Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Cost Related Abstracts

39 Case Study: Throughput Analysis over PLC Infrastructure as Last Mile Residential Solution in Colombia

Authors: Edward P. Guillen, A. Karina Martinez Barliza

Abstract:

Powerline Communications (PLC) as last mile solution to provide communication services, has the advantage of transmitting over channels already used for electrical distribution. However these channels have been not designed with this purpose, for that reason telecommunication companies in Colombia want to know how good would be using PLC in costs and network performance in comparison to cable modem or DSL. This paper analyzes PLC throughput for residential complex scenarios using a PLC network scenarios and some statistical results are shown.

Keywords: Cost, power factor, Power Line Communication, home network, throughput analysis, last mile solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
38 Compromising of Vacuum Sewerage System in Developing Regions and the Impact on Environmet

Authors: Abdelsalam Elawwad, Mostafa Ragab, Hisham Abdel-Halim

Abstract:

Leakage in sewerage system can cause groundwater and soil contamination in urban areas, especially in area with a high groundwater table. This is a serious problem in small villages in developing countries that rely on ground water as a source for irrigation and drinking purposes. In the developed countries, the recent trend in areas with low population densities is vacuum sewerage system, which is environmentally safer than conventional gravity system, protecting public health, preventing exfiltration to the ground water, very easily applied in a relatively short time and can cope with a faster expansion of the urbanized areas. The aim of this work is to assess the feasibility of using vacuum sewerage in developing country, such as Egypt. Knowledge of local conditions can determine the most suitable sewer system for a specific region. Technical, environmental and financial comparisons between conventional sewerage system and vacuum sewerage system were held using statistical analysis. Different conditions, such as population densities, geometry of area, and ground water depths were evaluated. Sample comprising of 30 Egyptian villages was selected, where a complete design for conventional sewerage system and vacuum sewerage system was done. Based on this study, it is recommended from the environmental point of view to construct the vacuum sewerage system in such villages with low population densities; however, it is not economic for all cases. From financial point of view, vacuum sewerage system was a good competitor to conventional systems in flat areas and areas with high groundwater table. The local market supplying of the construction equipment especially collection chambers will greatly affect the investment cost. Capacity building and social mobilization will also play a great role in sustainability of this system. At the end, it is noteworthy that environmental sustainability and public health are more important than the financial aspects.

Keywords: Statistics, Terrain, Density, Cost, Ground Water, conventional system, vacuum system

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
37 Challenges and Implications for Choice of Caesarian Section and Natural Birth in Pregnant Women with Pre-Eclampsia in Western Nigeria

Authors: F. O. Adeosun, I. O. Orubuloye, O. O. Babalola

Abstract:

Although caesarean section has greatly improved obstetric care throughout the world, in developing countries there is a great aversion to caesarean section. This study was carried out to examine the rate at which pregnant women with pre-eclampsia choose caesarean section over natural birth. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 pre-eclampsia antenatal clients seen at the States University Teaching Hospitals in the last one year. The sample selection was purposive. Information on their educational background, beliefs and attitudes were collected. Data analysis was presented using simple percentages. Out of 500 women studied, 38% favored caesarean section while 62% were against it. About 89% of them understood what caesarean section is, 57.3% of those who understood what caesarean section is will still not choose it as an option. Over 85% of the women believed caesarean section is done for medical reasons. If caesarean section is given as an option for childbirth, 38% would go for it, 29% would try religious intervention, 5.5% would not choose it because of fear, while 27.5% would reject it because they believe it is culturally wrong. Majority of respondents (85%) who favored caesarean delivery are aware of the risk attached to choosing virginal birth but go an extra mile in sourcing funds for a caesarean session while over 64% cannot afford the cost of caesarean delivery. It is therefore pertinent to encourage research in prediction methods and prevention of occurrence, since this would assist patients to plan on how to finance treatment.

Keywords: Cost, Choice, caesarean section, pre eclampsia, prediction methods

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36 Critical Factors Affecting the Implementation of Total Quality Management in the Construction Industry in U. A. E.

