Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Creep Related Abstracts

29 A Comparative Study on Creep Modeling in Composites

Authors: Roham Rafiee, Behzad Mazhari

Abstract:

Composite structures, having incredible properties, have gained considerable popularity in the last few decades. Among all types, polymer matrix composites are being used extensively due to their unique characteristics including low weight, convenient fabrication process and low cost. Having polymer as matrix, these type of composites show different creep behavior when compared to metals and even other types of composites since most polymers undergo creep even in room temperature. One of the most challenging topics in creep is to introduce new techniques for predicting long term creep behavior of materials. Depending on the material which is being studied the appropriate method would be different. Methods already proposed for predicting long term creep behavior of polymer matrix composites can be divided into five categories: (1) Analytical Modeling, (2) Empirical Modeling, (3) Superposition Based Modeling (Semi-empirical), (4) Rheological Modeling, (5) Finite Element Modeling. Each of these methods has individual characteristics. Studies have shown that none of the mentioned methods can predict long term creep behavior of all PMC composites in all circumstances (loading, temperature, etc.) but each of them has its own priority in different situations. The reason to this issue can be found in theoretical basis of these methods. In this study after a brief review over the background theory of each method, they are compared in terms of their applicability in predicting long-term behavior of composite structures. Finally, the explained materials are observed through some experimental studies executed by other researchers.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Modeling, Creep, comparative study

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
28 Experimental Study on the Creep Characteristics of FRC Base for Composite Pavement System

Authors: Sung-yong Choi, Woo-tai Jung, Young-hwan Park

Abstract:

The composite pavement system considered in this paper is composed of a functional surface layer, a fiber reinforced asphalt middle layer and a fiber reinforced lean concrete base layer. The mix design of the fiber reinforced lean concrete corresponds to the mix composition of conventional lean concrete but reinforced by fibers. The quasi-absence of research on the durability or long-term performances (fatigue, creep, etc.) of such mix design stresses the necessity to evaluate experimentally the long-term characteristics of this layer composition. This study tests the creep characteristics as one of the long-term characteristics of the fiber reinforced lean concrete layer for composite pavement using a new creep device. The test results reveal that the lean concrete mixed with fiber reinforcement and fly ash develops smaller creep than the conventional lean concrete. The results of the application of the CEB-FIP prediction equation indicate that a modified creep prediction equation should be developed to fit with the new mix design of the layer.

Keywords: Pavement, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Creep, lean concrete, base

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
27 Mechanical Performances and Viscoelastic Behaviour of Starch-Grafted-Polypropylene/Kenaf Fibres Composites

Authors: A. Hamma, A. Pegoretti

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the evaluation of mechanical performances and viscoelastic behaviour of starch-grafted-PP reinforced with kenaf fibres. Investigations were carried out on composites prepared by melt compounding and compression molding. Two aspects have been taken into account, the effects of various fibres loading rates (10, 20 and 30 wt.%) and the fibres aspect ratios (L/D=30 and 160). Good fibres/matrix interaction has been evidenced by SEM observations. However, processing induced variation of fibre length quantified by optical microscopy observations. Tensile modulus and ultimate properties, hardness and tensile impact stress, were found to remarkably increase with fibre loading. Moreover, short term tensile creep tests have proven that kenaf fibres improved considerably the creep stability. Modelling of creep behaviour by a four parameter Burger model was successfully used. An empirical equation involving Halpin-Tsai semi empirical model was also used to predict the elastic modulus of composites.

Keywords: thermoplastic Composites, Fibres, Mechanical Properties, Creep, starch-grafted-PP

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
26 Effect of Polymer Concentration on the Rheological Properties of Polyelectrolyte Solutions

Authors: Khaled Benyounes, Abderrahmane Mellak

Abstract:

The rheology of aqueous solutions of polyelectrolyte (polyanionic cellulose, PAC) at high molecular weight was investigated using a controlled stress rheometer. Several rheological measurements; viscosity measurements, creep compliance tests at a constant low shear stress and oscillation experiments have been performed. The concentrations ranged by weight from 0.01 to 2.5% of PAC. It was found that the aqueous solutions of PAC do not exhibit a yield stress, the flow curves of PAC over a wide range of shear rate (0 to 1000 s-1) could be described by the cross model and the Williamson models. The critical concentrations of polymer c* and c** have been estimated. The dynamic moduli, i.e., storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G’’) of the polymer have been determined at frequency sweep from 0.01 to 10 Hz. At polymer concentration above 1%, the modulus G’ is superior to G’’. The relationships between the dynamic modulus and concentration of polymer have been established. The creep-recovery experiments demonstrated that polymer solutions show important viscoelastic properties of system water-PAC when the concentration of the polymer increases.

