Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Counseling Related Abstracts

12 A Comparative Study of Burnout and Coping Strategies between HIV Counselors: Face to Face and Online Counseling Services in Addis Ababa

Authors: Yemisrach Mihertu Amsale


The purpose of this study was to compare burnout and coping strategies between HIV counselors in face to face and online counseling settings in Addis Ababa. The study was mixed approach design that was quantitative and qualitative. For the quantitative data the participants involved in this study included 64 face to face and 47 online HIV counselors in both counseling settings. In addition, 23 participants were involved to offer qualitative data from both counseling settings. For the purpose of gathering the quantitative data, the instruments, namely, demographic questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory and the COPE questionnaire, were used to gather quantitative data. Qualitative data was also gathered in the FGD Guide and Interview Guide. Thus, this study revealed that HIV counselors in online counseling settings scored high on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low in personal accomplishment dimensions of burnout as compared to HIV counselors in face to face setting and the difference was statistically significant in emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, but there was no a significant difference on depersonalization dimension of burnout between the two groups. In addition, the present study revealed a statistically significant difference on problem focused coping strategy between the two groups and yet for on the emotion focused coping strategy the difference was not statistically significant. Statistically negative correlation was observed between some demographic variables such as age with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions of burnout; years of experiences and personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. A statistically positive correlation was also observed between average number of clients served per day and emotional exhaustion. Sex was having a statistically positive correlation with coping strategy. Lastly, a significant positive correlation was also observed in the emotional exhaustion dimension of the burnout and the emotional focused coping strategy. Generally, this study has shown that HIV counselors suffer from moderate to high level of burnout. Based on the findings, conclusions were made and recommendations were forwarded.

Keywords: Behavioral Sciences, Psychological, Counseling, burnout management

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11 Social Media and Counseling: Opportunities, Risks and Ethical Considerations

Authors: Kyriaki G. Giota, George Kleftaras


The purpose of this article is to briefly review the opportunities that social media presents to counselors and psychologists. Particular attention was given to understanding some of the more important common risks inherent in social media and the potential ethical dilemmas which may arise for counselors and psychologists who embrace them in their practice. Key considerations of issues pertinent to an online presence such as multiple relationships, visibility and privacy, maintaining ethical principles and professional boundaries are being discussed.

Keywords: Social Media, Counseling, Ethics, risks

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10 Influence of Genetic Counseling in Family Dynamics in Patients with Deafness in Merida, Yucatán, Mexico

Authors: Damaris Estrella Castillo, Zacil ha Vilchis Zapata, Leydi Peraza Gómez


Hearing loss is an etiologically heterogeneous condition, where almost 60% is genetic in origin, 20% is due to environmental factors, and 20% have unknown causes. However, it is now known that the gene, GJB2, which encodes the connexin 26 protein, accounts for a large percentage of non-syndromic genetic hearing loss, and variants in this gene have been identified to be a common cause of hereditary hearing loss in many populations. The literature reports that the etiology in deafness helps improve family functioning but low-income countries this is difficult. Therefore, it is difficult to contribute the right of families to know about the genetic risk in future pregnancies as well as determining the certainty of being a carrier or affected. In order to assess the impact of genetic counseling and the functionality, 100 families with at least one child with profound hearing loss, were evaluated by specialists in audiology, clinical genetics and psychology. Targeted mutation analysis for one of the two known large deletions of upstream of GJB2/GJB6 gene (35delG; and including GJB2 regulatory sequences and GJB6) were performed in patients with diagnosis of non-syndromic hearing loss. Genetic counseling was given to all parents and primary caregivers, and APGAR family test was applied before and after the counseling. We analyzed a total of 300 members (children, parents) to determine the presence of the GJB2 gene mutation. Twelve patients (carriers and affected) were positive for the mutation, from 5 different families. The subsequent family APGAR testing and genetic counseling, showed that 14% perceived their families as functional, 62 % and 24 % moderately functional dysfunctional. This shows the importance of genetic counseling in the perception of family function that can directly impact the quality of life of these families.