Authors: Firas Mohamad Al-Sabek

Abstract:

The Purpose of the paper is to examine the most critical and important factor which will affect the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) in the construction industry in the United Arab Emirates. It also examines the most effected Project outcome from implementing TQM. A framework was also proposed depending on the literature studies. The method used in this paper is a quantitative study. A survey with a sample of 60 respondents was created and distributed in a construction company in Abu Dhabi, which includes 15 questions to examine the most critical factor that will affect the implementation of TQM in addition to the most effected project outcome from implementing TQM. The survey showed that management commitment is the most important factor in implementing TQM in a construction company. Also it showed that Project cost is most effected outcome from the implementation of TQM. Management commitment is very important for implementing TQM in any company. If the management loose interest in quality then everyone in the organization will do so. The success of TQM will depend mostly on the top of the pyramid. Also cost is reduced and money is saved when the project team implement TQM. While if no quality measures are present within the team, the project will suffer a commercial failure. Based on literature, more factors can be examined and added to the model. In addition, more construction companies could be surveyed in order to obtain more accurate results. Also this study could be conducted outside the United Arab Emirates for further enchantment.

Keywords: Total Quality Management, Cost, Construction Project, management commitment, theoretical framework

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35 An Analysis of New Service Interchange Designs

Authors: Joseph E. Hummer

Abstract:

An efficient freeway system will be essential to the development of Africa, and interchanges are a key to that efficiency. Around the world, many interchanges between freeways and surface streets, called service interchanges, are of the diamond configuration, and interchanges using roundabouts or loop ramps are also popular. However, many diamond interchanges have serious operational problems, interchanges with roundabouts fail at high demand levels, and loops use lots of expensive land. Newer service interchange designs provide other options. The most popular new interchange design in the US at the moment is the double crossover diamond (DCD), also known as the diverging diamond. The DCD has enormous potential, but also has several significant limitations. The objectives of this paper are to review new service interchange options and to highlight some of the main features of those alternatives. The paper tests four conventional and seven unconventional designs using seven measures related to efficiency, cost, and safety. The results show that there is no superior design in all measures investigated. The DCD is better than most designs tested on most measures examined. However, the DCD was only superior to all other designs for bridge width. The DCD performed relatively poorly for capacity and for serving pedestrians. Based on the results, African freeway designers are encouraged to investigate the full range of alternatives that could work at the spot of interest. Diamonds and DCDs have their niches, but some of the other designs investigated could be optimum at some spots.

Keywords: Safety, Diamond, Capacity, Cost, interchange, diverging diamond

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34 Socio-Economic Problems in Treatment of Non-Union Both Bones Fracture of the Leg: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Kanojia

Abstract:

Treatment of fracture both bones of leg following trauma is done intially at nearby primary health care center.primary management for shock,pain,control of bleeding,plaster application. These are treated for primay fixation of fracture, debridment of wound. Then, they were refered to tertiary care where they were again and planned for further treatment. This leads to loss of lot of time, money, job, etc.

Keywords: Cost, fracture both bones leg, non-union, ilizarov

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33 Pattern of ICU Admission due to Drug Problems

Authors: Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Drug related problems (DRPs) are of major concern, affecting patients of both sex. They impose considerable economic burden on the society and the health-care systems. Aim of the work: The aim of this work was to identify and categorize drug-related problems in adult intensive care unit. Patients and methods: The study was a prospective, observational study as eighty six patients were included. They were consecutively admitted to ICU through the emergency room or transferred from the general ward due to DRPs. Parameters included in the study as length of stay in ICU, need for cardiovascular support or mechanical ventilation, dialysis, as well as APACHE II score were recorded. Results: Drug related problems represent 3.6% of the total ICU admission. The median (range) of APACHE II score for 86 patients included in the study was 17 (10-23), and length of ICU stay was 2.4 (1.5-4.2) days. In 45 patients (52%), DRP was drug over dose (group 1), while other DRP was present in the other 41 patients (48%, group 11). Patients in group 1 were older (39 years versus 32 years in group 11), with significant impaired renal function. The need of inotropic drugs and mechanical ventilation as well as the length of stay (LOS) in ICU was significantly higher in group 1. There were no significant difference in GCS between both groups, however APACHE II score was significantly higher in group 1. Only four patients (4.6%) were admitted by suicidal attempt as well as three patients (3.4%) due to trauma drug-related admissions, all were in (group 1). Nineteen percent of the patients had drug related problem due to hypoglycaemic medication followed by tranquilizer (15%). Adverse drug effect followed by failure to receive medication were the most causes of drug problem in (group11).The total mortality rate was 4.6%, all of them were eventually non preventable. Conclusion: The critically ill patients admitted due to drug related problems represented a small proportion (3.6%) of admissions to the ICU. Hypoglycaemic medication was one of the most common causes of admission by drug related problems.

