Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

COVID-19 Related Abstracts

20 A Feminist Approach to the COVID-19 Lockdown Process in Turkey

Authors: Aykut Sigin

Abstract:

In feminist theory, home is usually regarded as an unsafe place for women to be in, as it continually produces inequalities between men and women, favoring the former, and maintains the patriarchal status quo. The second-wave feminists argued that women need to raise their concerns regarding domestic problems and this eventually led to the emergence of the motto 'the personal is political', pointing out to the fact that the domestic problems one woman experienced were essentially the problems of women in general as the patriarchal ideology manifested itself at home. Although this motto was from the late 1960s, it still holds significance today. In the golden era of the Internet, women could use social media to voice their concerns more easily than ever. Following this line of thought, the aim of this study is to analyze the domestic problems of the women in Turkey during the lockdown caused by COVID-19 through social media as they find themselves at home with their fathers, husbands and/or brothers for longer periods of time than ever before. For this purpose, an investigation of the posts shared under '#EvdeKal' ('StayAtHome') was carried out. The results of the study made it clear that women find the lockdown process to be problematic, that they express their domestic concerns rather freely through social media, and that the inequalities caused by the patriarchal ideology persist in the 21st century.

Keywords: Feminism, home, COVID-19, lockdown

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19 Urban Planning Patterns after (COVID-19): An Assessment toward Resiliency

Authors: Mohammed AL-Hasani

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The Pandemic COVID-19 altered the daily habits and affected the functional performance of the cities after this crisis leaving remarkable impacts on many metropolises worldwide. It is so obvious that having more densification in the city leads to more threats altering this main approach that was called for achieving sustainable development. The main goal to achieve resiliency in the cities, especially in forcing risks, is to deal with a planning system that is able to resist, absorb, accommodate and recover from the impacts that had been affected. Many Cities in London, Wuhan, New York, and others worldwide carried different planning approaches and varied in reaction to safeguard the impacts of the pandemic. The cities globally varied from the radiant pattern predicted by Le Corbusier, or having multi urban centers more like the approach of Frank Lloyd Wright’s Broadacre City, or having linear growth or gridiron expansion that was common by Doxiadis, compact pattern, and many other hygiene patterns. These urban patterns shape the spatial distribution and Identify both open and natural spaces with gentrified and gentrifying areas. This crisis paid attention to reassess many planning approaches and examine the existing urban patterns focusing more on the aim of continuity and resiliency in managing the crises within the rapid transformation and the power of market forces. According to that, this paper hypothesized that those urban planning patterns determine the method of reaction in assuring quarantine for the inhabitance and the performance of public services and need to be updated through carrying out an innovative urban management system and adopt further resilience patterns in prospective urban planning approaches. This paper investigates the adaptivity and resiliency of variant urban planning patterns regarding selected cities worldwide that affected by COVID-19 and their role in applying certain management strategies in controlling the pandemic spread, finding out the main potentials that should be included in prospective planning approaches. The examination encompasses the spatial arrangement, blocks definition, plots arrangement, and urban space typologies. This paper aims to investigate the urban patterns to deliberate also the debate between densification as one of the more sustainable planning approaches and disaggregation tendency that was followed after the pandemic by restructuring and managing its application according to the assessment of the spatial distribution and urban patterns. The biggest long-term threat to dense cities proves the need to shift to online working and telecommuting, creating a mixture between using cyber and urban spaces to remobilize the city. Reassessing spatial design and growth, open spaces, urban population density, and public awareness are the main solutions that should be carried out to face the outbreak in our current cities that should be managed from global to tertiary levels and could develop criteria for designing the prospective cities

Keywords: Resiliency, Urban Patterns, Densification, COVID-19

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18 Global News Coverage of the Pandemic: Towards an Ethical Framework for Media Professionalism