Keywords: Counseling, Deafness, Family Dynamics, APGAR

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9 Research the Counseling of Taichung Taiwan's 10 Creative Zones

Authors: Feng Shih-Jen, Chiang Yi-Hua, Yang Min-Chih


After going through mass production and contract manufacturing phases, under the global consumption trend, Taiwan’s traditional industry has turned to creative design, research and development to gain recognition in the consumer market, build competitiveness in the global market and further promote the products from Taiwan’s traditional industry. Taichung City is rich in cultural creative resources, outperforming other counties/cities in originality, creative talents, cultural taste, art/culture participation and global marketing. As the result this has created a diversified and vibrant cultural market in Taichung, giving Taichung the highest potential as a cultural creative city. This research, through the project by Taichung Cultural Creative Industry Promotion Office, has built an exchange platform for the cultural creative industry in central Taiwan. The platform will promote exchanges of creative ideas in the cultural creative industry in Taiwan as well as industrial transformation and brings more value for the industry. This study also proposes the idea of “Taichung Cultural Creative Exhibition” Therefore, this study was conducted in Taiwan, Taichung 10 Creative Zone Exhibition, which is divided into four stages counseling. Respectively, of the first order: the cultural creative Zone specialty shops offer; The second stage is the industrial settlement discussions and counseling workshops in the ground; The third stage of consultation for the recruitment of the cultural creative businesses separate estate; The fourth stage is the story of the build cultural and creative industry. Hope through periodic counseling, handling Taichung 10 Creative Zone Exhibition.

Keywords: Counseling, Taichung, cultural creative industry, Taiwan's creative zones

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8 Psychosocial Challenges of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Patients at St. Peter TB Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa

Authors: Tamrat Girma Biru


Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as resistant to at least Refampicin and Isoniazed: the most two power full TB drugs. It is a leading cause of high rates of morbidity and mortality, and increasing psychosocial challenges to patients, especially when co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Ethiopia faces the highest rates of MDR-TB infection in the world. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to identify the psychosocial challenges of MDR-TB patients, to investigate the extent of the psychosocial challenges on (self-esteem, depression, and stigma) that MDR-TB patients encounter, to examine whether there is a sex difference in experiencing psychosocial challenges and assess the counseling needs of MDR-TB patients. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at St. Peter TB Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa on 40 patients (25 males and 15 females) who are hospitalized for treatment. The patients were identified by using purposive sampling and made fill a questionnaire measuring their level of self-esteem, depression and stigma. Besides, data were collected from 16 participants, 28 care providers and 8 guardians, using semi-structured interview. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS statistical program, descriptive statistics, independent t-test, and qualitative description. Results and Discussion: The results of the study showed that the majority (80%) of the respondents had suffered psychological challenges and social discriminations. Thus, the significance of MDR-TB and its association with HIV/AIDS problems is considered. Besides the psychosocial challenges, various aggravating factors such as length of treatment, drug burden and insecurity in economy together highly challenges the life of patients. In addition, 60% of participants showed low level of self-esteem. The patients also reported that they experienced high self-stigma and stigma by other members of the society. The majority of the participants (75%) showed moderate and severe level of depression. In terms of sex there is no difference between the mean scores of males and females in the level of depression and stigmatization by others and by themselves. But females showed lower level of self-esteem than males. The analysis of the t-test also shows that there were no statistically significant sex difference on the level of depression and stigma. Based on the qualitative data MDR-TB patients face various challenges in their life sphere such as: Psychological (depression, low self value, lowliness, anxiety), social (stigma, isolation from social relations, self-stigmatization,) and medical (drug side effect, drug toxicity, drug burden, treatment length, hospital stays). Recommendations: Based on the findings of this study possible recommendations were forwarded: develop and extend MDR-TB disease awareness creation through by media (printing and electronic), school net TB clubs, and door to door community education. Strengthen psychological wellbeing and social relationship of MDR-TB patients using proper and consistent psychosocial support and counseling. Responsible bodies like Ministry of Health (MOH) and its stakeholders and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) need to assess the challenges of patients and take measures on this pressing issue.

