Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

cortisol Related Abstracts

19 Cognitive Functioning and Cortisol Suppression in Major Depression in a Long-Term Perspective

Authors: Pia Berner Hansson, Robert Murison Anders Lund, Hammar Åsa

Abstract:

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is often associated with high levels of stress and disturbances in the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) system, yielding high levels of cortisol, in addition to cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies in this patient group have shown a relationship between cortisol profile and cognitive functioning in the acute phase of MDD and that the patients had significantly less suppression after dexamethasone administration. However, few studies have investigated this relationship over time and in phases of symptom reduction. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between cortisol levels after the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) and cognitive function in a long term perspective in MDD patients. Patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for a MDD were included in the study and tested in symptom reduction. A control group was included. Cortisol was measured in saliva collected with Salivette sampling devices. Saliva samples were collected 4 times during a 24 hours period over two consecutive days: at awakening, after 45 minutes, after 7 hours and at 11 pm. Dexamethasone (1.0 mg) was given on Day 1 at 11 pm. The neuropsychological test battery consisted of standardized tests measuring memory and Executive Functioning (EF). Cortisol levels did not differ significantly between patients and controls on Day 1 or Day 2. Both groups showed significant suppression after Dexamethasone. There were no correlations between cortisol levels or suppression after Dexamethasone and cognitive measures. The results indicate that the HPA-axis functioning normalizes in phases of symptom reduction in MDD patients and that there no relation between cortisol profile and cognitive functioning in memory or EF.

Keywords: Depression, MDD, cortisol, suppression, cognitive functioning

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18 Health Psychology Intervention: Identifying Early Symptoms in Neurological Disorders

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

Abstract:

Early indicator of neurological disease has been proposed by the expanded Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis which suggests that yawning is linked to rises in cortisol levels. Cortisol is essential to the regulation of the immune system and pathological yawning is a symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Electromyography activity (EMG) in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved – extended or flexed; and yawning has been shown to be highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. It is likely that these elevated cortisol levels are also seen in people with MS. The possible link between EMG in the jaw muscles and rises in saliva cortisol levels during yawning were investigated in a randomized controlled trial of 60 volunteers aged 18-69 years who were exposed to conditions that were designed to elicit the yawning response. Saliva samples were collected at the start and after yawning, or at the end of the presentation of yawning-provoking stimuli, in the absence of a yawn, and EMG data was additionally collected during rest and yawning phases. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, and health details were collected and the following exclusion criteria were adopted: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners, t (23) = -4.263, p = 0.000, as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli, which was non-significant. There were also significant differences between yawners and non-yawners for the EMG potentials with the yawners having higher rest and post-yawning potentials. Significant evidence was found to support the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis suggesting that rises in cortisol levels are associated with the yawning response. Further research is underway to explore the use of cortisol as a potential diagnostic tool as an assist to the early diagnosis of symptoms related to neurological disorders. Bournemouth University Research & Ethics approval granted: JC28/1/13-KA6/9/13. Professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues have been addressed and approved in the Ethics submission. Trials identification number: ISRCTN61942768. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/

Keywords: Neurology, cortisol, electromyography, yawning

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17 Comparison of Process Slaughtered on Beef Cattle Based on Level of Cortisol and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

Authors: Pudji Astuti, C. P. C. Putro, C. M. Airin, L. Sjahfirdi, S. Widiyanto, H. Maheshwari

Abstract:

Stress of slaughter animals starting long before until at the time of process of slaughtering which cause misery and decrease of meat quality. Meanwhile, determination of animal stress using hormonal such as cortisol is expensive and less practical so that portable stress indicator for cows based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) must be provided. The aims of this research are to find out the comparison process of slaughter between Rope Casting Local (RCL) and Restraining Box Method (RBM) by measuring of cortisol and wavelength in FTIR methods. Thirty two of male Ongole crossbred cattle were used in this experiment. Blood sampling was taken from jugular vein when they were rested and repeated when slaughtered. All of blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 minutes to get serum, and then divided into two parts for cortisol assayed using ELISA and for measuring the wavelength using FTIR. The serum then measured at the wavelength between 4000-400 cm-1 using MB3000 FTIR. Band data absorption in wavelength of FTIR is analyzed descriptively by using FTIR Horizon MBTM. For RCL, average of serum cortisol when the animals rested were 11.47 ± 4.88 ng/mL, when the time of slaughter were 23.27 ± 7.84 ng/mL. For RBM, level of cortisol when rested animals were 13.67 ± 3.41 ng/mL and 53.47 ± 20.25 ng/mL during the slaughter. Based on student t-Test, there were significantly different between RBM and RCL methods when beef cattle were slaughtered (P < 0.05), but no significantly different when animals were rested (P > 0.05). Result of FTIR with the various of wavelength such as methyl group (=CH3) 2986cm-1, methylene (=CH2) 2827 cm-1, hydroxyl (-OH) 3371 cm-1, carbonyl (ketones) (C=O) 1636 cm-1, carboxyl (COO-1) 1408 cm-1, glucosa 1057 cm-1, urea 1011 cm-1have been obtained. It can be concluded that the RCL slaughtered method is better than the RBM method based on the increase of cortisol as an indicator of stress in beef cattle (P<0.05). FTIR is really possible to be used as stub of stress tool due to differentiate of resting and slaughter condition by recognizing the increase of absorption and the separation of component group at the wavelength.

Keywords: cows, cortisol, FTIR, RBM, RCL, stress indicator

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16 Can Antipsychotics Use for Schizophrenia on Long Term Lower Serum Cortisol Level?

Authors: Rady A., Elsheshai A., Eltawel M.

Abstract:

Introduction and Aim of work: Literature suggest that antipsychotic medications may decrease cortisol level, an effect that seems to be more present with second generation antipsychotic. Our study aims at assessing effect of long term use of antipsychotics on cortisol level Subjects and Methods: 30 chronic schizophrenic patients on antipsychotics compared to 20 drug naive schizophrenic patients as regards serum cortisol level Results: Cortisol level was significantly lower in chronic schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotics compared to drug naive patients (P=0.002 <0.05) Conclusion: Antipsychotic medications seem to have the potential to decrease cortisol level in blood. Among hypothesis proposed in literature is the good control of pseudo stress due to psychotic features.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, Antipsychotic, cortisol, HPA

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15 A New Second Tier Screening for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Utilizing One Dried Blood Spot

Authors: Giancarlo La Marca, Engy Shokry, Maria Luisa Della Bona

Abstract:

Newborn screening for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) relies on quantification of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone using enzyme immunoassays. These assays, in spite of being rapid, readily available and easy to perform, its reliability was found questionable due to lack of selectivity and specificity resulting in large number of false-positives, consequently family anxiety and associated hospitalization costs. To improve specificity of conventional 17α-hydroxyprogesterone screening which may experience false transient elevation in preterm, low birth weight or acutely ill neonates, steroid profiling by LC-MS/MS as a second-tier test was implemented. Unlike the previously applied LC-MS/MS methods, with the disadvantage of requiring a relatively high number of blood drops. Since newborn screening tests are increasing, it is necessary to minimize the sample volume requirement to make the maximum use of blood samples collected on filter paper. The proposed new method requires just one 3.2 mm dried blood spot (DBS) punch. Extraction was done using methanol: water: formic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) containing deuterium labelled internal standards. Extracts were evaporated and reconstituted in 10 % acetone in water. Column switching strategy for on-line sample clean-up was applied to improve the chromatographic run. The first separative step retained the investigated steroids and passed through the majority of high molecular weight impurities. After the valve switching, the investigated steroids are back flushed from the POROS® column onto the analytical column and separated using gradient elution. Found quantitation limits were 5, 10 and 50 nmol/L for 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and cortisol respectively with mean recoveries of between 98.31-103.24 % and intra-/ inter-assay CV% < 10 % except at LLOQ. The method was validated using standard addition calibration and isotope dilution strategies. Reference ranges were determined by analysing samples from 896 infants of various ages at the time of sample collection. The method was also applied on patients with confirmed CAH. Our method represents an attractive combination of low sample volume requirement, minimal sample preparation time without derivatization and quick chromatography (5 min). The three steroid profile and the concentration ratios (17OHP + androstenedione/cortisol) allowed better screening outcomes of CAH reducing false positives, associated costs and anxiety.