Authors: Anantha S. Babbili

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This paper analyzes the current media practices dominant in global journalistic practices within the framework of world press theories of Libertarian, Authoritarian, Communist, and Social Responsibility to evaluate their efficacy in addressing their role in the coverage of the coronavirus, also known as COVID-19. The global media flows, determinants of news coverage, and international awareness and the Western view of the world will be critically analyzed within the context of the prevalent news values that underpin free press and media coverage of the world. While evaluating the global discourse paramount to a sustained and dispassionate understanding of world events, this paper proposes an ethical framework that brings clarity devoid of sensationalism, partisanship, right-wing and left-wing interpretations to a breaking and dangerous development of a pandemic. As the world struggles to contain the coronavirus pandemic with death climbing close to 6,000 from late January to mid-March, 2020, the populations of the developed as well as the developing nations are beset with news media renditions of the crisis that are contradictory, confusing and evoking anxiety, fear and hysteria. How are we to understand differing news standards and news values? What lessons do we as journalism and mass media educators, researchers, and academics learn in order to construct a better news model and structure of media practice that addresses science, health, and media literacy among media practitioners, journalists, and news consumers? As traditional media struggles to cover the pandemic to its audience and consumers, social media from which an increasing number of consumers get their news have exerted their influence both in a positive way and in a negative manner. Even as the world struggles to grasp the full significance of the pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been feverishly battling an additional challenge related to the pandemic in what it termed an 'infodemic'—'an overabundance of information, some accurate and some not, that makes it hard for people to find trustworthy sources and reliable guidance when they need it.' There is, indeed, a need for journalism and news coverage in times of pandemics that reflect social responsibility and ethos of public service journalism. Social media and high-tech information corporations, collectively termed GAMAF—Google, Apple, Microsoft, Amazon, and Facebook – can team up with reliable traditional media—newspapers, magazines, book publishers, radio and television corporates—to ease public emotions and be helpful in times of a pandemic outbreak. GAMAF can, conceivably, weed out sensational and non-credible sources of coronavirus information, exotic cures offered for sale on a quick fix, and demonetize videos that exploit peoples’ vulnerabilities at the lowest ebb. Credible news of utility delivered in a sustained, calm, and reliable manner serves people in a meaningful and helpful way. The world’s consumers of news and information, indeed, deserve a healthy and trustworthy news media – at least in the time of pandemic COVID-19. Towards this end, the paper will propose a practical model for news media and journalistic coverage during times of a pandemic.

Keywords: Social Media, Social Responsibility, COVID-19, international news flow

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17 An Examination of Crisis Communication in Sport: Lessons from Sport Organizations Responding to Coronavirus Disease Outbreak

Authors: Geumchan Hwang

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Professional sport leagues in Europe and North America are shut down due to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Football leagues in Europe (e.g., La Liga, English Premier League, Bundesliga, Serie A, and Ligue 1) and big four professional sport leagues in North America (e.g., National Football League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, and National Hockey League) are indefinitely suspended or delayed. COVID-19 outbreak has a growing negative impact on economics of sport leagues. For example, loss of revenue in Europe’s top five leagues due to the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated at € 4 billion and loss of revenue in the NBA was estimated at $650 million as of March 2020. In the unprecedented difficult situation, sport teams and leagues try to communicate with sport fans through diverse media platforms. In sport, however, very few studies have been done regarding how sport organizations effectively communicate with sport fans during pandemics, such as COVID-19 outbreak. Understanding sport organizations’ crisis communication is important to develop effective crisis management strategies for sport organizations. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to examine how sport organizations communicate with sport fans via online platforms in COVID-19 outbreak and how sport fans evaluate their communication strategies. 9 official sport league sites (i.e., five major football leagues in Europe and four major sport leagues in North America) and COVID-19 news articles published between January and June in 2020 will be analyzed in terms of coronavirus information, teams and players’ live update, fan interaction, fan support, and community engagement. In addition, comments posted on social media sites (i.e., Facebook and Twitter) of major sport leagues will be also analyzed to examine how sport fans perceive online messages provided by sport leagues as an effective communication strategy. To measure the effectiveness of crisis communication performance, five components (i.e., prompt, compassionate, honest, informative, and interactive) of crisis communication will be collected from leagues’ official websites information and social media posts. Upon completing data collection, content analysis method will be used to evaluate effectiveness of crisis communication among 9 professional sport leagues. The results of the study will provide athletic directors, administrators, and public relations managers in sport organizations with practical information regarding how athlete celebrities and sport organizations should interact with their fans in pandemic situations. In particular, this study will contribute to developing specific crisis management plan for sport organizations. For instance, football teams and leagues in Europe will be able to create standard manuals to minimize damages caused by disease outbreak, such as COVID-19 outbreak.