Keywords: Safety, Cost, ICU, drug related problems

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32 Analysis of Efficiency Production of Grass Black Jelly (Mesona palustris) in Double Scale

Authors: Irvan Adhin Cholilie, Susinggih Wijana, Yusron Sugiarto

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to compare the results of black grass jelly produced using laboratory scale and double scale. In this research, the production from the laboratory scale is using ingredients of 1 kg black grass jelly added with 5 liters of water, while the double scale is using 5 kg black grass jelly and 75 liters of water. The results of organoleptic tests performed by 30 panelists (general) to the sample gels of grass black powder produced from both of laboratory and double scale are not different significantly in color, odor, flavor, and texture. Proximate test results conducted in both of grass black jelly powder produced in laboratory scale and double scale also have no significant differences in all parameters. Grass black jelly powder from double scale contains water, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and yield in the amount of 12,25 %; 43,7 %; 5,89 %; and 16,28 % respectively. The results of the energy efficiency analysis by boiling, draining, evaporation, drying, and milling processes are 85,11 %; 76,97 %; 99,64 %; 99,99% and 99,39% respectively. The utility needs including water needs for each batch amounted 0.1 m3 and cost Rp 220,5 per batch, the electricity needs for each batch is 20.01 kWh and cost Rp 18569.28 per batch, and LPG needs for each batch is 30 kg costed Rp 234,000.00 so that the total cost spent for the process is Rp 252,789.78 .

Keywords: Cost, Mass Balance, Energy Balance, Powder, black grass jelly

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
31 Review of Vehicle to Grid Applications in Recent Years

Authors: Afsane Amiri

Abstract:

Electric Vehicle (EV) technology is expected to take a major share in the light-vehicle market in the coming decades. Charging of EVs will put an extra burden on the distribution grid and in some cases adjustments will need to be made. In this paper a review of different plug-in and vehicle to grid (V2G) capable vehicles are given along with their power electronics topologies. The economic implication of charging the vehicle or sending power back to the utility is described in brief.

Keywords: Smart Grid, Cost, Energy Storage System, optimal sizing, battery unit, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)

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30 Faults in the Projects, Deviation in the Cost

Authors: S. Ahmed, P. Dlask, B. Hasan

Abstract:

There are several ways to estimate the cost of the construction project: simple and detailed. The process of estimating cost is usually done during the design stage, which should take long-time and the designer must give attention to all details. This paper explain the causes of the deviations occurring in the cost of the construction project, and determines the reasons of these differences between contractual cost and final cost of the construction project, through the study of literature review related to this field, and benefiting from the experience of workers in the field of building (owners, contractors) through designing a questionnaire, and finding the most ten important reasons and explain the relation between the contractual cost and the final cost according to these reasons. The difference between those values will be showed through diagrams drawn using the statistical program. In addition to studying the effects of overrun costs on the advancing of the project, and identify the most five important effects. According to the results, we can propose the right direction for the final cost evaluation and propose some measures that would help to control and adjust the deviation in the costs.

Keywords: Building, Cost, Construction Projects, delay, estimating costs, overrun

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29 Cost Reduction Techniques for Provision of Shelter to Homeless

Authors: Mukul Anand

Abstract:

Quality oriented affordable shelter for all has always been the key issue in the housing sector of our country. Homelessness is the acute form of housing need. It is a paradox that in spite of innumerable government initiated programmes for affordable housing, certain section of society is still devoid of shelter. About nineteen million (18.78 million) households grapple with housing shortage in Urban India in 2012. In Indian scenario there is major mismatch between the people for whom the houses are being built and those who need them. The prime force faced by public authorities in facilitation of quality housing for all is high cost of construction. The present paper will comprehend executable techniques for dilution of cost factor in housing the homeless. The key actors responsible for delivery of cheap housing stock such as capacity building, resource optimization, innovative low cost building material and indigenous skeleton housing system will also be incorporated in developing these techniques. Time performance, which is an important angle of above actors, will also be explored so as to increase the effectiveness of low cost housing. Along with this best practices will be taken up as case studies where both conventional techniques of housing and innovative low cost housing techniques would be cited. Transportation consists of approximately 30% of total construction budget. Thus use of alternative local solutions depending upon the region would be covered so as to highlight major components of low cost housing. Government is laid back regarding base line information on use of innovative low cost method and technique of resource optimization. Therefore, the paper would be an attempt to bring to light simpler solutions for achieving low cost housing.

