process of critical care nursing resilience in workplace adversity? In-depth interviews with critical care nurses will provide the data to inductively generate the grounded theory. The resultant grounded theory will provide a framework to inform nurses and managers in developing interventions to support critical care nurses in their workplace. By enhancing nursing resilience, burnout may be avoided, and nurse satisfaction and overall quality of care may be improved.

Keywords: Nursing, Critical Care, Resilience, Burnout

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8 Prone Positioning and Clinical Outcomes of Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Authors: Maha Salah Abdullah Ismail, Mahmoud M. Alsagheir, Mohammed Salah Abd Allah

Abstract:

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by permeability pulmonary edema and refractory hypoxemia. Lung-protective ventilation is still the key of better outcome in ARDS. Prone position reduces the trans-pulmonary pressure gradient, recruiting collapsed regions of the lung without increasing airway pressure or hyperinflation. Prone ventilation showed improved oxygenation and improved outcomes in severe hypoxemic patients with ARDS. This study evaluates the effect of prone positioning on mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS. A quasi-experimental design was carried out at Critical Care Units, on 60 patients. Two tools were utilized to collect data; Socio demographic, medical and clinical outcomes data sheet. Results of the present study indicated that prone position improves oxygenation in patients with severe respiratory distress syndrome. The study recommended that use prone position in patients with severe ARDS, as early as possible and for long sessions. Also, replication of this study on larger probability sample at the different geographical location is highly recommended.

Keywords: Critical Care, acute respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation, prone position

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7 Magnitude and Outcome of Resuscitation Activities at Rwanda Military Hospital for the Period of April 2013-September 2013

Authors: Auni Idi Muhire

Abstract:

Background: Prior to April 2012, resuscitations were often ineffective resulting in poor patient outcomes. An initiative was implemented at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH) to review root causes and plan strategies to improve patient outcomes. An interdisciplinary committee was developed to review this problem. Purpose: Analyze the frequency, obstacles, and outcome of patient resuscitation following cardiac and/or respiratory arrest. Methods: A form was developed to allow recording of all actions taken during resuscitation including response times, staff present, and equipment and medications used. Results:-The patient population requiring the most resuscitation effort are the intensive care patients, most frequently the neonatal the intensive care patients (42.8%) -Despite having trained staff representatives, not all resuscitations follow protocol -Lack of compliance with drug administration guidelines was noted, particularly in initiating use of drugs despite the drug being available (59%). Lesson Learned: Basic Life Support training for interdisciplinary staff resulted in more effective response to cardiac and/or respiratory arrest at RMH. Obstacles to effective resuscitation included number of staff, knowledge and skill level of staff, availability of appropriate equipment and medications, staff communication, and patient Do not Attempt Resuscitation (DNR) status.

Keywords: Resuscitation, Critical Care, Intensive Care, case analysis of knowledge versus practice

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6 Clinical Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis Receiving Extended and Standard Meropenem Infusion in Malaysian Hospitals

Authors: Fahmi Hassan, Noorizan Abdul Aziz, Yahaya Hassan, Hazlinda Abu Hassan

Abstract:

Sepsis incidence in critical care settings is a major problem in health care. Extended antibiotic infusion is thought to be superior to traditional dosing especially when treating critically ill patients with sepsis. We compared clinical outcomes of critically ill patients with sepsis receiving 30-minute meropenem infusion and three-hour meropenem infusion. A retrospective case-control study was conducted among septic patients treated with meropenem infusion in ICUs of three hospitals. Patients included in the study received either extended or standard meropenem infusion as per the practice of individual settings. Outcomes and clinical data were retrospectively collected from the electronic databases and patients’ files. A total of 108 patients received extended meropenem infusion while another 117 patients received standard meropenem infusion. Patients receiving the extended meropenem infusion were found to have a significantly lower shorter length of hospital and ICU stay. It was also found that among those receiving extended meropenem infusion, 54.7% (64/117) had a reduction of SAPS II score, while only 44% (48/108) of patients receiving standard meropenem infusion had reduced scores. This study will strengthen the evidence in using extended meropenem infusion as a standard practice in critical care settings. As this is the first study of its kind done in Malaysia, it proves that prolonged meropenem infusion may be beneficial to critically ill patients with sepsis. However, randomized clinical trials with large sample size should be carried out in local settings in order to minimize other confounders that may influence with the result of the study.