Keywords: Communication, Fans, COVID-19, sport leagues

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16 Nurse-Led Codes: Practical Application in the Emergency Department during a Global Pandemic

Authors: F. DelGaudio, H. Gill

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Resuscitation during cardiopulmonary (CPA) arrest is dynamic, high stress, high acuity situation, which can easily lead to communication breakdown, and errors. The care of these high acuity patients has also been shown to increase physiologic stress and task saturation of providers, which can negatively impact the care being provided. These difficulties are further complicated during a global pandemic and pose a significant safety risk to bedside providers. Nurse-led codes are a relatively new concept that may be a potential solution for alleviating some of these difficulties. An experienced nurse who has completed advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), and additional training, assumed the responsibility of directing the mechanics of the appropriate ACLS algorithm. This was done in conjunction with a physician who also acted as a physician leader. The additional nurse-led code training included a multi-disciplinary in situ simulation of a CPA on a suspected COVID-19 patient. During the CPA, the nurse leader’s responsibilities include: ensuring adequate compression depth and rate, minimizing interruptions in chest compressions, the timing of rhythm/pulse checks, and appropriate medication administration. In addition, the nurse leader also functions as a last line safety check for appropriate personal protective equipment and limiting exposure of staff. The use of nurse-led codes for CPA has shown to decrease the cognitive overload and task saturation for the physician, as well as limiting the number of staff being exposed to a potentially infectious patient. The real-world application has allowed physicians to perform and oversee high-risk procedures such as intubation, line placement, and point of care ultrasound, without sacrificing the integrity of the resuscitation. Nurse-led codes have also given the physician the bandwidth to review pertinent medical history, advanced directives, determine reversible causes, and have the end of life conversations with family. While there is a paucity of research on the effectiveness of nurse-led codes, there are many potentially significant benefits. In addition to its value during a pandemic, it may also be beneficial during complex circumstances such as extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Keywords: COVID-19, cardiopulmonary arrest, nurse-led code, task saturation

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15 Analyzing the Place of Technology in Communication: Case Study of Kenya during COVID-19

Authors: Josephine K. Mule, Levi Obonyo

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Technology has changed human life over time. The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the work set-up, the school system, the shopping experience, church attendance, and even the way athletes train in Kenya. Although the use of technology to communicate and maintain interactions has been on the rise in the last 30 years, the uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic has been unprecedented. Traditionally, ‘paid’ work has been considered to take place outside the “home house” but COVID-19 has resulted in what is now being referred to as “the world’s largest work-from-home experiment” with up to 43 percent of employees working at least some of the time remotely. This study was conducted on 90 respondents from across remote work set-ups, school systems, merchants and customers of online shopping, church leaders and congregants and athletes, and their coaches. Data were collected by questionnaires and interviews that were conducted online. The data is based on the first three months since the first case of coronavirus was reported in Kenya. This study found that the use of technology is in the center of working remotely with work interactions being propelled on various online platforms including, Zoom, Microsoft Teams, and Google Meet, among others. The school system has also integrated the use of technology, including students defending their thesis/dissertations online and university graduations being conducted virtually. Kenya is known for its long-distance runners, due to the directives to reduce interactions; coaches have taken to providing their athletes with guidance on training on social media using applications such as WhatsApp. More local stores are now offering the shopping online option to their customers. Churches have also felt the brunt of the situation, especially because of the restrictions on crowds resulting in online services becoming more popular in 2020 than ever before. Artists, innovatively have started online musical concerts. The findings indicate that one of the outcomes in the Kenyan society that is evident as a result of the COVID-19 period is a population that is using technology more to communicate and get work done. Vices that have thrived in this season where the use of technology has increased, include the spreading of rumors on social media and cyberbullying. The place of technology seems to have been cemented by demand during this period.