Keywords: Housing, Optimization, Construction, Cost, shelter

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28 Create a Dynamic Model in Project Control and Management

Authors: Hamed Saremi, Shahla Saremi

Abstract:

In this study, control and management of construction projects is evaluated through developing a dynamic model in which some means are used in order to evaluating planning assumptions and reviewing the effectiveness of some project control policies based on previous researches about time, cost, project schedule pressure management, source management, project control, adding elements and sub-systems from cost management such as estimating consumption budget from budget due to costs, budget shortage effects and etc. using sensitivity analysis, researcher has evaluated introduced model that during model simulation by VENSIM software and assuming optimistic times and adding information about doing job and changes rate and project is forecasted with 373 days (2 days sooner than forecasted) and final profit $ 1,960,670 (23% amount of contract) assuming 15% inflation rate in year and costs rate accordance with planned amounts and other input information and final profit.

Keywords: Project Management, Performance, Cost, Time, dynamic planning

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27 A Study of Cost and Revenue Earned from Tourist Walking Street Activities in Songkhla City Municipality, Thailand

Authors: Weerawan Marangkun

Abstract:

This study is a survey intended to investigate cost, revenue and factors affecting changes in revenue and to provide guidelines for improving factors affecting changes in revenue from tourist walking street activities in Songkhla City Municipality. Instruments used in this study were structured interviews, using Yaman table (1973) where the random sampling error was+ 10%. The sample consisting of 83 entrepreneurs were drawn from a total population of 272. The purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected during the 6-month period from December 2011 until May 2012. The findings indicate that the cost paid by an entrepreneur in connection with his/her services for tourists is mainly for travel, which stands at about 290 Baht per day. Each entrepreneur earns about 3,850 Baht per day, which means about 400,000 Baht per year. The combined total revenue from walking street tourist activities is about 108.8 million Baht per year. Such activities add economic value to tourist facilities due to expenditures by tourists and provide the entrepreneurs with considerable income. Factors affecting changes in revenue from tourist walking street activities are: the increase in the number of entrepreneurs; the holding of trade fairs, events or interesting shows in the vicinity; and weather conditions (e.g. abundant rainfall, which can contribute to a decrease in the number of tourists). Suggested measures to improve factors affecting changes in the income are: addition or creation of new activities; regulation of operations of the stalls and parking area; and generation of greater publicity through the social network.

Keywords: Cost, tourist, walking street, revenue

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
26 Comparative Study on Inhibiting Factors of Cost and Time Control in Nigerian Construction Practice

Authors: S. Abdulkadir, I. Y. Moh’d, S. U. Kunya, U. Nuruddeen

Abstract:

The basis of any contract formation between the client and contractor is the budgeted cost and the estimated duration of projects. These variables are paramount important to project's sponsor in a construction projects and in assessing the success or viability of construction projects. Despite the availability of various techniques of cost and time control, many projects failed to achieve their initial estimated cost and time. The paper evaluate the inhibiting factors of cost and time control in Nigerian construction practice and comparing the result with the United Kingdom practice as identified by one researcher. The populations of the study are construction professionals within Bauchi and Gombe state, Nigeria, a judgmental sampling employed in determining the size of respondents. Descriptive statistics used in analyzing the data in SPSS. Design change, project fraud and corruption, financing and payment of completed work found to be common among the top five inhibiting factors of cost and time control in the study area. Furthermore, the result had shown some comprising with slight contrast as in the case of United Kingdom practice. Study recommend the adaptation of mitigation measures developed in the UK prior to assessing its effectiveness and so also developing a mitigating measure for other top factors that are not within the one developed in United Kingdom practice. Also, it recommends a wider assessing comparison on the modify inhibiting factors of cost and time control as revealed by the study to cover almost all part of Nigeria.