Keywords: cortisol, LC-MS/MS, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), androstenedione

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14 Yawning and Cortisol as a Potential Biomarker for Early Detection of Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

Abstract:

Cortisol is essential to the regulation of the immune system and yawning is a pathological symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Electromyography activity (EMG) in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved and with yawning is highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. Saliva samples from 59 participants were collected at the start and after yawning, or at the end of the presentation of yawning-provoking stimuli, in the absence of a yawn, together with EMG data and questionnaire data: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details. Exclusion criteria: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners, t (23) = -4.263, p = 0.000, as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli, which was non-significant. Significant evidence was found to support the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis suggesting that rises in cortisol levels are associated with yawning. Further research is exploring the use of cortisol as an early diagnostic tool for MS. Ethics approval granted and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues are approved therein.

Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, cortisol, yawning, thompson cortisol hypothesis

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13 Glutamine Supplementation and Resistance Traning on Anthropometric Indices, Immunoglobulins, and Cortisol Levels

Authors: Saeed Shirali, Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Introduction: Exercise has contradictory effects on the immune system. Glutamine supplementation may increase the resistance of the immune system in athletes. The Glutamine is one of the most recognized immune nutrients that as a fuel source, substrate in the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids and is also known to be part of the antioxidant defense. Several studies have shown that improving glutamine levels in plasma and tissues can have beneficial effects on the function of immune cells such as lymphocytes and neutrophils. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resistance training and training combined with glutamine supplementation to improve the levels of cortisol and immunoglobulin in untrained young men. The research shows that physical training can increase the cytokines in the athlete’s body of course; glutamine can counteract the negative effects of resistance training on immune function and stability of the mast cell membrane. Materials and methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted on 30 male non-athletes. They were randomly divided into three groups: control (no exercise), resistance training, resistance training and glutamine supplementation, respectively. Resistance training for 4 weeks and glutamine supplementation in 0.3 gr/kg/day after practice was applied. The resistance-training program consisted of eight exercises (leg press, lat pull, chest press, squat, seatedrow, abdominal crunch, shoulder press, biceps curl and triceps press down) four times per week. Participants performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 60–75% 1-RM. Anthropometry indexes (weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage), oxygen uptake (VO2max) Maximal, cortisol levels of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) were evaluated Pre- and post-test. Results: Results showed four week resistance training with and without glutamine cause significant increase in body weight, BMI and significantly decreased (P < 0/001) in BF. Vo2max also increased in both groups of exercise (P < 0/05) and exercise with glutamine (P < 0/001), such as in both groups significant reduction in IgG (P < 0/05) was observed. But no significant difference observed in levels of cortisol, IgA, IgM in any of the groups. No significant change observed in either parameter in the control group. No significant difference observed between the groups. Discussion: The alterations in the hormonal and immunological parameters can be used in order to assess the effect overload on the body, whether acute or chronically. The plasmatic concentration of glutamine has been associated to the functionality of the immunological system in individuals sub-mitted to intense physical training. resistance training has destructive effects on the immune system and glutamine supplementation cannot neutralize the damaging effects of power exercise on the immune system.

Keywords: cortisol, glutamine, resistance traning, immuglobulins

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12 Saliva Cortisol and Yawning as a Predictor of Neurological Disease

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

Abstract:

Cortisol is important to our immune system, regulates our stress response, and is a factor in maintaining brain temperature. Saliva cortisol is a practical and useful non-invasive measurement that signifies the presence of the important hormone. Electrical activity in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved during yawning and the electrical level is found to be correlated with the cortisol level. In two studies using identical paradigms, a total of 108 healthy subjects were exposed to yawning-provoking stimuli so that their cortisol levels and electrical nerve impulses from their jaw muscles was recorded. Electrical activity is highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details were collected and exclusion criteria applied for voluntary recruitment: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli. Significant evidence supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis that suggests rises in cortisol levels are associated with yawning. Ethics approval granted and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues are approved therein.