Keywords: Critical Care, Antibiotics, beta lactams, extended infusion, meropenem

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5 The Impact of Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization on Viral Bronchiolitis

Authors: K. Genise, S. Murthy

Abstract:

Introductory Statement: The results of this retrospective chart review suggest the effects of bacterial colonization in critically ill children with viral bronchiolitis, currently unproven, are clinically insignificant. Background: Viral bronchiolitis is one of the most prevalent causes of illness requiring hospitalization among children worldwide and one of the most common reasons for admission to pediatric intensive care. It has been hypothesized that co-infection with bacteria results in more severe clinical outcomes. Conversely, the effects of bacterial colonization in critically ill patients with bronchiolitis are poorly defined. Current clinical management of colonized patients consists primarily of supportive therapies with the role of antibiotics remaining controversial. Methods: A retrospective review of all critically ill children admitted to the BC Children’s Hospital Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) from 2014-2017 with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis was performed. Routine testing in this time frame consisted of complete pathogen testing, including PCR for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Analyses were performed to determine the impact of bacterial colonization and antibiotic use on a primary outcome of PICU length-of-stay, with secondary outcomes of hospital length-of-stay and duration of ventilation. Results: There were 92 patients with complete pathogen testing performed during the assessed timeframe. A comparison between children with detected Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=22) and those without (n=70) revealed no significant (p=0.20) differences in severity of illness on presentation as per Pediatric Risk of Mortality III scores (mean=3.0). Patients colonized with S. pneumoniae had significantly shorter PICU stays (p=0.002), hospital stays (p=0.0001) and duration of non-invasive ventilation (p=0.002). Multivariate analyses revealed that these effects on length of PICU stay and duration of ventilation do not persist after controlling for antibiotic use, presence of radiographic consolidation, age, and severity of illness (p=0.15, p=0.32). The relationship between colonization and duration of hospital stay persists after controlling for these variables (p=0.008). Conclusions: Children with viral bronchiolitis colonized with S. pneumoniae do not appear to have significantly different PICU length-of-stays or duration of ventilation compared to children who are not colonized. Colonized children appear to have shorter hospital stays. The results of this study suggest bacterial colonization is not associated with increased severity of presenting illness or negative clinical outcomes.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Infection, Critical Care, colonization, bronchiolitis, pneumococcal

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4 Nurse-Identified Barriers and Facilitators to Delivering End-of-Life Care in a Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Elena Ivany, Leanne Aitken

Abstract:

Little is known about the delivery of end-of-life care in cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) settings. The aims of this study were to highlight the nurse-identified barriers and facilitators to delivering end-of-life care in the CICU, and to identify whether any of the barriers and/or facilitators are specific to the CICU setting. This was an exploratory qualitative study utilizing semi-structured individual interviews as the data collection method and inductive thematic analysis to structure the data. Six CICU nurses took part in the study. Five key themes were identified, each theme including both barriers and facilitators. The five key themes are as follows: patient-centered care, emotional challenges, reaching concordance, nursing contribution and the surgical intensive care unit.

Keywords: Cardiac Surgery, Cardiovascular Disease, Critical Care, end-of-life

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3 Increase of Completion Rate of Nursing Care during Therapeutic Hypothermia in Critical Patients

Authors: Yi-Jiun Chou, Ying-Hsuan Li, Yi-Jung Liu, Hsin-Yu Chiang, Hsuan-Ching Wang

Abstract:

Background: Patients received therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after resuscitation from cardiac arrest are more dependent on continue and intensive nursing care. It involves many difficult steps, especially achieving target body temperature. To our best knowledge, there is no consensus or recommended standards on nursing practice of TH. Aim: The aim of this study is to increase the completion rate of nursing care at therapeutic hypothermia. Methods: We took five measures: (1) Amendment of nursing standards of therapeutic hypothermia; (2) Amendment of TH checklist items to nursing records; (3) Establishment of monitor procedure; (4) Design each period of TH care reminder cards; (5) Providing in-service training sections of TH for ICU nursing staff. Outcomes: The completion rate of nursing care at therapeutic hypothermia increased from 78.1% to 89.3%. Conclusion: The project team not only increased the completion rate but also improved patient safety and quality of care.