Keywords: viscosity, Creep, polyanionic cellulose, oscillation, cross model

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
25 Nice Stadium: Design of a Flat Single Layer ETFE Roof

Authors: A. Escoffier, A. Albrecht, F. Consigny

Abstract:

In order to host the Football Euro in 2016, many French cities have launched architectural competitions in recent years to improve the quality of their stadiums. The winning project in Nice was designed by Wilmotte architects together with Elioth structural engineers. It has a capacity of 35,000 seats. Its roof structure consists of a complex 3D shape timber and steel lattice and is covered by 25,000m² of ETFE, 10,500m² of PES-PVC fabric and 8,500m² of photovoltaic panels. This paper focuses on the ETFE part of the cover. The stadium is one of the first constructions to use flat single layer ETFE on such a big area. Due to its relatively recent appearance in France, ETFE structures are not yet covered by any regulations and the existing codes for fabric structures cannot be strictly applied. Rather, they are considered as cladding systems and therefore have to be approved by an “Appréciation Technique d’Expérimentation” (ATEx), during which experimental tests have to be performed. We explain the method that we developed to justify the ETFE, which eventually led to bi-axial tests to clarify the allowable stress in the film.

Keywords: Creep, biaxial test, ETFE, single layer, stadium roof

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
24 Field Evaluation of Pile Behavior in Sandy Soil Underlain by Clay

Authors: R. Bakr, M. Elmeligy, A. Ibrahim

Abstract:

When the building loads are relatively small, challenges are often facing the foundation design especially when inappropriate soil conditions exist. These may be represented in the existence of soft soil in the upper layers of soil while sandy soil or firm cohesive soil exist in the deeper layers. In such cases, the design becomes infeasible if the piles are extended to the deeper layers, especially when there are sandy layers existing at shallower depths underlain by stiff clayey soil. In this research, models of piles terminated in sand underlain by clay soils are numerically simulated by different modelling theories. Finite element software, Plaxis 3-D Foundation was used to evaluate the pile behavior under different loading scenarios. The standard static load test according to ASTM D-1143 was simulated and compared with the real-life loading scenario. The results showed that the pile behavior obtained from the current static load test do not realistically represent that obtained from real-life loading. Attempts were carried out to capture the proper numerical loading scenario that simulates the pile behavior in real-life loading including the long-term effect. A modified method based on this research findings is proposed for the static pile loading tests. Field loading tests were carried out to validate the new method. Results obtained from both numerical and field tests by using the modified method prove that this method is more accurate in predicting the pile behavior in sand soil underlain by clay more than the current standard static load.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Creep, static load test, pile behavior, sand underlain with clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
23 Analysis of Secondary Stage Creep in Thick-Walled Composite Cylinders Subjected to Rotary Inertia

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Virat Khanna

Abstract:

Composite materials have drawn considerable attention of engineers due to their light weight and application at high thermo-mechanical loads. With regard to the prediction of the life of high temperature structural components like rotating cylinders and the evaluation of their deterioration with time, it is essential to have a full knowledge of creep characteristics of these materials. Therefore, in the present study the secondary stage creep stresses and strain rates are estimated in thick-walled composite cylinders subjected to rotary inertia at different angular speeds. The composite cylinder is composed of aluminum matrix (Al) and reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) particles which are uniformly mixed. The creep response of the material of the cylinder is described by threshold stress based creep law. The study indicates that with the increase in angular speed, the radial, tangential, axial and effective stress increases to a significant value. However, the radial stress remains zero at inner radius and outer radius due to imposed boundary conditions of zero pressure. Further, the stresses are tensile in nature throughout the entire radius of composite cylinder. The strain rates are also influenced in the same manner as that of creep stresses. The creep rates will increase significantly with the increase of centrifugal force on account of rotation.