Keywords: Cost, Time, comparison, united kingdom, inhibiting factor

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25 Maintenance Alternatives Related to Costs of Wind Turbines Using Finite State Markov Model

Authors: Boukelkoul Lahcen

Abstract:

The cumulative costs for O&M may represent as much as 65%-90% of the turbine's investment cost. Nowadays the cost effectiveness concept becomes a decision-making and technology evaluation metric. The cost of energy metric accounts for the effect replacement cost and unscheduled maintenance cost parameters. One key of the proposed approach is the idea of maintaining the WTs which can be captured via use of a finite state Markov chain. Such a model can be embedded within a probabilistic operation and maintenance simulation reflecting the action to be done. In this paper, an approach of estimating the cost of O&M is presented. The finite state Markov model is used for decision problems with number of determined periods (life cycle) to predict the cost according to various options of maintenance.

Keywords: Cost, Markov Model, finite state, operation and maintenance

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24 Analysing the Cost of Immigrants to the National Health System in Eastern Macedonia and Thrace

Authors: T. Theodosiou, P. Polychronidou, A. G. Karasavvoglou

Abstract:

The latest years the number of immigrants at Greece has increased dramatically. Their impact on the National Health System (NHS) has not been yet thoroughly investigated. This paper analyses the cost of immigrants to the NHS hospitals of the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace. The data are collected from 2005 to 2011 from five different hospitals and are analysed using linear mixed effects models in order to investigate the effects of nationality and year on the cost of hospitalization and treatment. The results show that generally the Greek nationality patients have a higher mean cost of hospitalization compared to the immigrants and that there is an increasing trend for the cost except for the year 2010.

Keywords: Cost, Immigrants, Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, national health system

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23 Cost Implications of Natural Resources Conflicts on Livelihoods of Farmers and Pastoralists in the North East Arid Zone of Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Ahmed Jajere

Abstract:

Resource use conflicts capable of undermining of pastoralists’ livelihoods are on the increase in the North East Arid Zone of Nigeria. In order to expose socio - economic effects of conflicts and benefits of peace, this study assessed cost implications of farmers/pastoralists conflicts over natural resources. Interviews were conducted with 94 farmers, 90 agro-pastoralists and 91 pastoralists’ household heads. The farmers and agro-pastoralists were systematically sampled while pastoralists were located using snowballing. Both farmers and pastoralists suffered losses in the form of injuries to, and even death of household members, and loss of shelter. Farmers sustained losses of facilities and farm produce while pastoralists suffered loss and seizure of livestock, arrest of household members and forced migrations. The material losses in monetary terms amounted to 14,242,200.00 nairas for farmers, a figure higher than the 10,915,500.00 nairas incurred by pastoralists.

Keywords: Cost, Conflicts, farmers, pastoralists

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22 Reactive Power Control with Plug-In Electric Vehicles

Authors: Sirus Mohammadi, Mostafa Dastori

Abstract:

While plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) potentially have the capability to fulfill the energy storage needs of the electric grid, the degradation on the battery during this operation makes it less preferable by the auto manufacturers and consumers. On the other hand, the on-board chargers can also supply energy storage system applications such as reactive power compensation, voltage regulation, and power factor correction without the need of engaging the battery with the grid and thereby preserving its lifetime. It presents the design motives of single-phase on-board chargers in detail and makes a classification of the chargers based on their future vehicle-to-grid usage. The pros and cons of each different ac–dc topology are discussed to shed light on their suit- ability for reactive power support. This paper also presents and analyzes the differences between charging-only operation and capacitive reactive power operation that results in increased demand from the dc-link capacitor (more charge/discharge cycles and in- creased second harmonic ripple current). Moreover, battery state of charge is spared from losses during reactive power operation, but converter output power must be limited below its rated power rating to have the same stress on the dc-link capacitor.