Keywords: Communication, Technology, Kenya, COVID-19, coronavirus

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14 Case Studies on the Impact of COVID-19 on Films and Digital Media

Authors: Hitender Sehrawat

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COVID-19 has been a game-changer for many industries and businesses across the globe. In this article, the impact of COVID-19 is discussed, specifically on films, television, and digital media industry. Based on the review of the newspaper articles, three case studies are presented. One case study is on the impact of COVID-19 on Bollywood, the second case study is on the impact of COVID-19 on Hollywood, and third case study is on the impact of COVID-19 on television and digital media industry. It is argued that COVID-19 has had a negative impact on Bollywood and Hollywood, whereas it has impacted the television and digital media industry in a positive way. COVID-19 has brought about disruption in the lives and businesses of people, and the film and television industry is not an exception. Although there are negative impacts of COVID-19 on Bollywood and Hollywood, it has positive impacts on television and the digital media industry. Maybe the disruption of the traditional film industry by the digital media industry will be the normal for a long time to come. However, measures need to be thought about a revival of the Bollywood and Hollywood for the many livelihoods they cater to. Bollywood and Hollywood are not just film industries, but the core identities of India and the United States. What shape film industry will take in the future would be interesting to see. This article opens up avenues for more in-depth empirical research in this area in the future.

Keywords: Television, Films, media industry, COVID-19

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13 The Impact of COVID-19 on Italian Tourism: the Current Scenario, Opportunity and Future Tourism Organizational Strategies

Authors: Marco Camilli

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This article examines the impact of the pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 in the tourism sector in Italy, analyzing the current scenario, the government decisions and the private company reaction for the summer season 2020. The framework of the data analyzed shows how massive it’s the impact of the pandemic outbreak in the tourism revenue, and the weaknesses of the measures proposed. Keywords Travel &Tourism, Transportation, Sustainability, COVID-19, Businesses Introduction The current COVID-19 scenario shows a shocking situation for the tourism and transportation sectors: it could be the most affected by the Coronavirus in Italy. According to forecasts, depending on the duration of the epidemic outbreak and the lockdown strategy applied by the Government, businesses in the supply chain could lose between 24 and 66 billion in turnover in the period of 2020-21, with huge diversified impacts at the national and regional level. Many tourist companies are on the verge of survival and if there are no massive measures by the government they risk closure. Data analysis The tourism and transport sector could be among the sectors most damaged by Covid-19 in Italy. Considering the two-year period 2020-21, companies operating in the travel & tourism sector (Tour operator, Travel Agencies, Hotel, Guides, Bus Company, etc..) could in suffer losses in revenues of 24 to 64 billion euros, especially in the sectors such as the travel agencies, hotel and rental. According to Statista Research Department, from April 2020 estimated that the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic will have a significant impact on revenues of the tourism industry in Italy. Revenues are expected to decrease by over 40 billion euros in the first semester of 2020, compared to the same period of the previous year. According to the study, hotel and non-hotel accommodations will experience the highest loss. Revenues of this sector are expected to decrease by 13 billion euros compared to the first semester of 2019 when accommodations registered revenues for about 17 billion euros. According to Statista.com, in 2020, Italy is expected to register a decrease of roughly 28.5 million tourist arrivals due to the impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) on the country's tourist sector. According to the estimate, the region of Veneto will record the highest drop with a decrease of roughly 4.61 million arrivals. Similarly, Lombardy is expected to register a decrease of about 3.87 million arrivals in 2020.

Keywords: Transportation, Sustainability, Travel and Tourism, Businesses, COVID-19

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12 Artificial Intelligence-Based Chest X-Ray Test of COVID-19 Patients

Authors: Dhurgham Al-Karawi, Nisreen Polus, Shakir Al-Zaidi, Sabah Jassim

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The management of COVID-19 patients based on Chest Imaging is to turn out to be an essential tool for evaluating the spread of the pandemic, which is gripped the global community. It has already been used to monitor the situation of COVID-19 patients who has issues in respiratory status. There has been increased to use chest imaging for medical triage of patients who are showing moderate-severe clinical COVID-19 features; this is due to the fast dispersal of the pandemic to all continents and communities. This article demonstrates the development of machine learning techniques for the test of COVID-19 patients using Chest X-Ray (CXR) images in nearly real-time, to distinguish the COVID-19 infection with a significantly high level of accuracy. The testing performance has covered a combination of different datasets of CXRs images of positive COVID-19 patients, patients with viral and bacterial infections, also, people with a clear chest. The proposed AI scheme successfully distinguishes CXR scans of COVID-19 infected patients from CXR scans of viral and bacterial based pneumonia as well as normal cases with an average accuracy of 94.43%, sensitivity 95%, and specificity 93.86%. Predicted decisions would be supported by visual evidence to help clinicians speed up the initial assessment process of new suspected cases, especially in a resource-constrained environment.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Texture Analysis, Gabor filter, COVID-19, chest x-ray scan, local binary pattern transform