Keywords: Composite, Creep, rotating cylinder, angular speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
22 Deformation Behavior of Virgin and Polypropylene Modified Bituminous Mixture

Authors: Madzlan Napiah, Noor Zainab Habib, Ibrahim Kamaruddin

Abstract:

This paper present a part of research conducted to investigate the creep behavior of bituminous concrete mixture prepared with well graded using the dynamic creep test. The samples were prepared from unmodified control mix and Polypropylene modified bituminous mix. Unmodified or control mix was prepared with 80/100 grade bitumen while polypropylene modified mix was prepared using polypropylene PP polymer as modifier, blended with 80/100 Pen bitumen. The concentration of polymer in the blend was kept at 1%, 2%, and 3% by weight of bitumen content. For Dynamic Creep Test, Marshall Specimen were prepared at optimum bitumen content and then tested using IPC Global Universal Testing Machine (UTM), in order to investigate the creep stiffness of both modified and control mix. From the results obtained it was found that 1% and 2% PP modified bituminous mix offer better results in comparison to control and 3% PP modified mix samples. The results verify all the findings of empirical and viscosity test results which indicates that polymer modification induces stiffening effect in the binder. Enhanced viscous component of the binder was considered responsible for this change which eventually enhances the mechanical strength of the modified bituminous mixes.

Keywords: viscosity, Creep, Stiffness, polymer modified bitumen

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
21 Modelling of Creep in a Thick-Walled Cylindrical Vessel Subjected to Internal Pressure

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Vinay Gupta, Ishvneet Singh

Abstract:

The present study focussed on carrying out the creep analysis in an isotropic thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessel composed of aluminium matrix reinforced with silicon-carbide in particulate form. The creep behaviour of the composite material has been described by the threshold stress based creep law. The value of stress exponent appearing in the creep law was selected as 3, 5 and 8. The constitutive equations were developed using well known von-Mises yield criteria. Models were developed to find out the distributions of creep stresses and strain rate in thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessels under internal pressure. In order to obtain the stress distributions in the cylinder, the equilibrium equation of the continuum mechanics and the constitutive equations are solved together. It was observed that the radial stress, tangential stress and axial stress increases along with the radial distance. The cross-over was also obtained almost at the middle region of cylindrical vessel for tangential and axial stress for different values of stress exponent. The strain rates were also decreasing in nature along the entire radius.

Keywords: Composite, Creep, internal pressure, cylindrical vessel

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
20 Effect of Anisotropy on Steady Creep in a Whisker Reinforced Functionally Graded Composite Disc

Authors: Tejeet Singh, V. K. Gupta

Abstract:

In many whisker reinforced composites, anisotropy may result due to material flow during processing operations such as forging, extrusion etc. The consequence of anisotropy, introduced during processing of disc material, has been investigated on the steady state creep deformations of the rotating disc. The disc material is assumed to undergo plastic deformations according to Hill’s anisotropic criterion. Steady state creep has been analyzed in a constant thickness rotating disc made of functionally graded 6061Al-SiCw (where the subscript ‘w’ stands for whisker) using Hill’s The content of reinforcement (SiCw) in the disc is assumed to decrease linearly from the inner to outer radius. The stresses and strain rates in the disc are estimated by solving the force equilibrium equation along with the constitutive equations describing multi-axial creep. The results obtained for anisotropic FGM disc have been compared with those estimated for isotropic FGM disc having the same average whisker content. The anisotropic constants, appearing in Hill’s yield criterion, have been obtained from the available experimental results. The results show that the presence of anisotropy reduces the tangential stress in the middle of the disc but near the inner and outer radii the tangential stress is higher when compared to isotropic disc. On the other hand, the steady state creep rates in the anisotropic disc are reduced significantly over the entire disc radius, with the maximum reduction observed at the inner radius. Further, in the presence of anisotropy the distribution of strain rate becomes relatively uniform over the entire disc, which may be responsible for reducing the extent of distortion in the disc.

Keywords: anisotropy, Creep, functionally graded composite, rotating disc

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
19 An Inverse Approach for Determining Creep Properties from a Miniature Thin Plate Specimen under Bending

Authors: Wei Sun, Yang Zheng

Abstract:

This paper describes a new approach which can be used to interpret the experimental creep deformation data obtained from miniaturized thin plate bending specimen test to the corresponding uniaxial data based on an inversed application of the reference stress method. The geometry of the thin plate is fully defined by the span of the support, l, the width, b, and the thickness, d. Firstly, analytical solutions for the steady-state, load-line creep deformation rate of the thin plates for a Norton’s power law under plane stress (b → 0) and plane strain (b → ∞) conditions were obtained, from which it can be seen that the load-line deformation rate of the thin plate under plane-stress conditions is much higher than that under the plane-strain conditions. Since analytical solution is not available for the plates with random b-values, finite element (FE) analyses are used to obtain the solutions. Based on the FE results obtained for various b/l ratios and creep exponent, n, as well as the analytical solutions under plane stress and plane strain conditions, an approximate, numerical solutions for the deformation rate are obtained by curve fitting. Using these solutions, a reference stress method is utilised to establish the conversion relationships between the applied load and the equivalent uniaxial stress and between the creep deformations of thin plate and the equivalent uniaxial creep strains. Finally, the accuracy of the empirical solution was assessed by using a set of “theoretical” experimental data.