Keywords: Smart Grid, Cost, Energy Storage System, optimal sizing, battery unit, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)

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21 A Feasibility and Implementation Model of Small-Scale Hydropower Development for Rural Electrification in South Africa: Design Chart Development

Authors: Gideon J. Bonthuys, Marco van Dijk, Jay N. Bhagwan

Abstract:

Small scale hydropower used to play a very important role in the provision of energy to urban and rural areas of South Africa. The national electricity grid, however, expanded and offered cheap, coal generated electricity and a large number of hydropower systems were decommissioned. Unfortunately, large numbers of households and communities will not be connected to the national electricity grid for the foreseeable future due to high cost of transmission and distribution systems to remote communities due to the relatively low electricity demand within rural communities and the allocation of current expenditure on upgrading and constructing of new coal fired power stations. This necessitates the development of feasible alternative power generation technologies. A feasibility and implementation model was developed to assist in designing and financially evaluating small-scale hydropower (SSHP) plants. Several sites were identified using the model. The SSHP plants were designed for the selected sites and the designs for the different selected sites were priced using pricing models (civil, mechanical and electrical aspects). Following feasibility studies done on the designed and priced SSHP plants, a feasibility analysis was done and a design chart developed for future similar potential SSHP plant projects. The methodology followed in conducting the feasibility analysis for other potential sites consisted of developing cost and income/saving formulae, developing net present value (NPV) formulae, Capital Cost Comparison Ratio (CCCR) and levelised cost formulae for SSHP projects for the different types of plant installations. It included setting up a model for the development of a design chart for a SSHP, calculating the NPV, CCCR and levelised cost for the different scenarios within the model by varying different parameters within the developed formulae, setting up the design chart for the different scenarios within the model and analyzing and interpreting results. From the interpretation of the develop design charts for feasible SSHP in can be seen that turbine and distribution line cost are the major influences on the cost and feasibility of SSHP. High head, short transmission line and islanded mini-grid SSHP installations are the most feasible and that the levelised cost of SSHP is high for low power generation sites. The main conclusion from the study is that the levelised cost of SSHP projects indicate that the cost of SSHP for low energy generation is high compared to the levelised cost of grid connected electricity supply; however, the remoteness of SSHP for rural electrification and the cost of infrastructure to connect remote rural communities to the local or national electricity grid provides a low CCCR and renders SSHP for rural electrification feasible on this basis.

Keywords: Cost, Rural Electrification, feasibility, small-scale hydropower

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20 Effect of Cloud Computing on Enterprises

Authors: Amir Rashid

Abstract:

Today is the world of innovations where everyone is looking for a change. Organizations are now looking toward virtualization in order to minimize their computing cost. Cloud Computing has also introduced itself by the means of reducing computing cost. It offers different approach to make computing better by improving utilization and reducing infrastructure and administrative costs. Cloud Computing is basically the amalgamation of Utility Computing and SaaS (Software as a Service). Cloud Computing is quite new to organizations as it is still at its deploying stage. Due to this reason, organizations are not confident whether to adopt it or not. This thesis investigates the problem for organization concerning the security and cost issues. Benefits and drawbacks are being highlighted which organizations can have or suffer in order to adopt Cloud Computing. In Conclusion, Cloud Computing is a better option available for small and medium organizations with a comparison to large companies both in terms of data security and cost.

Keywords: Security, Cloud Computing, Elasticity, Cost, SAAS, PAAS, IAAS

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19 The Effect of Collapse Structure on Economic Growth and Influence of Soil Investigation

Authors: Fatai Shola Afolabi

Abstract:

The study identified and evaluates the causes of building failure and examined the effects of building failure with respect to cost in Lagos State, Nigeria. The method employed in the collection of data includes the administration of questionnaire to professionals in the construction industry and case studies for the sites. A purposive sampling technique was used for selecting the sites visited, and selecting the construction professionals. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency distribution and percentages and mean response analysis were used to analyze data. The study revealed that the major causes of building failures were bad design, faulty construction, over loading, non-possession of approved drawings, Possession of approved drawings but non-compliance, and the use of quarks. In the two case studies considered, the total direct loss to the building owners was thirty eight million three hundred and eight five thousand, seven hundred and twenty one naira (38,385,721) which is about One hundred and ninety four thousand, eighty hundred and fifty one dollars ($194,851) at one hundred and ninety seven naira to one US dollars, central bank Nigeria of exchange rate as at 14th March, 2015.