Keywords: Counseling, psychosocial challenges, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), tuberculosis therapy

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7 Counselling Families with Special Needs Children: Problems and Prospect: A Case Study of Calabar Metropolis in Cross River State

Authors: Anthonia Emmanuel Inaja


The role of the counseling services by Special Educators, Guidance Counsellors and psychologists alike to Families and Parents of children with special needs cannot be over-emphasized. This paper examined the vital role of counseling services and its impact on the emotional and physical readiness of parents to initiate and support the education and rehabilitation needs of their children. The paper considered the importance of counseling, when counseling services are best required preparing the mindset of parents and family members as well as the immediate community of the social needs child.

Keywords: Counseling, Children, Families, Needs, Problems, special, prospect

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6 Application of Self-Efficacy Theory in Counseling Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

Authors: Nancy A. Delich, Stephen D. Roberts


This case study explores using self-efficacy theory in counseling deaf and hard of hearing students in one California school district. Self-efficacy is described as the confidence a student has for performing a set of skills required to succeed at a specific task. When students need to learn a skill, self-efficacy can be a major factor in influencing behavioral change. Self-efficacy is domain specific, meaning that students can have high confidence in their abilities to accomplish a task in one domain, while at the same time having low confidence in their abilities to accomplish another task in a different domain. The communication isolation experienced by deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents can negatively impact their belief about their ability to navigate life challenges. There is a need to address issues that impact deaf and hard of hearing students’ social-emotional development. Failure to address these needs may result in depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety among other mental health concerns. Self-efficacy training can be used to address these socio-emotional developmental issues with this population. Four sources of experiences are applied during an intervention: (a) enactive mastery experience, (b) vicarious experience, (c) verbal persuasion, and (d) physiological and affective states. This case study describes the use of self-efficacy training with a coed group of 12 deaf and hard of hearing high school students who experienced bullying at school. Beginning with enactive mastery experience, the counselor introduced the topic of bullying to the group. The counselor educated the students about the different types of bullying while teaching them the terminology, signs and their meanings. The most effective way to increase self-efficacy is through extensive practice. To better understand these concepts, the students practiced through role-playing with the goal of developing self-advocacy skills. Vicarious experience is the perception that students have about their capabilities. Viewing other students advocating for themselves, cognitively rehearsing what actions they will and will not take, and teaching each other how to stand up against bullying can strengthen their belief in successfully overcoming bullying. The third source of self-efficacy beliefs is verbal persuasion. It occurs when others express belief in the capabilities of the student. Didactic training and pedagogic materials on bullying were employed as part of the group counseling sessions. The fourth source of self-efficacy appraisals is physiological and affective states. Students expect positive emotions to be associated with successful skilled performance. When students practice new skills, the counselor can apply several strategies to enhance self-efficacy while reducing and controlling emotional and physical states. The intervention plan incorporated all four sources of self-efficacy training during several interactive group sessions regarding bullying. There was an increased understanding around the issues of bullying, resulting in the students’ belief of their ability to perform protective behaviors and deter future occurrences. The outcome of the intervention plan resulted in a reduction of reported bullying incidents. In conclusion, self-efficacy training can be an effective counseling and teaching strategy in addressing and enhancing the social-emotional functioning with deaf and hard of hearing adolescents.

Keywords: Counseling, Mental Health, Bullying, Self-efficacy, social-emotional development, deaf and hard of hearing students

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5 Perinatal and Postnatal Counseling as Determinants of Early Newborn Sepsis in Rural Bangladesh

Authors: Sajia Islam, T. Tahsina, S. Raihana, M. M. Rahman, Q. S. Rahman, T. M. Huda, S. E. Arifeen, M. J. Dibley