Keywords: Diagnosis, cortisol, yawning, thompson cortisol hypothesis, neurological disease

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11 Concentrations of Cortisol and Progesterone after Dexamethasone Challenge in Egyptian Stray Bitches

Authors: K. A. El-Battawy

Abstract:

This investigation was done to evaluate cortisol secretion in bitches following dexamethasone administration as well as its impact on progesterone levels during four days trail. Five bitches were used as their own pre-challenge control in a 4-day trial. On the control day, saline was injected intravenous (i.v.) and on the treatment day, 15 mg / animal of dexamethasone-21-disodiumphosphate (Dexa-TAD) was injected i.v. Blood samples were collected for four days then the analysis of cortisol and progesterone (P4) were done. Levels of cortisol decreased sharply within 24 h after dexamethasone administration. These low levels of cortisol remained for approximately 24hour then started again to reach normally back. Progesterone concentrations did not differ than pre-treatment one. In conclusion, this study confirms that single injection of dexamethasone lowered significantly the cortisol concentrations for approximately 24hour and did not affect the progesterone levels in bitches.

Keywords: Blood, Concentration, progesterone, cortisol, dexa, bitch

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10 Medical Advances in Diagnosing Neurological and Genetic Disorders

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

Abstract:

Retinoblastoma is a rare type of childhood genetic cancer that affects children worldwide. The diagnosis is often missed due to lack of education and difficulty in presentation of the tumor. Frequently, the tumor on the retina is noticed by photography when the red-eye flash, commonly seen in normal eyes, is not produced. Instead, a yellow or white colored patch is seen or the child has a noticeable strabismus. Early detection can be life-saving though often results in removal of the affected eye. Remaining functioning in the healthy eye when the child is young has resulted in super-vision and high or above-average intelligence. Technological advancement of cameras has helped in early detection. Brain imaging has also made possible early detection of neurological diseases and, together with the monitoring of cortisol levels and yawning frequency, promises to be the next new early diagnostic tool for the detection of neurological diseases where cortisol insufficiency is particularly salient, such as multiple sclerosis and Cushing’s disease.

Keywords: cortisol, yawning, thompson cortisol hypothesis, neurological disease, retinoblastoma

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9 The Effect of Acute Toxicity and Thyroid Hormone Treatments on Hormonal Changes during Embryogenesis of Acipenser persicus

Authors: Samaneh Nazeri, Bagher Mojazi Amiri, Hamid Farahmand

Abstract:

Production of high quality fish eggs with reasonable hatching rate makes a success in aquaculture industries. It is influenced by the environmental stimulators and inhibitors. Diazinon is a widely-used pesticide in Golestan province (Southern Caspian Sea, North of Iran) which is washed to the aquatic environment (3 mg/L in the river). It is little known about the effect of this pesticide on the embryogenesis of sturgeon fish, the valuable species of the Caspian Sea. Hormonal content of the egg is an important factor to guaranty the successful passes of embryonic stages. In this study, the fate of Persian sturgeon embryo to 24, 48, 72, and 96-hours exposure of diazinon (LC50 dose) was tested. Also, the effect of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) on these embryos was tested concurrently or separately with diazinon LC 50 dose. Fertilized eggs are exposed to T3 (low dose: 1 ng/ml, high dose: 10 ng/ml), T4 (low dose: 1 ng/ml, high dose: 10 ng/ml). Six eggs were randomly selected from each treatment (with three replicates) in five developmental stages (two cell- division, neural, heart present, heart beaten, and hatched larvae). The possibility of changing T3, T4, and cortisol contents of the embryos were determined in all treated groups and in every mentioned embryonic stage. The hatching rate in treated groups was assayed at the end of the embryogenesis to clarify the effect of thyroid hormones and diazinon. The results indicated significant differences in thyroid hormone contents, but no significant differences were recognized in cortisol levels at various early life stages of embryos. There was also significant difference in thyroid hormones in (T3, T4) + diazinon treated embryos (P˂0.05), while no significant difference between control and treatments in cortisol levels was observed. The highest hatching rate was recorded in HT3 treatment, while the lowest hatching rate was recorded for diazinon LC50 treatment. The result confirmed that Persian sturgeon embryo is less sensitive to diazinon compared to teleost embryos, and thyroid hormones may increase hatching rate even in the presence of diazinon.