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11 Predicting Shortage of Hospital Beds during COVID-19 Pandemic in United States

Authors: Saeed Ahmadian, Saba Ebrahimi, Hedie Ashrafi

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World-wide spread of coronavirus grows the concern about planning for the excess demand of hospital services in response to COVID-19 pandemic. The surge in the hospital services demand beyond the current capacity leads to shortage of ICU beds and ventilators in some parts of US. In this study, we forecast the required number of hospital beds and possible shortage of beds in US during COVID-19 pandemic to be used in the planning and hospitalization of new cases. In this paper, we used a data on COVID-19 deaths and patients’ hospitalization besides the data on hospital capacities and utilization in US from publicly available sources and national government websites. we used a novel ensemble modelling of deep learning networks, based on stacking different linear and non-linear layers to predict the shortage in hospital beds. The results showed that our proposed approach can predict the excess hospital beds demand very well and this can be helpful in developing strategies and plans to mitigate this gap.

Keywords: Deep learning, COVID-19, ensembled models, hospital capacity planning

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10 Endotracheal Intubation Self-Confidence: Report of a Realistic Simulation Training

Authors: Cleto J. Sauer Jr., Rita C. Sauer, Chaider G. Andrade, Doris F. Rabelo

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Introduction: Endotracheal Intubation (ETI) is a procedure for clinical management of patients with severe clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease. Realistic simulation (RS) is an active learning methodology utilized for clinical skill's improvement. To improve ETI skills of public health network's physicians from Recôncavo da Bahia region in Brazil, during COVID-19 outbreak, RS training was planned and carried out. Training scenario included the Nasco Lifeform realistic simulator, and three actions were simulated: ETI procedure, sedative drugs management, and bougie guide utilization. Training intervention occurred between May and June 2020, as an interinstitutional cooperation between the Health's Department of Bahia State and the Federal University from Recôncavo da Bahia. Objective: The main objective is to report the effects on participants' self-confidence perception for ETI procedure after RS based training. Methods: This is a descriptive study, with secondary data extracted from questionnaires applied throughout RS training. Priority workplace, time from last intubation, and knowledge about bougie were reported on a preparticipation questionnaire. Additionally, participants completed pre- and post-training qualitative self-assessment (10-point Likert scale) regarding self-confidence perception in performing each of simulated actions. Distribution analysis for qualitative data was performed with Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, and self-confidence increase analysis in frequency contingency tables with Fisher's Exact Test. Results: 36 physicians participated of training, 25 (69%) from primary care setting, 25 (69%) performed ETI over a year ago, and only 4 (11%) had previous knowledge about the bougie guide utilization. There was an increase in self-confidence medians for all three simulated actions. Medians (variation) for self-confidence before and after training, for each simulated action were as follows: ETI [5 (1-9) vs. 8 (6-10) (p < 0.0001)]; Sedative drug management [5 (1-9) vs. 8 (4-10) (p < 0.0001)]; Bougie guide utilization [2.5 (1-7) vs. 8 (4-10) (p < 0.0001)]. Among those who performed ETI over a year ago (n = 25), an increase in self-confidence greater than 3 points for ETI was reported by 23 vs. 2 physicians (p = 0.0002), and by 21 vs. 4 (p = 0.03) for sedative drugs management. Conclusions: RS training contributed to self-confidence increase in performing ETI. Among participants who performed ETI over a year, there was a significant association between RS training and increase of more than 3 points in self-confidence, both for ETI and sedative drug management. Training with RS methodology is suitable for ETI confidence enhancement during COVID-19 outbreak.

Keywords: confidence, endotracheal intubation, COVID-19, realistic simulation

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9 Building Capacity and Personnel Flow Modeling for Operating amid COVID-19

Authors: Samuel Fernandes, Dylan Kato, Emin Burak Onat, Patrick Keyantuo, Raja Sengupta, Amine Bouzaghrane

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The COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the United States, forcing cities to impose stay-at-home and shelter-in-place orders. Building operations had to adjust as non-essential personnel worked from home. But as buildings prepare for personnel to return, they need to plan for safe operations amid new COVID-19 guidelines. In this paper we propose a methodology for capacity and flow modeling of personnel within buildings to safely operate under COVID-19 guidelines. We model personnel flow within buildings by network flows with queuing constraints. We study maximum flow, minimum cost, and minimax objectives. We compare our network flow approach with a simulation model through a case study and present the results. Our results showcase various scenarios of how buildings could be operated under new COVID-19 guidelines and provide a framework for building operators to plan and operate buildings in this new paradigm.