Early neonatal sepsis accounts for more than two-thirds of all deaths in the first year of life. This study assessed the counseling during antenatal, perinatal, post natal periods and its association with possible sepsis in rural Bangladesh. Method: Data were collected from a large community-based trial in Bangladesh where pregnant women were enrolled from 2013-2015 covering 29,497 newborns. Sepsis was defined using neonatal danger signs reported by 'The Young-Infants Clinical Science Study Group. 'Result: Signs of sepsis was found among 15% of the neonates. Neonatal sepsis was higher among those who did not receive advice on TT vaccinations (15.4% vs. 11%, p < 0.05) and danger signs (14.8% vs. 12.8%, p < 0.05) during pregnancy. Advice on delivering in well-lit place was significantly associated with lower incidence of sepsis (12.7% vs. 14.8% p < 0.05). Sepsis was lower among neonates whose mothers were counseled on immediate newborn care for bathing after 3 days of delivery (13.4% vs. 15.2% p=0), breastfeeding within 1hr of birth (13.82 % vs. 15.28% p=0), apply nothing on the cord (11.54 vs. 15.06 p=0), immediate drying of child (12.62% vs. 14.89%, p=0). Neonatal sepsis was lower among children whose mothers received 2-4 advice [OR=0.91(95% CI: 0.85-0.97)] compared to neonates whose mothers received only 1 or none. Overall, children to mothers who received ≥ 5 advice had lowest incidence of sepsis [OR=0.83 (95% CI: 0.71-0.97)] Conclusion: Advice on antenatal, prenatal and post natal is significantly reduced with early newborn sepsis. Further research is required to identify specific type of counseling messages that translate into practices and reduce pathways towards early-newborn morbidities.

Keywords: Counseling, post natal care, ante natal care, neonatal sepsis

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4 Identifying Patterns of Seeking and Providing Help Online among Adolescents in Israel

Authors: Gali Pesin, Yuliya Lipshits-Braziler, Sima Amram-Vaknin, Moshe Tatar


The present study introduces four different patterns of seeking and providing help online among adolescents: (I) ‘Transceivers’ - adolescents who both seek as well as provide help online; (II) ‘Receivers’ - adolescents who seek help online, yet don’t provide it; (III) ‘Transmitters’ - adolescents who provide help online, yet don’t seek it; and (IV) ‘Idles’ - adolescents who refrain from seeking and providing help online. The study examined differences in seeking and providing help online between possible combinations of the four patterns, as well as gender differences within each pattern. Data was collected from 528 adolescents in Israel (59% were girls). Findings revealed that Transceivers are the largest group (45%) in this study, with higher representation of girls (65%). These adolescents seek help mainly around social difficulties, and they turn to peers who are both known and unknown to them. In addition, their preferred way to seek and provide help is through social network sites. Moreover, they often accept and give others emotional support. Receivers are the smallest group (5%) in this study. They turn to both known and unknown professionals more often than to friends and family. In addition, they seek help mostly around health and nutrition issues, and they usually receive instrumental support. For Receivers, the most important factor for seeking help online is anonymity, and the least important factor is familiarity with the help giver. Transmitters represent 16% of the adolescents in this study, with a greater representation of boys (52%). Their main reason to refrain from seeking help online is self-reliance. Nevertheless, these adolescents provide help to others online, mainly to those known to them through posting or responding to posts on social network sites. Idles represent 34% of the adolescents in this study. They refrain from seeking help online mainly due to their preference to seek help face to face, and due to their lack of trust in the internet or those using it. Idles and Transmitters are willing to seek help online mostly from friends and family. In addition, they are willing seek help online mainly regarding questions concerning military or civil service. They consider the most important facilitators for seeking help online as confidentiality and reliability. The present study’s main contribution is exploring the role of providing online help in understanding the adolescent behavior of seeking help online. In addition, the results of the present study have practical implications for the work of mental health providers, such as counseling psychologists and online mental health support.

Keywords: Counseling, Adolescents, online help-seeking, online help-providing

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3 Conjugal Relationship and Reproductive Decision-Making among Couples in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Peter Olasupo Ogunjuyigbe, Sarafa Shittu