Keywords: Materials Engineering, Bending, Creep, thin plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
18 Creep Effect on Composite Beam with Perfect Steel-Concrete Connection

Authors: Rahal Nacer, Tehami Mohamed, Souici Abdelaziz, Said Mohamed Bekkouche, Berthet Jean-Fabien

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of the concrete slab creep on the initial deformability of a bent composite beam is modelled. This deformability depends on the rate of creep. This means the rise in value of the longitudinal strain ε c(x,t), the displacement D eflec(x,t) and the strain energy E(t). The variation of these three parameters can easily affect negatively the good appearance and the serviceability of the structure. Therefore, an analytical approach is designed to control the status of the deformability of the beam at the instant t. This approach is based on the Boltzmann’s superposition principle and very particularly on the irreversible law of deformation. For this, two conditions of compatibility and two other static equilibrium equations are adopted. The two first conditions are set according to the rheological equation of Dischinger. After having done a mathematical arrangement, we have reached a system of two differential equations whose integration allows to find the mathematical expression of each generalized internal force in terms of the ability of the concrete slab to creep.

Keywords: Concrete, deformation, Differential Equation, Time, Creep, composite section

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
17 On the Creep of Concrete Structures

Authors: A. Brahma

Abstract:

Analysis of deferred deformations of concrete under sustained load shows that the creep has a leading role on deferred deformations of concrete structures. Knowledge of the creep characteristics of concrete is a Necessary starting point in the design of structures for crack control. Such knowledge will enable the designer to estimate the probable deformation in pre-stressed concrete or reinforced and the appropriate steps can be taken in design to accommodate this movement. In this study, we propose a prediction model that involves the acting principal parameters on the deferred behaviour of concrete structures. For the estimation of the model parameters Levenberg-Marquardt method has proven very satisfactory. A confrontation between the experimental results and the predictions of models designed shows that it is well suited to describe the evolution of the creep of concrete structures.

Keywords: Modelling, prediction, Concrete Structure, Creep

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
16 Effects of Operating Conditions on Creep Life of Industrial Gas Turbine

Authors: Enyia James Diwa, Dodeye Ina Igbong, Archibong Eso Archibong

Abstract:

The creep life of an industrial gas turbine is determined through a physics-based model used to investigate the high pressure temperature (HPT) of the blade in use. A performance model was carried out via the Cranfield University TURBOMATCH simulation software to size the blade and to determine the corresponding stress. Various effects such as radial temperature distortion factor, turbine entry temperature, ambient temperature, blade metal temperature, and compressor degradation on the blade creep life were investigated. The output results show the difference in creep life and the location of failure along the span of the blade enabling better-informed advice for the gas turbine operator.

Keywords: Performance, Creep, degradation, living

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
15 Testing of Small Local Zones by Means of Small Punch Test at Room and Creep Temperatures

Authors: Vaclav Mentl, Josef Volak

Abstract:

In many industrial applications, materials are subjected to degradation of mechanical properties as a result of real service conditions, temperature, cyclic loading, humidity or other corrosive media, irradiation, their combination etc. The assessment of the remaining lifetime of components and structures is commonly based on correlated procedures including numerous destructive, non-destructive and mathematical techniques that should guarantee reasonably precise assessment of the current damage extent of materials in question and the remaining lifetime evaluation of the component under consideration. The answers to demands of customers to extend the lifetime of existing components beyond their original design life must be based on detailed assessment of the current degradation extent, what can be rarely realised by means of traditional mechanical (standardised) tests that need relatively large volumes of representative material for the test specimen manufacturing. This fact accelerated the research of miniaturised test specimen that can be sampled non-invasively from the component.

Keywords: correlation, Mechanical Properties, Creep, small punch test

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
14 High Temperature Creep Analysis for Lower Head of Reactor Pressure Vessel

Authors: Dongchuan Su, Hai Xie, Naibin Jiang

Abstract:

Under severe accident cases, the nuclear reactor core may meltdown inside the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Retaining the melt pool inside the RPV is an important strategy of severe accident management. During this process, the inner wall of the lower head will be heated to high temperature of a thousand centigrade, and the outer wall is immersed in a large amount of cooling water. The material of the lower head will have serious creep damage under the high temperature and the temperature difference, and this produces a great threat to the integrity of the RPV. In this paper, the ANSYS program is employed to build the finite element method (FEM) model of the lower head, the creep phenomena is simulated under the severe accident case, the time dependent strain and stress distribution is obtained, the creep damage of the lower head is investigated, the integrity of the RPV is evaluated and the theoretical basis is provided for the optimized design and safety assessment of the RPV.

