Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

crack propagation Related Abstracts

7 Surface Activation of Carbon Nanotubes Generating a Chemical Interaction in Epoxy Nanocomposite

Authors: Mohamed Eldessouki, Ebraheem Shady, Yasser Gowayed


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for having high elastic properties with high surface area that promote them as good candidates for reinforcing polymeric matrices. In composite materials, CNTs lack chemical bonding with the surrounding matrix which decreases the possibility of better stress transfer between the components. In this work, a chemical treatment for activating the surface of the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was applied and the effect of this functionalization on the elastic properties of the epoxy nanocomposites was studied. Functional amino-groups were added to the surface of the CNTs and it was evaluated to be about 34% of the total weight of the CNTs. Elastic modulus was found to increase by about 40% of the neat epoxy resin at CNTs’ weight fraction of 0.5%. The elastic modulus was found to decrease after reaching a certain concentration of CNTs which was found to be 1% wt. The scanning electron microscopic pictures showed the effect of the CNTs on the crack propagation through the sample by forming stress concentrated spots at the nanocomposite samples.

Keywords: crack propagation, carbon nanotubes functionalization, elastic modulus, epoxy nanocomposites

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6 Concrete Cracking Simulation Using Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element Method

Authors: R. Z. Wang, B. C. Lin, C. H. Huang


This study proposes a new method to simulate the crack propagation under mode-I loading using Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element (VFIFE) method. A new idea which is expected to combine both VFIFE and J-integral is proposed to calculate the stress density factor as the crack critical in elastic crack. The procedure of implement the cohesive crack propagation in VFIFE based on the fictitious crack model is also proposed. In VFIFIE, the structure deformation is described by numbers of particles instead of elements. The strain energy density and the derivatives of the displacement vector of every particle is introduced to calculate the J-integral as the integral path is discrete by particles. The particle on the crack tip separated into two particles once the stress on the crack tip satisfied with the crack critical and then the crack tip propagates to the next particle. The internal force and the cohesive force is applied to the particles.

Keywords: crack propagation, VFIFE, fictitious crack model, crack critical

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5 The Cracks Propagation Monitoring of a Cantilever Beam Using Modal Analysis

Authors: Morteza Raki, Abolghasem Zabihollah, Omid Askari


Cantilever beam is a simplified sample of a lot of mechanical components used in a wide range of applications, including many industries such as gas turbine blade. Due to the nature of the operating conditions, beams are subject to variety of damages especially crack propagates. Crack propagation may lead to catastrophic failure during operation. Therefore, online detection of crack presence and its propagation is very important and may reduce possible significant cost of the whole system failure. This paper aims to investigate the effect of cracks presence and crack propagation on one end fixed beam`s vibration. A finite element model will be developed for the blade in which the modal response of the structure with and without crack will be studied. 

Keywords: Health monitoring, modal analysis, crack propagation, blade

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4 Adhesive Bonded Joints Characterization and Crack Propagation in Composite Materials under Cyclic Impact Fatigue and Constant Amplitude Fatigue Loadings

Authors: Andres Bautista, Alicia Porras, Juan P. Casas, Maribel Silva


The Colombian aeronautical industry has stimulated research in the mechanical behavior of materials under different loading conditions aircrafts are generally exposed during its operation. The Calima T-90 is the first military aircraft built in the country, used for primary flight training of Colombian Air Force Pilots, therefore, it may be exposed to adverse operating situations such as hard landings which cause impact loads on the aircraft that might produce the impact fatigue phenomenon. The Calima T-90 structure is mainly manufactured by composites materials generating assemblies and subassemblies of different components of it. The main method of bonding these components is by using adhesive joints. Each type of adhesive bond must be studied on its own since its performance depends on the conditions of the manufacturing process and operating characteristics. This study aims to characterize the typical adhesive joints of the aircraft under usual loads. To this purpose, the evaluation of the effect of adhesive thickness on the mechanical performance of the joint under quasi-static loading conditions, constant amplitude fatigue and cyclic impact fatigue using single lap-joint specimens will be performed. Additionally, using a double cantilever beam specimen, the influence of the thickness of the adhesive on the crack growth rate for mode I delamination failure, as a function of the critical energy release rate will be determined. Finally, an analysis of the fracture surface of the test specimens considering the mechanical interaction between the substrate (composite) and the adhesive, provide insights into the magnitude of the damage, the type of failure mechanism that occurs and its correlation with the way crack propagates under the proposed loading conditions.

Keywords: Composites, Fatigue, crack propagation, adhesive

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3 Uncertainty Quantification of Crack Widths and Crack Spacing in Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Marcel Meinhardt, Manfred Keuser, Thomas Braml