Keywords: Network Analysis, building simulation, COVID-19

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8 Report of a Realistic Simulation Training in Using Bougie Guide for Endotracheal Intubation

Authors: Cleto J. Sauer Jr., Rita C. Sauer, Chaider G. Andrade, Doris F. Rabelo

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Some patients with COVID-19 disease and difficult airway characteristics undergo to endotracheal intubation (ETI) procedure. The tracheal introducer, known as the bougie guide, can aid ETI in patients with difficult airway pattern. Realistic simulation (RS) is a methodology utilized for healthcare professionals training. To improve skills in using the bougie guide of physicians from Recôncavo da Bahia region in Brazil, during COVID-19 outbreak, RS training was carried out. Simulated scenario included the Nasco Lifeform realistic simulator for ETI and a bougie guide introducer. Training was a capacitation program organized by the Health Department of Bahia State. Objective: To report effects in participants´ self-confidence perception for using bougie guide after a RS based training. Methods: Descriptive study, secondary data extracted from questionnaires. Priority workplace and previous knowledge about bougie were reported on a preparticipation formulary. Participants also completed pre- and post-training qualitative self-assessment (10-point Likert scale) regarding to self-confidence in using bougie guide. Distribution analysis for qualitative data was performed with Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, and self-confidence increase analysis in frequency contingency tables with Fisher's exact test. Results: From May to June 2020 a total of 36 physicians participated of training, 25 (69%) from primary care setting, 32 (89%) with no previous knowledge about the bougie guide utilization. For those who had previous knowledge about bougie pre-training self-confidence median was 6,5, and 2 for participants who had not. In overall there was an increase in self-confidence median for bougie utilization. Median (variation) before and after training was 2.5 (1-7) vs. 8 (4-10) (p <0.0001). Among those who had no previous knowledge about bougie (n = 32) an increase in self-confidence greater than 3 points for bougie utilization was reported by 31 vs. 1 participants (p = 0.71). Conclusions: Most of participants had no previous knowledge about using the bougie guide. RS training contributed to self-confidence increase for using bougie for ETI procedure. RS methodology can contribute for training in using the bougie guide for ETI procedure during COVID-19 outbreak.

Keywords: confidence, endotracheal intubation, COVID-19, realistic simulation, bougie

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7 Immunity Boosting and Balanced Diet Prevents Viral Infections with Special Emphasis on COVID-19

Authors: K. R. Padma, K. R. Don

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Background and aims: A balanced nutritional diet is essential in maintaining immunity and for deterrence as well as desisting of viral infections. Nevertheless, currently, very less information is available online regarding nutrition consumption during the period of coronavirus infection, i.e. (COVID-19). In our systematic review article, we portrayed and aimed to evaluate evidence from various previous clinical trials, which was based on nutritional interventions for viral diseases and given a concise overview. Methods: A systematic search was carried out employing 3 key medical databases: PubMed®, Web of Science®, and SciVerse Scopus®. Studies were performed and evaluated suitable if clinical trials in humans, appropriate immunological parameters on viral and respiratory infections, need to perform. Basic Clinical trials on nutritional vitamins, minerals, nutraceuticals as well as probiotics were included. Results: We have explored 10 review articles and extracted data for our study. A total of > 2000 participants were included and excluded several other trace elements as well as various vitamins, but in inclusion criteria mainly concentrated on those who have shown propitious immune-modulatory effects against viral respiratory infections. Conclusions: We have encapsulated the potential health benefits of some minerals, vitamins, as well as certain designer foods, nutraceuticals, and probiotics in viral infections. Based on this nutritional interventional strategy available from our present data, it could be promising to abstain and reduce the COVID-19 infection replication and boost our immunity to fight against the virus.