Keywords: Creep, FEM, severe accident, lower head of RPV

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
13 Secondary Compression Behavior of Organic Soils in One-Dimensional Consolidation Tests

Authors: S. Chandrakaran, Rinku Varghese, K. Rangaswamy

Abstract:

The standard one-dimensional consolidation test is used to find the consolidation behaviour of artificially consolidated organic soils. Incremental loading tests were conducted on the clay without and with organic matter. The study was conducted with soil having different organic content keeping all other parameters constant. The tests were conducted on clay and artificially prepared organic soil sample at different vertical pressure. The load increment ratio considered for the test is equal to one. Artificial organic soils are used for the test by adding starch to the clay. The percentage of organic content in starch is determined by adding 5% by weight starch into the clay (inorganic soil) sample and corresponding change in organic content of soil was determined. This was expressed as percentage by weight of starch, and it was found that about 95% organic content in the soil sample. Accordingly percentage of organic content fixed and added to the sample for testing to understand the consolidation behaviour clayey soils with organic content. A detailed study of the results obtained from IL test was investigated. The main items investigated were (i) coefficient of consolidation (cv), (ii) coefficient of volume compression (mv), (iii) coefficient of permeability (k). The consolidation parameter obtained from IL test was used for determining the creep strain and creep parameter and also predicting their variation with vertical stress and organic content.

Keywords: Starch, Creep, consolidation, secondary compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
12 Theoretical Research for Influence of Irradiation on Transient Creep of Metals

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Tetiana Didenko

Abstract:

Via formalism of the Complex systems and in the framework of the climb - glide model a theoretical approach to describe the influence of irradiation on transient creep of metals. We consider metal under such stress and conditions of irradiation at which creep is determined by dislocation motion that consists in climb and glide. It is shown that there are qualitatively different regimes of a creep as a result of irradiation. Simulation and analysis of this phenomenon are performed. The time dependence of creep rate of metal under an irradiation is theoretically obtained. The conditions of zero minimums of the creep-rate existence as well as the times of their appearance are determined. The changing of the position of creep-rate dips in the conditions of the temperature exposure change is investigated. The obtained results are compared with the experimentally observed dependence of the creep rate on time.

Keywords: Point Defects, Creep, irradiation, non-linear feed-back, climb and glide of dislocations

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
11 Modeling the Effect of Thermal Gradation on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc Made of Functionally Graded Material

Authors: Minto Rattan, Tania Bose, Neeraj Chamoli

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the effect of thermal gradation on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc made of functionally graded material using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate have been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for the discs rotating at elevated temperatures having thermal gradation. The material parameters of creep vary radially and have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. Investigations for discs made up of linearly increasing particle content operating under linearly decreasing temperature from inner to outer radii have been done using von Mises’ yield criterion. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said disc profile with the disc made of particle reinforced composite operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.

Keywords: Creep, steady-state, isotropic, thermal gradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
10 Effect of Linear Thermal Gradient on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc

Authors: Minto Rattan, Tania Bose, Neeraj Chamoli

Abstract:

The present paper investigates the effect of linear thermal gradient on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate has been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for discs rotating at linear thermal gradation using von Mises’ yield criterion. The material parameters have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said temperature profile with the disc operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.

Keywords: Creep, thermal gradient, steady-state, isotropic

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
9 Analysing the Permanent Deformation of Cohesive Subsoil Subject to Long Term Cyclic Train Loading

Authors: Natalie M. Wride, Xueyu Geng

Abstract:

Subgrade soils of railway infrastructure are subjected to a significant number of load applications over their design life. The use of slab track on existing and future proposed rail links requires a reduced maintenance and repair regime for the embankment subgrade, due to restricted access to the subgrade soils for remediation caused by cyclic deformation. It is, therefore, important to study the deformation behaviour of soft cohesive subsoils induced as a result of long term cyclic loading. In this study, a series of oedometer tests and cyclic triaxial tests (10,000 cycles) have been undertaken to investigate the undrained deformation behaviour of soft kaolin. X-ray Computer Tomography (CT) scanning of the samples has been performed to determine the change in porosity and soil structure density from the sample microstructure as a result of the laboratory testing regime undertaken. Combined with the examination of excess pore pressures and strains obtained from the cyclic triaxial tests, the results are compared with an existing analytical solution for long term settlement considering repeated low amplitude loading. Modifications to the analytical solution are presented based on the laboratory analysis that shows good agreement with further test data.