This paper emphasizes the relevance of conjugal relationship and spousal communication towards enhancing men’s involvement in contraceptive use among the Yorubas of South Western Nigeria. An understanding of males influence and the role they play in reproductive decision making can throw better light on mechanisms through which egalitarianness of husband/wife decision making influences contraceptive use. The objective of this study was to investigate how close conjugal relationships can be a good indicator of joint decision making among couples using data derived from a survey conducted in three states of South Western Nigeria. The study sample consisted of five hundred and twenty one (521) male respondents aged 15-59 years and five hundred and forty seven (547) female respondents aged 15-49 years. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approached to elicit information from the respondents. In order that the study would be truly representative of the towns, each of the study locations in the capital cities was divided into four strata: The traditional area, the migrant area, the mixed area (i.e. traditional and migrant), and the elite area. In the rural areas, selection of the respondents was by simple random sampling technique. However, the random selection was made in such a way that all the different parts of the locations were represented. Generally, the data collected were analysed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels. Logistic regression models were employed to examine the interrelationships between male reproductive behaviour, conjugal relationship and contraceptive use. The study indicates that current use of contraceptive is high among this major ethnic group in Nigeria because of the improved level of communication among couples. The problem, however, is that men still have lower exposure rate when it comes to question of family planning information, education and counseling. This has serious implications on fertility regulation in Nigeria.

Keywords: Communication, Counseling, Behavior, spouse, conjugal

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2 Development of the ‘Teacher’s Counselling Competence Self-Efficacy Scale’

Authors: Riin Seema


Guidance and counseling as a whole-school responsibility is a global trend. Counseling is a specific competence, that consist of cognitive, emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral components. To authors best knowledge, there are no self-assessment scales for teachers in the whole world to measure teachers’ counseling competency. In 2016 an Estonian scale on teachers counseling competence was developed during an Interdisciplinary Project at Tallinn University. The team consisted of 10 interdisciplinary students (psychology, nursery school, special and adult education) and their supervisor. In 2017 another international Interdisciplinary Project was carried out for adapting the scale in English for international students. Firstly, the Estonian scale was translated by 2 professional translators, and then a group of international Erasmus students (again from psychology, nursery school, special and adult education) selected the most suitable translation for the scale. The developed ‘Teacher’s Counselling Competence Self-Efficacy Scale’ measures teacher’s self-efficacy beliefs in their own competence to perform different counseling tasks (creating a counseling relationship, using different reflection techniques, etc.). The scale consists of 47 questions in a 5-point numeric scale. The scale is created based on counseling theory and scale development and validation theory. The scale has been used as a teaching and learning material for counseling courses by 174 Estonian and 10 international student teachers. After filling out the scale, the students also reflected on the scale and their own counseling competencies. The study showed that the scale is unidimensional and has an excellent Cronbach alpha coefficient. Student’s qualitative feedback on the scale has been very positive, as the scale supports their self-reflection. In conclusion, the developed ‘Teacher’s Counselling Competence Self-Efficacy Scale’ is a useful tool for supporting student teachers’ learning.

Keywords: Counseling, Self-efficacy, Competency, teacher students

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1 A Conceptual Model of Preparing School Counseling Students as Related Service Providers in the Transition Process

Authors: LaRon A. Scott, Donna M. Gibson


Data indicate that counselor education programs in the United States do not prepare their students adequately to serve students with disabilities nor provide counseling as a related service. There is a need to train more school counselors to provide related services to students with disabilities, for many reasons, but specifically, school counselors are participating in Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and transition planning meetings for students with disabilities where important academic, mental health and post-secondary education decisions are made. While school counselors input is perceived very important to the process, they may not have the knowledge or training in this area to feel confident in offering required input in these meetings. Using a conceptual research design, a model that can be used to prepare school counseling students as related service providers and effective supports to address transition for students with disabilities was developed as a component of this research. The authors developed the Collaborative Model of Preparing School Counseling Students as Related Service Providers to Students with Disabilities, based on a conceptual framework that involves an integration of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) and evidenced-based practices based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to provide related and transition services and planning with students with disabilities. The authors’ conclude that with five overarching competencies, (1) knowledge and understanding of disabilities, (2) knowledge and expertise in group counseling to students with disabilities, (3), knowledge and experience in specific related service components, (4) knowledge and experience in evidence-based counseling interventions, (5) knowledge and experiencing in evidenced-based transition and career planning services, that school counselors can enter the field with the necessary expertise to adequately serve all students. Other examples and strategies are suggested, and recommendations for preparation programs seeking to integrate a model to prepare school counselors to implement evidenced-based transition strategies in supporting students with disabilities are included

Keywords: Counseling, Self-Determination, social cognitive career theory, transition education

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