Keywords: Immunity, Vitamins, COVID-19, nutritional intervention strategy

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6 The Reality of the Digital Inequality and Its Negative Impact on Virtual Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The South African Perspective

Authors: Jacob Medupe

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Life as we know it has changed since the global outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and business as usual will not continue. The human impact of the COVID-19 crisis is already immeasurable. Moreover, COVID-19 has already negatively impacted economies, livelihoods and disrupted food systems around the world. The disruptive nature of the Corona virus has affected every sphere of life including the culture and teaching and learning. Right now the majority of education research is based around classroom management techniques that are no longer necessary with digital delivery. Instead there is a great need for new data about how to make the best use of the one-on-one attention that is now becoming possible (Diamandis & Kotler, 2014). The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated an environment where the South African learners are focused to adhere to social distancing in order to minimise the wild spread of the Corona virus. This arrangement forces the student to utilise the online classroom technologies to continue with the lessons. The historical reality is that the country has not made much strides on the closing of the digital divide and this is particularly a common status quo in the deep rural areas. This will prove to be a toll order for most of the learners affected by the Corona Virus to be able to have a seamless access to the online learning facilities. The paper will seek to look deeply into this reality and how the Corona virus has brought us to the reality that South Africa remains a deeply unequal society in every sphere of life. The study will also explore the state of readiness for education system around the online classroom environment.

Keywords: e-Learning, pedagogy, Distance Education, Online Learning, Virtual learning, Blended Learning, Virtual Classroom, Self-regulated learning, digital literacy, COVID-19, Corona virus, internet connectivity

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5 Covid-19: Preparedness, Response, and Use of Video Technology in Managing Infection Rate at Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos-Nigeria

Authors: Afolakemi Helen Olaleye, Ogunjobi A. O

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Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Nigeria, the virus has spread to virtually all sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries. In Nigeria, government agencies came together to create a goal-driven taskforce in improving our response against the virus. As COVID-19 international spread has been curtailed, community spread became rampant locally, leading to many health authorities raising concerns over the scarcity of medical consumables and supplies. Here at Lagos university teaching Hospital (LUTH), we present data analysis of COVID-19 infections offered at our Hospital (LUTH) and the surrounding communities. In addition, the adopted innovative solution to control the spread of infection, methods used in filling shortages of consumables, personal protective equipment (PPE), and use of mobile video technology in patient’s consultation. The management style and strategy adopted has led to a decline in infection rates in our community and among our front line staff. The current COVID -19 crisis has created an opportunity to test and demonstrate our pandemic response and control of infectious disease along with the revealed unknown potential in our community.

Keywords: Preparedness, response, COVID-19, Lagos university teaching hospital

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4 Safety Management Paradigms: COVID-19 Employee Well-Being Impact on Occupational Health and Safety Performance

Authors: Shahrina Md Nordin, Muhammad Ajmal, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam Bin Isha

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The purpose of this study is to develop a safety management conceptual model with employee well-being on occupational health and safety performance. These days due to pandemic COVID-19 organizations are facing challenges to keep employees motivated and reduce the cost of occupational health and safety performance. The idea behind this study is to highlight the importance of safety management paradigms to enhance employee well-being and reduce the rate of accidents, injuries, and near misses. The results of the study will provide strategic plans for organizational management to enhance occupational health and safety performance. In this study population will be employees from the oil and gas industry, the sample will be selected from the manufacturing and operation department from the oil and gas industry. The cross-sectional strategy will be used to collect data. The initial objective of the paper is to establish the relationship between safety management paradigms to improve safety performance. The second objective is to develop a conceptual framework for the oil and gas industry to reduce accidents, injuries and near misses. Furthermore, this study build relationship among relevant constructs of occupational health and safety performance. This paper can assist employers and safety officers in having a deeper understanding of the importance of safety management factors and employee well-being to improving occupational health and safety performance and its impact on the oil and gas industry. The clear worth of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for the oil and gas industry. This study will be beneficial for safety managers and policymakers who are interested in reducing the cost of safety management performance. In the future, this study will be tested empirically based on constructs from the literature.

Keywords: Oil and Gas, Well-being, Safety Management, Malaysia, COVID-19

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3 RNA-Seq Analysis of Coronaviridae Family and SARS-Cov-2 Prediction Using Proposed ANN

Authors: Busra Mutlu Ipek, Merve Mutlu, Ahmet Mutlu

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Novel coronavirus COVID-19, which has recently influenced the world, poses a great threat to humanity. In order to overcome this challenging situation, scientists are working on developing effective vaccine against coronavirus. Many experts and researchers have also produced articles and done studies on this highly important subject. In this direction, this special topic was chosen for article to make a contribution to this area. The purpose of this article is to perform RNA sequence analysis of selected virus forms in the Coronaviridae family and predict/classify SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) from other selected complete genomes in coronaviridae family using proposed Artificial Neural Network(ANN) algorithm.