Keywords: deformation, Creep, cyclic loading, long term settlement, train loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
8 Investigating the Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Recycled Fillers

Authors: Hasan Taherkhani

Abstract:

Increasingly accumulation of the solid waste materials has become a major environmental problem of communities. In addition to the protection of environment, the recycling and reusing of the waste materials are financially beneficial. Waste materials can be used in highway construction. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of recycled concrete, asphalt and steel slag powder, as a replacement of the primary mineral filler in asphalt concrete has been investigated. The primary natural siliceous aggregate filler, as control, has been replaced with the secondary recycled concrete, asphalt and steel slag powders, and some engineering properties of the mixtures have been evaluated. Marshal Stability, flow, indirect tensile strength, moisture damage, static creep and volumetric properties of the mixtures have been evaluated. The results show that, the Marshal Stability of the mixtures containing recycled powders is higher than that of the control mixture. The flow of the mixtures containing recycled steel slag is lower, and that of the mixtures containing recycled asphalt and cement concrete powder is found to be higher than that of the control mixture. It is also found that the resistance against moisture damage and permanent deformation of the mixture can be improved by replacing the natural filler with the recycled powders. The volumetric properties of the mixtures are not significantly influenced by replacing the natural filler with the recycled powders.

Keywords: Tensile Strength, Recycled Concrete, Creep, moisture damage, steel slag, filler, recycled asphalt concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
7 Phase Optimized Ternary Alloy Material for Gas Turbines

Authors: Mayandi Ramanathan

Abstract:

Gas turbine blades see the most aggressive thermal stress conditions within the engine, due to Turbine Entry Temperatures in the range of 1500 to 1600°C, but in synchronization with other functional components, they must readily deliver efficient performance, whilst incurring minimal overhaul and repair costs during its service life up to 5 million flying miles. The blades rotate at very high rotation rates and remove significant amount of thermal power from the gas stream. At high temperatures the major component failure mechanism is creep. During its service over time under high temperatures and loads, the blade will deform, lengthen and rupture. High strength and stiffness in the longitudinal direction up to elevated service temperatures are certainly the most needed properties of turbine blades. The proposed advanced Ti alloy material needs a process that provides strategic orientation of metallic ordering, uniformity in composition and high metallic strength. 25% Ta/(Al+Ta) ratio ensures TaAl3 phase formation, where as 51% Al/(Al+Ti) ratio ensures formation of α-Ti3Al and γ-TiAl mixed phases fand the three phase combination ensures minimal Al excess (~1.4% Al excess), unlike Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb which has significant excess Al (~5% Al excess) that could affect the service life of turbine blades. This presentation will involve the summary of additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions to fabricate turbine blade with Ti-43Al matrix alloyed with optimized amount of refractory Ta metal. Summary of thermo-mechanical test results such as high temperature tensile strength, creep strain rate, thermal expansion coefficient and fracture toughness will be presented. Improvement in service temperature of the turbine blades and corrosion resistance dependence on coercivity of the alloy material will be reported. Phase compositions will be quantified, and a summary of its correlation with creep strain rate will be presented.

Keywords: Aerospace, Alloys, high temperature materials, Gas Turbine, Creep, specific strength, phase optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
6 Viscoelastic Behavior of Human Bone Tissue under Nanoindentation Tests

Authors: Konstanty Skalski, Anna Makuch, Grzegorz Kokot, Jakub Banczorowski

Abstract:

