Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

crash Related Abstracts

5 Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Dynamic Axial Crushing of a Composite Glass/PEHD

Authors: Mahmoudi Noureddine, Kaou Abdellah

Abstract:

Energy absorption is a major requirement for automotive structures. Although crashworthy structures of composite based glass fiber have exhibited energy absorption greater than similar at other composites structures, the crush process in many cases is accompanied by fracture, rather than by plastic deformation. The crash experiments show that the tubes are crushed in progressive manner start from one end of the tubes and delamination takes place between the layers. To better understand details of the crash process, ABAQUS finite element code is used.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, crash, PEHD

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4 The Two-Lane Rural Analysis and Comparison of Police Statistics and Results with the Help IHSDM

Authors: S. Amanpour, F. Mohamadian, S. A. Tabatabai

Abstract:

With the number of accidents and fatalities in recent years can be concluded that Iran is the status of road accidents, remains in a crisis. Investigate the causes of such incidents in all countries is a necessity. By doing this research, the results of the number and type of accidents and the location of the crash will be available. It is possible to prioritize economic and rational solutions to fix the flaws in the way of short-term the results are all the more strict rules about the desire to have black spots and cursory glance at the change of but results in long-term are desired to change the system or increase the width of the path or add extra track. In general, the relationship between the analysis of the accidents and near police statistics is the number of accidents in one year. This could prove the accuracy of the analysis done.

Keywords: Modeling, Traffic, crash, Khuzestan, IHSDM

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3 An Approach to Apply Kernel Density Estimation Tool for Crash Prone Location Identification

Authors: Kazi Md. Shifun Newaz, S. Miaji, Shahnewaz Hazanat-E-Rabbi

Abstract:

In this study, the kernel density estimation tool has been used to identify most crash prone locations in a national highway of Bangladesh. Like other developing countries, in Bangladesh road traffic crashes (RTC) have now become a great social alarm and the situation is deteriorating day by day. Today’s black spot identification process is not based on modern technical tools and most of the cases provide wrong output. In this situation, characteristic analysis and black spot identification by spatial analysis would be an effective and low cost approach in ensuring road safety. The methodology of this study incorporates a framework on the basis of spatial-temporal study to identify most RTC occurrence locations. In this study, a very important and economic corridor like Dhaka to Sylhet highway has been chosen to apply the method. This research proposes that KDE method for identification of Hazardous Road Location (HRL) could be used for all other National highways in Bangladesh and also for other developing countries. Some recommendations have been suggested for policy maker to reduce RTC in Dhaka-Sylhet especially in black spots.

Keywords: GIS, crash, hazardous road location (HRL), kernel density

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2 Effectiveness of Variable Speed Limit Signs in Reducing Crash Rates on Roadway Construction Work Zones in Alaska

Authors: Osama Abaza, Tanay Datta Chowdhury

Abstract:

As a driver's speed increases, so do the probability of an incident and likelihood of injury. The presence of equipment, personnel, and a changing landscape in construction zones create greater potential for incident. This is especially concerning in Alaska, where summer construction activity, coinciding with the peak annual traffic volumes, cannot be avoided. In order to reduce vehicular speeding in work zones, and therefore the probability of crash and incident occurrence, variable speed limit (VSL) systems can be implemented in the form of radar speed display trailers since the radar speed display trailers were shown to be effective at reducing vehicular speed in construction zones. Allocation of VSL not only help reduce the 85th percentile speed but also it will predominantly reduce mean speed as well. Total of 2147 incidents along with 385 crashes occurred only in one month around the construction zone in the Alaska which seriously requires proper attention. This research provided a thorough crash analysis to better understand the cause and provide proper countermeasures. Crashes were predominantly recoded as vehicle- object collision and sideswipe type and thus significant amount of crashes fall in the group of no injury to minor injury type in the severity class. But still, 35 major crashes with 7 fatal ones in a one month period require immediate action like the implementation of the VSL system as it proved to be a speed reducer in the construction zone on Alaskan roadways.

Keywords: Speed, severity, crash, construction zone

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1 A Nonlinear Stochastic Differential Equation Model for Financial Bubbles and Crashes with Finite-Time Singularities

Authors: Haowen Xi

Abstract:

We propose and solve exactly a class of non-linear generalization of the Black-Scholes process of stochastic differential equations describing price bubble and crashes dynamics. As a result of nonlinear positive feedback, the faster-than-exponential price positive growth (bubble forming) and negative price growth (crash forming) are found to be the power-law finite-time singularity in which bubbles and crashes price formation ending at finite critical time tc. While most literature on the market bubble and crash process focuses on the nonlinear positive feedback mechanism aspect, very few studies concern the noise level on the same process. The present work adds to the market bubble and crashes literature by studying the external sources noise influence on the critical time tc of the bubble forming and crashes forming. Two main results will be discussed: (1) the analytical expression of expected value of the critical time is found and unexpected critical slowing down due to the coupling external noise is predicted; (2) numerical simulations of the nonlinear stochastic equation is presented, and the probability distribution of Prob(tc) is found to be the inverse gamma function.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Stochastic differential equations, price dynamics, crash, bubble, finite-time-singular

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