Keywords: building structures, Cost, Structural Failure, building failure, building collapse, direct loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
18 Comparative Analysis between Wired and Wireless Technologies in Communications: A Review

Authors: Tonga Agadi Danladi, Jafaru Ibrahim, Haruna Sani

Abstract:

Many telecommunications industry are looking for new ways to maximize their investment in communication networks while ensuring reliable and secure information transmission. There is a variety of communications medium solutions, the two must popularly in used are wireless technology and wired options, such as copper and fiber-optic cable. Wired network has proven its potential in the olden days but nowadays wireless communication has emerged as a robust and most intellect and preferred communication technique. Each of these types of communication medium has their advantages and disadvantages according to its technological characteristics. Wired and wireless networking has different hardware requirements, ranges, mobility, reliability and benefits. The aim of the paper is to compare both the Wired and Wireless medium on the basis of various parameters such as usability, cost, efficiency, flexibility, coverage, reliability, mobility, speed, security etc.

Keywords: Mobility, Security, Wireless, Reliability, Cost, Speed, wired

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17 Influence of Procurement Methods on Cost Performance of Building Projects in Gombe State, Nigeria

Authors: S. Abdulkadir, S. U. Kunya, M. A. Anas, L. Z. Adam

Abstract:

Procurement methods is described as systems of contractual arrangements used by the contractor in order to secure the design and construction services based on the stipulated cost and within the required time and quality. Despite that, major projects in the Nigerian construction industry failed because of wrong procurement methods with major consequences leads to cost overrun which needs to find lasting solution. The aim of the study is to evaluate the influence of procurement methods on cost performance of building projects in Gombe State, Nigeria. Study adopts descriptive and explorative design approach. Data were collected through administering of one hundred questionnaire using convenient sampling techniques. Data analyses using percentages, mean value and Anova analysis. Major finding show that more than fifty percent (50%) of procurement methods available are mainly utilized in the study area and the top procurement methods that have high impacts on cost performance as compare with the other methods is project management and direct labour procurement methods. The results of hypothesis’ tests with pvalue 0.12 and 0.07 validated that there was no significant variation in the perception of stakeholders’ on the impacts of procurements methods on cost performance. Therefore, the study concluded that projects management and direct labour are the most appropriate procurement methods that will ensure successful completion of project at stipulated cost in building projects.

Keywords: Performance, Procurement, Cost, effects, projects

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16 Influence of Radio Frequency Identification Technology at Cost of Supply Chain as a Driver for the Generation of Competitive Advantage

Authors: Mona Baniahmadi, Saied Haghanifar

Abstract:

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is regarded as a promising technology for the optimization of supply chain processes since it improves manufacturing and retail operations from forecasting demand for planning, managing inventory, and distribution. This study precisely aims at learning to know the RFID technology and at explaining how it can concretely be used for supply chain management and how it can help improving it in the case of Hejrat Company which is located in Iran and works on the distribution of medical drugs and cosmetics. This study uses some statistical analysis to calculate the expected benefits of an integrated RFID system on supply chain obtained through competitive advantages increases with decreasing cost factor. The study investigates how the cost of storage process, labor cost, the cost of missing goods, inventory management optimization, on-time delivery, order cost, lost sales and supply process optimization affect the performance of the integrated RFID supply chain regarding cost factors and provides a competitive advantage.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Radio Frequency Identification, Cost, competitive advantage

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
15 Potential of Visualization and Information Modeling on Productivity Improvement and Cost Saving: A Case Study of a Multi-Residential Construction Project

Authors: Sara Rankohi, Lloyd Waugh

Abstract:

Construction sites are information saturated. Digitalization is hitting construction sites to meet the incredible demand of knowledge sharing and information documentations. From flying drones, 3D Lasers scanners, pocket mobile applications, to augmented reality glasses and smart helmet, visualization technologies help real-time information imposed straight onto construction professional’s field of vision. Although these technologies are very applicable and can have the direct impact on project cost and productivity, experience shows that only a minority of construction professionals quickly adapt themselves to benefit from them in practice. The majority of construction managers still tend to apply traditional construction management methods. This paper investigates a) current applications of visualization technologies in construction projects management, b) the direct effect of these technologies on productivity improvement and cost saving of a multi-residential building project via a case study on Mac Taggart Senior Care project located in Edmonton, Alberta. The research shows the imaged based technologies have a direct impact on improving project productivity and cost savings.