Cancellous bone is a porous composite of a hierarchical structure and anisotropic properties. The biological tissue is considered to be a viscoelastic material, but many studies based on a nanoindentation method have focused on their elasticity and microhardness. However, the response of many organic materials depends not only on the load magnitude, but also on its duration and time course. Depth Sensing Indentation (DSI) technique has been used for examination of creep in polymers, metals and composites. In the indentation tests on biological samples, the mechanical properties are most frequently determined for animal tissues (of an ox, a monkey, a pig, a rat, a mouse, a bovine). However, there are rare reports of studies of the bone viscoelastic properties on microstructural level. Various rheological models were used to describe the viscoelastic behaviours of bone, identified in the indentation process (e. g Burgers model, linear model, two-dashpot Kelvin model, Maxwell-Voigt model). The goal of the study was to determine the influence of creep effect on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone in indentation tests. The aim of this research was also the assessment of the material properties of bone structures, having in mind the energy aspects of the curve (penetrator loading-depth) obtained in the loading/unloading cycle. There was considered how the different holding times affected the results within trabecular bone.As a result, indentation creep (CIT), hardness (HM, HIT, HV) and elasticity are obtained. Human trabecular bone samples (n=21; mean age 63±15yrs) from the femoral heads replaced during hip alloplasty were removed and drained from alcohol of 1h before the experiment. The indentation process was conducted using CSM Microhardness Tester equipped with Vickers indenter. Each sample was indented 35 times (7 times for 5 different hold times: t1=0.1s, t2=1s, t3=10s, t4=100s and t5=1000s). The indenter was advanced at a rate of 10mN/s to 500mN. There was used Oliver-Pharr method in calculation process. The increase of hold time is associated with the decrease of hardness parameters (HIT(t1)=418±34 MPa, HIT(t2)=390±50 MPa, HIT(t3)= 313±54 MPa, HIT(t4)=305±54 MPa, HIT(t5)=276±90 MPa) and elasticity (EIT(t1)=7.7±1.2 GPa, EIT(t2)=8.0±1.5 GPa, EIT(t3)=7.0±0.9 GPa, EIT(t4)=7.2±0.9 GPa, EIT(t5)=6.2±1.8 GPa) as well as with the increase of the elastic (Welastic(t1)=4.11∙10-7±4.2∙10-8Nm, Welastic(t2)= 4.12∙10-7±6.4∙10-8 Nm, Welastic(t3)=4.71∙10-7±6.0∙10-9 Nm, Welastic(t4)= 4.33∙10-7±5.5∙10-9Nm, Welastic(t5)=5.11∙10-7±7.4∙10-8Nm) and inelastic (Winelastic(t1)=1.05∙10-6±1.2∙10-7 Nm, Winelastic(t2) =1.07∙10-6±7.6∙10-8 Nm, Winelastic(t3)=1.26∙10-6±1.9∙10-7Nm, Winelastic(t4)=1.56∙10-6± 1.9∙10-7 Nm, Winelastic(t5)=1.67∙10-6±2.6∙10-7)) reaction of materials. The indentation creep increased logarithmically (R2=0.901) with increasing hold time: CIT(t1) = 0.08±0.01%, CIT(t2) = 0.7±0.1%, CIT(t3) = 3.7±0.3%, CIT(t4) = 12.2±1.5%, CIT(t5) = 13.5±3.8%. The pronounced impact of creep effect on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone was observed in experimental studies. While the description elastic-inelastic, and thus the Oliver-Pharr method for data analysis, may apply in few limited cases, most biological tissues do not exhibit elastic-inelastic indentation responses. Viscoelastic properties of tissues may play a significant role in remodelling. The aspect is still under an analysis and numerical simulations. Acknowledgements: The presented results are part of the research project founded by National Science Centre (NCN), Poland, no.2014/15/B/ST7/03244.

Keywords: Bone, Mechanical Properties, Creep, indentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
5 Clarifications on the Damping Mechanism Related to the Hunting Motion of the Wheel Axle of a High-Speed Railway Vehicle

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In order to explain the damping mechanism, related to the hunting motion of the wheel axle of a high-speed railway vehicle, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. Based on such model, analytic expressions for the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency are derived, without imposing restrictions on the ratio between the lateral and vertical creep coefficients. Influence of the travelling speed, wheel conicity, dimensionless mass of the wheel axle, ratio of the creep coefficients, ratio of the track span to the yawing diameter, etc. on the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency, is clarified.

Keywords: Analysis, Damping, Creep, wheel axle, vibration model, high-speed railway vehicle, hunting motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
4 Stability of Pump Station Cavern in Chagrin Shale with Time

Authors: Mohammad Moridzadeh, Mohammad Djavid, Barry Doyle

Abstract:

An assessment of the long-term stability of a cavern in Chagrin shale excavated by the sequential excavation method was performed during and after construction. During the excavation of the cavern, deformations of rock mass were measured at the surface of excavation and within the rock mass by surface and deep measurement instruments. Rock deformations were measured during construction which appeared to result from the as-built excavation sequence that had potentially disturbed the rock and its behavior. Also some additional time dependent rock deformations were observed during and post excavation. Several opinions have been expressed to explain this time dependent deformation including stress changes induced by excavation, strain softening (or creep) in the beddings with and without clay and creep of the shaley rock under compressive stresses. In order to analyze and replicate rock behavior observed during excavation, including current and post excavation elastic, plastic, and time dependent deformation, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed. The analysis was also intended to estimate long term deformation of the rock mass around the excavation. Rock mass behavior including time dependent deformation was measured by means of rock surface convergence points, MPBXs, extended creep testing on the long anchors, and load history data from load cells attached to several long anchors. Direct creep testing of Chagrin Shale was performed on core samples from the wall of the Pump Room. Results of these measurements were used to calibrate the FEA of the excavation. These analyses incorporate time dependent constitutive modeling for the rock to evaluate the potential long term movement in the roof, walls, and invert of the cavern. The modeling was performed due to the concerns regarding the unanticipated behavior of the rock mass as well as the forecast of long term deformation and stability of rock around the excavation.