Keywords: Nursing, Critical Care, Quality Of Care, therapeutic hypothermia

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2 A Continuous Real-Time Analytic for Predicting Instability in Acute Care Rapid Response Team Activations

Authors: Ashwin Belle, Bryce Benson, Mark Salamango, Fadi Islim, Rodney Daniels, Kevin Ward

Abstract:

A reliable, real-time, and non-invasive system that can identify patients at risk for hemodynamic instability is needed to aid clinicians in their efforts to anticipate patient deterioration and initiate early interventions. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the clinical capabilities of a real-time analytic from a single lead of an electrocardiograph to correctly distinguish between rapid response team (RRT) activations due to hemodynamic (H-RRT) and non-hemodynamic (NH-RRT) causes, as well as predict H-RRT cases with actionable lead times. The study consisted of a single center, retrospective cohort of 21 patients with RRT activations from step-down and telemetry units. Through electronic health record review and blinded to the analytic’s output, each patient was categorized by clinicians into H-RRT and NH-RRT cases. The analytic output and the categorization were compared. The prediction lead time prior to the RRT call was calculated. The analytic correctly distinguished between H-RRT and NH-RRT cases with 100% accuracy, demonstrating 100% positive and negative predictive values, and 100% sensitivity and specificity. In H-RRT cases, the analytic detected hemodynamic deterioration with a median lead time of 9.5 hours prior to the RRT call (range 14 minutes to 52 hours). The study demonstrates that an electrocardiogram (ECG) based analytic has the potential for providing clinical decision and monitoring support for caregivers to identify at risk patients within a clinically relevant timeframe allowing for increased vigilance and early interventional support to reduce the chances of continued patient deterioration.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Critical Care, heart rate variability, early warning systems, hemodynamic instability, rapid response team

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1 Definition, Barriers to and Facilitators of Moral Distress as Perceived by Neonatal Intensive Care Physicians

Authors: M. Deligianni, P. Voultsos, E. Tsamadou

Abstract:

Background/Introduction: Moral distress is a common occurrence for health professionals working in neonatal critical care. Despite a growing number of critically ill neonatal and pediatric patients, only a few articles related to moral distress as experienced by neonatal physicians have been published over the last years. Objectives/Aims: The aim of this study was to define and identify barriers to and facilitators of moral distress based on the perceptions and experiences of neonatal physicians working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This pilot study is a part of a larger nationwide project. Methods: A multicenter qualitative descriptive study using focus group methodology was conducted. In-depth interviews lasting 45 to 60 minutes were audio-recorded. Once data were transcribed, conventional content analysis was used to develop the definition and categories, as well as to identify the barriers to and facilitators of moral distress. Results: Participants defined moral distress broadly in the context of neonatal critical care. A wide variation of definitions was displayed. The physicians' responses to moral distress included different feelings and other situations. The overarching categories that emerged from the data were patient-related, family-related, and physician-related factors. Moreover, organizational factors may constitute major facilitators of moral distress among neonatal physicians in NICUs. Note, however, that moral distress may be regarded as an essential component to caring for neonates in critical care. The present study provides further insight into the moral distress experienced by physicians working in Greek NICUs. Discussion/Conclusions: Understanding how neonatal and pediatric critical care nurses define moral distress and what contributes to its development is foundational to developing targeted strategies for mitigating the prevalence of moral distress among neonate physicians in the context of NICUs.

Keywords: Critical Care, moral distress, neonatal physician, neonatal intensive care unit, NICU

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