Cracking of reinforced concrete is a complex phenomenon induced by direct loads or restraints affecting reinforced concrete structures as soon as the tensile strength of the concrete is exceeded. Hence it is important to predict where cracks will be located and how they will propagate. The bond theory and the crack formulas in the actual design codes, for example, DIN EN 1992-1-1, are all based on the assumption that the reinforcement bars are embedded in homogeneous concrete without taking into account the influence of transverse reinforcement and the real stress situation. However, it can often be observed that real structures such as walls, slabs or beams show a crack spacing that is orientated to the transverse reinforcement bars or to the stirrups. In most Finite Element Analysis studies, the smeared crack approach is used for crack prediction. The disadvantage of this model is that the typical strain localization of a crack on element level can’t be seen. The crack propagation in concrete is a discontinuous process characterized by different factors such as the initial random distribution of defects or the scatter of material properties. Such behavior presupposes the elaboration of adequate models and methods of simulation because traditional mechanical approaches deal mainly with average material parameters. This paper concerned with the modelling of the initiation and the propagation of cracks in reinforced concrete structures considering the influence of transverse reinforcement and the real stress distribution in reinforced concrete (R/C) beams/plates in bending action. Therefore, a parameter study was carried out to investigate: (I) the influence of the transversal reinforcement to the stress distribution in concrete in bending mode and (II) the crack initiation in dependence of the diameter and distance of the transversal reinforcement to each other. The numerical investigations on the crack initiation and propagation were carried out with a 2D reinforced concrete structure subjected to quasi static loading and given boundary conditions. To model the uncertainty in the tensile strength of concrete in the Finite Element Analysis correlated normally and lognormally distributed random filed with different correlation lengths were generated. The paper also presents and discuss different methods to generate random fields, e.g. the Covariance Matrix Decomposition Method. For all computations, a plastic constitutive law with softening was used to model the crack initiation and the damage of the concrete in tension. It was found that the distributions of crack spacing and crack widths are highly dependent of the used random field. These distributions are validated to experimental studies on R/C panels which were carried out at the Laboratory for Structural Engineering at the University of the German Armed Forces in Munich. Also, a recommendation for parameters of the random field for realistic modelling the uncertainty of the tensile strength is given. The aim of this research was to show a method in which the localization of strains and cracks as well as the influence of transverse reinforcement on the crack initiation and propagation in Finite Element Analysis can be seen.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, stochastic, crack propagation, Reinforced Concrete, Cracks, random fields, crack initiation, crack modelling

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2 Numerical Modelling and Experiment of a Composite Single-Lap Joint Reinforced by Multifunctional Thermoplastic Composite Fastener

Authors: Wenhao Li, Shijun Guo


Carbon fibre reinforced composites are progressively replacing metal structures in modern civil aircraft. This is because composite materials have large potential of weight saving compared with metal. However, the achievement to date of weight saving in composite structure is far less than the theoretical potential due to many uncertainties in structural integrity and safety concern. Unlike the conventional metallic structure, composite components are bonded together along the joints where structural integrity is a major concern. To ensure the safety, metal fasteners are used to reinforce the composite bonded joints. One of the solutions for a significant weight saving of composite structure is to develop an effective technology of on-board Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) System. By monitoring the real-life stress status of composite structures during service, the safety margin set in the structure design can be reduced with confidence. It provides a means of safeguard to minimize the need for programmed inspections and allow for maintenance to be need-driven, rather than usage-driven. The aim of this paper is to develop smart composite joint. The key technology is a multifunctional thermoplastic composite fastener (MTCF). The MTCF will replace some of the existing metallic fasteners in the most concerned locations distributed over the aircraft composite structures to reinforce the joints and form an on-board SHM network system. Each of the MTCFs will work as a unit of the AU and AE technology. The proposed MTCF technology has been patented and developed by Prof. Guo in Cranfield University, UK in the past a few years. The manufactured MTCF has been successfully employed in the composite SLJ (Single-Lap Joint). In terms of the structure integrity, the hybrid SLJ reinforced by MTCF achieves 19.1% improvement in the ultimate failure strength in comparison to the bonded SLJ. By increasing the diameter or rearranging the lay-up sequence of MTCF, the hybrid SLJ reinforced by MTCF is able to achieve the equivalent ultimate strength as that reinforced by titanium fastener. The predicted ultimate strength in simulation is in good agreement with the test results. In terms of the structural health monitoring, a signal from the MTCF was measured well before the load of mechanical failure. This signal provides a warning of initial crack in the joint which could not be detected by the strain gauge until the final failure.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, crack propagation, composite single-lap joint, multifunctional composite fastener

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1 Numerical Analysis of Shear Crack Propagation in a Concrete Beam without Transverse Reinforcement

Authors: G. A. Rombach, A. Faron


Crack formation and growth in reinforced concrete members are, in many cases, the cause of the collapse of technical structures. Such serious failures impair structural behavior and can also damage property and persons. An intensive investigation of the crack propagation is indispensable. Numerical methods are being developed to analyze crack growth in an element and to detect fracture failure at an early stage. For reinforced concrete components, however, further research and action are required in the analysis of shear cracks. This paper presents numerical simulations and continuum mechanical modeling of bending shear crack propagation in a three-dimensional reinforced concrete beam without transverse reinforcement. The analysis will provide a further understanding of crack growth and redistribution of inner forces in concrete members. As a numerical method to map discrete cracks, the extended finite element method (XFEM) is applied. The crack propagation is compared with the smeared crack approach using concrete damage plasticity. For validation, the crack patterns of real experiments are compared with the results of the different finite element models. The evaluation is based on single span beams under bending. With the analysis, it is possible to predict the fracture behavior of concrete members.

Keywords: Fracture Mechanics, crack propagation, extended finite element method, concrete damage plasticity

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