Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Cosmology Related Abstracts

7 Induced-Gravity Inflation in View of the Bicep2 Results

Authors: C. Pallis


Induced-Gravity inflation is a model of chaotic inflation where the inflaton is identified with a Higgs-like modulus whose the vacuum expectation value controls the gravitational strength. Thanks to a strong enough coupling between the inflaton and the Ricci scalar curvature, inflation is attained even for subplanckian values of the inflaton with the corresponding effective theory being valid up to the Planck scale. In its simplest realization, induced-gravity inflation is based on a quatric potential and a quadratic non-minimal coupling and the inflationary observables turn out to be in agreement with the Planck data. Its supersymmetrization can be formulated within no-scale Supergravity employing two gauge singlet chiral superfields and applying a continuous $R$ and a discrete Zn symmetry to the proposed superpotential and Kahler potential. Modifying slightly the non-minimal coupling to Gravity, the model can account for the recent results of BICEP2. These modifications can be also accommodated beyond the no-scale SUGRA considering the fourth order term of the Kahler potential which mixes the inflaton with the accompanying non-inflaton field and small deviations from the prefactor $-3$ encountered in the adopted Kahler potential.

Keywords: Cosmology, modified gravity, Supergravity, supersymmetric models

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6 Using Photo-Elicitation to Explore the Cosmology of Personal Training

Authors: John Gray, Andy Smith, Hazel James


With the introduction of projects such as GP referral and other medical exercise schemes, there has been a shift in the cosmology underpinning exercise leadership. That is, the knowledge base of exercise leaders, specifically personal trainers, has moved from a cosmology based on aesthetic and physical fitness demands to one requiring interaction with the dominant biomedical model underpinning contemporary medicine. In line with this shift research has demonstrated that personal trainer education has aligned itself to a biotechnological model. However, whilst there is a need to examine exercise as medicine, and consider the role of personal trainers as prescribers of these interventions, the possible issues surrounding the growing medicalization of the exercise cosmology have not been explored. Using a phenomenological methodology, and the novel approach of photo-elicitation, this research examined the practices of successful personal trainers. The findings highlight that a growing focus on an iatro-biological based scientific process of exercise prescription may prove problematical. Through the development of a model of practitioner-based knowledge, it is argued there is a possible growing disconnection between the theoretical basis of exercise science and the working cosmology of exercise practitioners.

Keywords: Biomedicine, Cosmology, photo-elicitation, personal training

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5 Covariance and Quantum Cosmology: A Comparison of Two Matter Clocks

Authors: Theodore Halnon, Martin Bojowald


In relativity, time is relative between reference frames. However, quantum mechanics requires a specific time coordinate in order to write an evolution equation for wave functions. This difference between the two theories leads to the problem of time in quantum gravity. One method to study quantum relativity is to interpret the dynamics of a matter field as a clock. In order to test the relationship between different reference frames, an isotropic cosmological model with two matter ingredients is introduced. One is given by a scalar field and one by vacuum energy or a cosmological constant. There are two matter fields, and thus two different Hamiltonians are derived from the respective clock rates. Semi-classical solutions are found for these equations and a comparison is made of the physical predictions that they imply.

Keywords: Cosmology, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity, deparameterization

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4 Accelerated Expansion of a Matter-Antimatter Universe and Gravity as an Electromagnetic Force

Authors: Maarten J. Van der Burgt


A universe containing matter and antimatter can only exist when matter and antimatter repel each other. Such a system, where like attracts like and like repels unlike, will always expand. Calculations made for such a symmetric universe demonstrate that the expansion is consistent with Hubble’s law, the observed increase in the expansion velocity with time, the initial high acceleration and the foam structure of the universe. Conversely, these observations can be considered as proof for a symmetrical universe and for antimatter possessing a negative gravitational mass. A second proof can be found by reinterpreting the behavior of relativistic moving charged particles. Attributing their behavior to a charge defect of √(1-v2/c2) instead of to a mass defect of 1/√(1-v2/c2) makes it plausible that gravitation is an electromagnetic force, as already suggested by Feynman. This would automatically imply that antimatter has a negative gravitational mass. These proofs underpin the untenability of the Weak Equivalence Principle which states that in a gravitational field all structure less point-like particles follow the same path.

Keywords: Cosmology, Celestial Mechanics, Gravitation Astrophysics, Origin of Structure, miscellaneous (matter and antimatter)

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3 A Unification and Relativistic Correction for Boltzmann’s Law

Authors: Lloyd G. Allred


The distribution of velocities of particles in plasma is a well understood discipline of plasma physics. Boltzmann’s law and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describe the distribution of velocity of a particle in plasma as a function of mass and temperature. Particles with the same mass tend to have the same velocity. By expressing the same law in terms of energy alone, the author obtains a distribution independent of mass. In summary, for particles in plasma, the energies tend to equalize, independent of the masses of the individual particles. For high-energy plasma, the original law predicts velocities greater than the speed of light. If one uses Einstein’s formula for energy (E=mc2), then a relativistic correction is not required.

Keywords: Plasma Physics, Cosmology, Relativity, EMP

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2 Generalized Chaplygin Gas and Varying Bulk Viscosity in Lyra Geometry

Authors: A. K. Sethi, R. N. Patra, B. Nayak


In this paper, we have considered Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric with generalized Chaplygin gas which has viscosity in the context of Lyra geometry. The viscosity is considered in two different ways (i.e. zero viscosity, non-constant r (rho)-dependent bulk viscosity) using constant deceleration parameter which concluded that, for a special case, the viscous generalized Chaplygin gas reduces to modified Chaplygin gas. The represented model indicates on the presence of Chaplygin gas in the Universe. Observational constraints are applied and discussed on the physical and geometrical nature of the Universe.

Keywords: Cosmology, bulk viscosity, lyra geometry, generalized chaplygin gas

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1 Path Integrals and Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structure

Authors: Revant Nayar


In this work, we recast the equations describing large scale structure, and by extension all nonlinear fluids, in the path integral formalism. We first calculate the well known two and three point functions using Schwinger Keldysh formalism used commonly to perturbatively solve path integrals in non- equilibrium systems. Then we include EFT corrections due to pressure, viscosity, and noise as effects on the time-dependent propagator. We are able to express results for arbitrary two and three point correlation functions in LSS in terms of differential operators acting on a triple K master intergral. We also, for the first time, get analytical results for more general initial conditions deviating from the usual power law P∝kⁿ by introducing a mass scale in the initial conditions. This robust field theoretic formalism empowers us with tools from strongly coupled QFT to study the strongly non-linear regime of LSS and turbulent fluid dynamics such as OPE and holographic duals. These could be used to capture fully the strongly non-linear dynamics of fluids and move towards solving the open problem of classical turbulence.

Keywords: Cosmology, Quantum Field Theory, Effective Field Theory, renormallisation

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