Keywords: Creep, finite element, Cavern, Chagrin shale

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
3 Analysis and Modeling of Stresses and Creeps Resulting from Soil Mechanics in Southern Plains of Kerman Province

Authors: Kourosh Nazarian

Abstract:

Many of the engineering materials, such as behavioral metals, have at least a certain level of linear behavior. It means that if the stresses are doubled, the deformations would be also doubled. In fact, these materials have linear elastic properties. Soils do not follow this law, for example, when compressed, soils become gradually tighter. On the surface of the ground, the sand can be easily deformed with a finger, but in high compressive stresses, they gain considerable hardness and strength. This is mainly due to the increase in the forces among the separate particles. Creeps also deform the soils under a constant load over time. Clay and peat soils have creep behavior. As a result of this phenomenon, structures constructed on such soils will continue their collapse over time. In this paper, the researchers analyzed and modeled the stresses and creeps in the southern plains of Kerman province in Iran through library-documentary, quantitative and software techniques, and field survey. The results of the modeling showed that these plains experienced severe stresses and had a collapse of about 26 cm in the last 15 years and also creep evidence was discovered in an area with a gradient of 3-6 degrees.

Keywords: stress, Creep, surface runoff, faryab

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
2 Damping and Stability Evaluation for the Dynamical Hunting Motion of the Bullet Train Wheel Axle Equipped with Cylindrical Wheel Treads

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

Classical matrix calculus and Routh-Hurwitz stability conditions, applied to the snake-like motion of the conical wheel axle, lead to the conclusion that the hunting mode is inherently unstable, and its natural frequency is a complex number. In order to analytically solve such a complicated vibration model, either the inertia terms were neglected, in the model designated as geometrical, or restrictions on the creep coefficients and yawing diameter were imposed, in the so-called dynamical model. Here, an alternative solution is proposed to solve the hunting mode, based on the observation that the bullet train wheel axle is equipped with cylindrical wheels. One argues that for such wheel treads, the geometrical hunting is irrelevant, since its natural frequency becomes nil, but the dynamical hunting is significant since its natural frequency reduces to a real number. Moreover, one illustrates that the geometrical simplification of the wheel causes the stabilization of the hunting mode, since the characteristic quartic equation, derived for conical wheels, reduces to a quadratic equation of positive coefficients, for cylindrical wheels. Quite simple analytical expressions for the damping ratio and natural frequency are obtained, without applying restrictions into the model of contact. Graphs of the time-depending hunting lateral perturbation, including the maximal and inflexion points, are presented both for the critically-damped and the over-damped wheel axles.

Keywords: Stability, Damping, Vibration analysis, Creep, bullet train, cylindrical wheels, dynamical hunting

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
1 Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Slow Reversible Deformation of Concrete in Surface-Active Media

Authors: Olgha Giorgishvili, Nika Botchorishvili

Abstract:

Many-year investigations of the nature of damping creep of rigid bodies and materials led to the discovery of the fundamental character of this phenomenon. It occurs only when a rigid body comes in contact with a surface-active medium (liquid or gaseous), which brings about a decrease of the free surface energy of a rigid body as a result of adsorption, chemo-sorption or wetting. The reversibility of the process consists of a gradual disappearance of creep deformation when the action of a surface-active medium stops. To clarify the essence of processes, a physical model is constructed by using Griffith’s scheme and the well-known representation formulas of deformation origination and failure processes. The total creep deformation is caused by the formation and opening of microcracks throughout the material volume under the action of load. This supposedly happens in macroscopically homogeneous silicate and organic glasses, while in polycrystals (tuff, gypsum, steel) contacting with a surface-active medium micro crack are formed mainly on the grain boundaries. The creep of rubber is due to its swelling activated by stress. Acknowledgment: All experiments are financially supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia. Study of Properties of Concretes (Both Ordinary and Compacted) Made of Local Building Materials and Containing Admixtures, and Their Further Introduction in Construction Operations and Road Building. DP2016_26. 22.12.2016.

Keywords: Creep, micro crack, process reversibility, surface-active medium, Rebinder’s effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 15