Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Crime Prevention Related Abstracts

4 An Analysis on the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of CCTV Location for Crime Prevention

Authors: Tae-Heon Moon, Kwang-Woo Nam, Sang-Ho Lee, Youn-Taik Leem, Sun-Young Heo

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the possibility of crime prevention through CCTV by analyzing the appropriateness of the CCTV location, whether it is installed in the hotspot of crime-prone areas, and exploring the crime prevention effect and transition effect. The real crime and CCTV locations of case city were converted into the spatial data by using GIS. The data was analyzed by hotspot analysis and weighted displacement quotient(WDQ). As study methods, it analyzed existing relevant studies for identifying the trends of CCTV and crime studies based on big data from 1800 to 2014 and understanding the relation between CCTV and crime. Second, it investigated the current situation of nationwide CCTVs and analyzed the guidelines of CCTV installation and operation to draw attention to the problems and indicating points of domestic CCTV use. Third, it investigated the crime occurrence in case areas and the current situation of CCTV installation in the spatial aspects, and analyzed the appropriateness and effectiveness of CCTV installation to suggest a rational installation of CCTV and the strategic direction of crime prevention. The results demonstrate that there was no significant effect in the installation of CCTV on crime prevention. This indicates that CCTV should be installed and managed in a more scientific way reflecting local crime situations. In terms of CCTV, the methods of spatial analysis such as GIS, which can evaluate the installation effect, and the methods of economic analysis like cost-benefit analysis should be developed. In addition, these methods should be distributed to local governments across the nation for the appropriate installation of CCTV and operation. This study intended to find a design guideline of the optimum CCTV installation. In this regard, this study is meaningful in that it will contribute to the creation of a safe city.

Keywords: Crime Prevention, Spatial analysis, CCTV, safe city

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3 Place and Situational Management in Crime Prevention

Authors: Mehdi Moghimi

Abstract:

Doctrines associated with situational prevention considers 'place of committing crime' as one of the fundamental elements of a crime. Meanwhile, with regard to causing or having effect on a crime situation, 'place' can be one of the pivotal indices in situational prevention analyses. This study aims at examining the role of place in construction of a crime situation and explaining the relationship between 'place' and situational preventive measures and procedures. Also, how to identify high-crime places, types of high-crime places and the factors influencing their creation are among the most important secondary objectives of this article. Concerning the purpose, it is a practical study whose material has been written through a documentary method using original sources (English), books and written and translated articles etc. This article is written in two main parts. In the first section, cognitive-conceptual issues about 'place' as one of the main causes of crime situation, and its effective interaction with situational preventive measures will be reviewed. The second part of this paper will focus on criminological examination of places and critical locations of crime and provide situational preventive measures to deal with the situation. 'Crime displacement' and 'geographical distribution of benefits'are also considered as the possible consequences of implementing preventive strategies. The results of the study suggest that the inventory of offenses is distributed according to the spatial characteristics. Moreover, according to the criminological characteristics governing region or location, offenders choose the place of crime based on a logical calculation. Therefore, some locations, regions or neighborhoods are permanent places of occurring lots of crimes. As a result, considering "place", preventive measures and procedures can be systematically directed, and using the most effective ways, limited preventive resources are utilized in the most critical places. Finally, some suggestions for further research and application are provided in line with more favorable promotion of situational preventive measures.

Keywords: Crime Prevention, place, police crime, situational crime prevention

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2 Building Safer Communities through Institutional Collaboration in Ghana: An Appraisal of Existing Arrangement

Authors: Louis Kusi Frimpong, Martin Oteng-Ababio

Abstract:

The problem of crime and insecurity in urban environments are often complex, multilayered, multidimensional and sometimes interwoven. It is from this perspective that recent approaches and strategies aimed at responding to crime and insecurity have looked at the problem from a social, economic, spatial and institutional point of view. In Ghana, there is much understanding of how various elements of the social and spatial setting influence crime and safety concerns of residents in urban areas. However, little research attention has been given to the institutional dimension of the problem of crime and insecurity in urban Ghana. In particular, scholars and policymakers in the area of safety and security have scarcely interrogated the forms of collaboration that exist between the various formal and informal institutions and how gaps and lapses in this collaboration influence vulnerability to crime and feelings of insecurity. Using Sekondi-Takoradi as a case study and drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper assesses the activities of various institutions both formal and informal in crime control and prevention in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, the third largest city in Ghana. More importantly, the paper seeks to address gaps in the institutional arrangement and coordination between and among institutions at the forefront of crime prevention efforts in the metropolis and by extension Ghanaian cities. The study found that whiles there is some form of collaboration between the police and the community, little collaboration existed between planning authorities and the police on the one hand, and the community on the other hand. The paper concludes that in light of the complex nature of a crime, institutional coordination and an inclusive approach involving formal and informal will be critical in promoting safer cities in Ghana.

Keywords: Crime Prevention, coordination, Ghana, institutional arrangement

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1 Crime and Class: A Study on Violent Crime in Dhaka City

Authors: A. B. M. Najmus Sakib

Abstract:

Being one of the most densely populated cities in the world, Dhaka is facing diversified types of crimes every day. Limitations of resources insert serious strains among the inhabitants of this city. This paper aims to analyze the correlation between crime and class, more especially the violent crime in connection with social class. Following the stratified random sampling technique, one of the police divisions among eight of the Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP) will be selected. The data will be collected by evaluating the case files found in the police report. First, this paper discusses the nature and pattern of violent crimes in Dhaka city. Then, it assesses the socio-economic status of the accused persons considering their professions. Furthermore, by testing hypothesis, it will identify how the social classes are connected with violent crimes. Finally, the paper will ascertain the particular class that has an impact on violent crime in Dhaka City and will be ended by suggesting possible measures should take by the law enforcement agencies of Bangladesh.

Keywords: Crime Prevention, Violent Crime, Social Class, nature of crime

Procedia PDF Downloads 8