Keywords: Project Management, Cost, Productivity improvement, image-based technologies

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14 A Process Model for Online Trip Reservation System

Authors: Sh. Wafa, M. Alanoud, S. Liyakathunisa

Abstract:

Online booking for a trip or hotel has become an indispensable traveling tool today, people tend to be more interested in selecting air flight travel as their first choice when going for a long trip. People's shopping behavior has greatly changed by the advent of social network. Traditional ticket booking methods are considered as outdated with the advancement in tools and technology. Web based booking framework is an 'absolute necessity to have' for any visit or movement business that is investing heaps of energy noting telephone calls, sending messages or considering employing more staff. In this paper, we propose a process model for online trip reservation for our designed web application. Our proposed system will be highly beneficial and helps in reduction in time and cost for customers.

Keywords: Hotel, Cost, Time, TRIP, process model, reservation, web app

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
13 Valorization of Industrial Wastes on Hybrid Low Embodied Carbon Cement Based Mortars

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, M. Mastali, F. Pacheco-Torgal

Abstract:

Waste reuse is crucial in a context of circular economy and zero waste sustainable needs. Some wastes deserve further studies by the scientific community not only because they are generated in high amount but also because they have a low reuse rate. This paper reports results of 32 hybrid cement mortars based on fly ash and waste glass. They allow to explore the influence of mix design on the cost and on the embodied carbon of the hybrid cement mortars. The embodied carbon data for all constituents were taken from the database Ecoinvent. This study led to the development of a mixture with just 70 kg CO2e.

Keywords: fly ash, Cost, waste glass, waste reuse, hybrid cements, embodied carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
12 Alternative Housing Solutions in Southern California

Authors: Scott Kelting, Lucas Nozick

Abstract:

The perpetually growing population and economy within the United States necessitates building construction of all types. Increased building generates environmental concerns, and rightfully so. This industry accounts for approximately 4% of the total GDP in the United States while creating around two-thirds of the material waste annually. The green building movement is certainly gaining popularity in both application and recognition through entities such as the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) and their LEED program; however, builders are also producing their ideas. Alternative housing solutions that include pre-fabricated building components and shipping container homes are making great strides in the residential construction industry, and will certainly play an important role in the future. This paper will compare the cost and schedule of modular, panelized and shipping container homes to traditional stick frame home construction in the Greater Los Angeles Metropolitan Area and recommend the best application for each option.

Keywords: Cost, schedule, prefabricated, shipping container, stick framed

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
11 Automation of Student Attendance Management System Using BPM

Authors: S. Liyakathunsia, Kh. Alaa, Sh. Sarah, J. Khowlah

Abstract:

Education has become very important nowadays and with the rapidly increasing number of student, taking the attendance manually is getting very difficult and time wasting. In order to solve this problem, an automated solution is required. An effective automated system can be implemented to manage student attendance in different ways. This research will discuss a unique class attendance system which integrates both Face Recognition and RFID technique. This system focuses on reducing the time spent on submitting of the lecture and the wastage of time on submitting and getting approval for the absence excuse and sick leaves. As a result, the suggested solution will enhance not only the time, also it will also be helpful in eliminating fake attendance.

Keywords: Face Recognition, RFID, Cost, Time, process model, attendance system

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
10 Internet of Things Based Process Model for Smart Parking System

Authors: Amjaad Alsalamah, Liyakathunsia Syed

Abstract:

Transportation is an essential need for many people to go to their work, school, and home. In particular, the main common method inside many cities is to drive the car. Driving a car can be an easy job to reach the destination and load all stuff in a reasonable time. However, deciding to find a parking lot for a car can take a long time using the traditional system that can issue a paper ticket for each customer. The old system cannot guarantee a parking lot for all customers. Also, payment methods are not always available, and many customers struggled to find their car among a numerous number of cars. As a result, this research focuses on providing an online smart parking system in order to save time and budget. This system provides a flexible management system for both parking owner and customers by receiving all request via the online system and it gets an accurate result for all available parking and its location.

Keywords: Cost, Time, IoT, process model, tracking system, smart parking system

Procedia PDF Downloads 186