Keywords: Neural Network, RNA Sequencing, ANN, COVID-19, Coronaviridae family

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2 A Bibliometric Analysis of Ukrainian Research Articles on SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) in Compliance with the Standards of Current Research Information Systems

Authors: Sabina Auhunas

Abstract:

These days in Ukraine, Open Science dramatically develops for the sake of scientists of all branches, providing an opportunity to take a more close look on the studies by foreign scientists, as well as to deliver their own scientific data to national and international journals. However, when it comes to the generalization of data on science activities by Ukrainian scientists, these data are often integrated into E-systems that operate inconsistent and barely related information sources. In order to resolve these issues, developed countries productively use E-systems, designed to store and manage research data, such as Current Research Information Systems that enable combining uncompiled data obtained from different sources. An algorithm for selecting SARS-CoV-2 research articles was designed, by means of which we collected the set of papers published by Ukrainian scientists and uploaded by August 1, 2020. Resulting metadata (document type, open access status, citation count, h-index, most cited documents, international research funding, author counts, the bibliographic relationship of journals) were taken from Scopus and Web of Science databases. The study also considered the info from COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2-related documents published from December 2019 to September 2020, directly from documents published by authors depending on territorial affiliation to Ukraine. These databases are enabled to get the necessary information for bibliometric analysis and necessary details: copyright, which may not be available in other databases (e.g., Science Direct). Search criteria and results for each online database were considered according to the WHO classification of the virus and the disease caused by this virus and represented (Table 1). First, we identified 89 research papers that provided us with the final data set after consolidation and removing duplication; however, only 56 papers were used for the analysis. The total number of documents by results from the WoS database came out at 21641 documents (48 affiliated to Ukraine among them) in the Scopus database came out at 32478 documents (41 affiliated to Ukraine among them). According to the publication activity of Ukrainian scientists, the following areas prevailed: Education, educational research (9 documents, 20.58%); Social Sciences, interdisciplinary (6 documents, 11.76%) and Economics (4 documents, 8.82%). The highest publication activity by institution types was reported in the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (its percent of published scientific papers equals 36% or 7 documents), Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University goes next (5 documents, 15%) and P. L. Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education (4 documents, 12%). Basically, research activities by Ukrainian scientists were funded by 5 entities: Belgian Development Cooperation, the National Institutes of Health (NIH, U.S.), The United States Department of Health & Human Services, grant from the Whitney and Betty MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies at Yale, a grant from the Yale Women Faculty Forum. Based on the results of the analysis, we obtained a set of published articles and preprints to be assessed on the variety of features in upcoming studies, including citation count, most cited documents, a bibliographic relationship of journals, reference linking. Further research on the development of the national scientific E-database continues using brand new analytical methods.

Keywords: Text Mining, Content Analysis, Scientometrics, COVID-19

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1 In-Silico Investigation of Phytochemicals from Ocimum Sanctum as Plausible Antiviral Agent in COVID-19

Authors: Dileep Kumar, Janhavi Ramchandra Rao Kumar, Rao

Abstract:

COVID-19 has ravaged the globe, and it is spreading its Spectre day by day. In the absence of established drugs, this disease has created havoc. Some of the infected persons are symptomatic or asymptomatic. The respiratory system, cardiac system, digestive system, etc. in human beings are affected by this virus. In our present investigation, we have undertaken a study of the Indian Ayurvedic herb, Ocimum sanctum against SARS-CoV-2 using molecular docking and dynamics studies. The docking analysis was performed on the Glide module of Schrödinger suite on two different proteins from SARS-CoV-2 viz. NSP15 Endoribonuclease and spike receptor-binding domain. MM-GBSA based binding free energy calculations also suggest the most favorable binding affinities of carvacrol, β elemene, and β caryophyllene with binding energies of −61.61, 58.23, and −54.19 Kcal/mol respectively with spike receptor-binding domain and NSP15 Endoribonuclease. It rekindles our hope for the design and development of new drug candidates for the treatment of COVID19.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, Binding Energy, Ocimum sanctum, COVID-19

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