Keywords: Embryo, Thyroid Hormones, cortisol, Diazinon, Persian sturgeon

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8 The Short-Term Stress Indicators in Home and Experimental Dogs

Authors: Madara Nikolajenko, Jevgenija Kondratjeva

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Stress is a response of the body to physical or psychological environmental stressors. Cortisol level in blood serum is determined as the main indicator of stress, but the blood collection, the animal preparation and other activities can cause unpleasant conditions and induce increase of these hormones. Therefore, less invasive methods are searched to determine stress hormone levels, for example, by measuring the cortisol level saliva. The aim of the study is to find out the changes of stress hormones in blood and saliva in home and experimental dogs in simulated short-term stress conditions. The study included clinically healthy experimental beagle dogs (n=6) and clinically healthy home American Staffordshire terriers (n=6). The animals were let into a fenced area to adapt. Loud drum sounds (in cooperation with 'Andžeja Grauda drum school') were used as a stressor. Blood serum samples were taken for sodium, potassium, glucose and cortisol level determination and saliva samples for cortisol determination only. Control parameters were taken immediately before the start of the stressor, and next samples were taken immediately after the stress. The last measurements were taken two hours after the stress. Electrolyte levels in blood serum were determined using direction selective electrode method (ILab Aries analyzer) and cortisol in blood serum and saliva using electrochemical luminescence method (Roche Diagnostics). Blood glucose level was measured with glucometer (ACCU-CHECK Active test strips). Cortisol level in the blood increased immediately after the stress in all home dogs (P < 0,05), but only in 33% (P < 0,05) of the experimental dogs. After two hours the measurement decreased in 83% (P < 0,05) of home dogs (in 50% returning to the control point) and in 83% (P < 0,05) of the experimental dogs. Cortisol in saliva immediately after the stress increased in 50% (P > 0,05) of home dogs and in 33% (P > 0,05) of the experimental dogs. After two hours in 83% (P > 0,05) of the home animals, the measurements decreased, only in 17% of the experimental dogs it decreased as well, while in 49% measurement was undetectable due to the lack of material. Blood sodium, potassium, and glucose measurements did not show any significant changes. The combination of short-term stress indicators, when, after the stressor, all indicators should immediately increase and decrease after two hours, confirmed in none of the animals. Therefore the authors can conclude that each animal responds to a stressful situation with different physiological mechanisms and hormonal activity. Cortisol level in saliva and blood is released with the different speed and is not an objective indicator of acute stress.

Keywords: cortisol, animal behaivor, short-term stress, stress indicators

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7 Acute Effects of Local Vibration on Muscle Activation, Metabolic and Hormone Responses

Authors: Zong Yan Cai, Wen-Chyuan Chen, Chih-Min Wu

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of local vibration on muscle activation, metabolic and hormone responses. Totally 12 healthy, physically inactive, male adults participated in this study and completed LV exercise session. During LV exercise session, four custom-made vibrations (diameter: 20 mm; thickness: 8 mm; weight: 0.022 g) were locally placed over the belly of the thigh of each subject’s non-dominant leg in supine lying position, and subjects received 10 sets for 1 min at the frequency of 35-40Hz, with 1–2 min of rest between sets. The surface electromyography (EMG) were obtained from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris, and the subjects’ rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were measured. EMG data, RPE values as well as HR were obtained by averaging the results of 10 sets of each exercise session. Blood samples were drawn before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 15min and 30min after exercise in each session for analysis of lactic acid (LA), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). The results indicated that the HR did not increase after LV (63.18±3.5 to 63.25±2.58 beat/min, p > 0.05). The average RPE values during the LV exposure were at 2.86±0.39. The root mean square % EMG values from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris were 19.02±2.19 and 8.25±2.20 respectively. There were no significant differences after acute LV exercise among LA, GH and T values as compared with baseline values (LA: 0.68±0.11 to 0.7±0.1 mmol/L; GH: 0.06±0.05 to 0.57±0.27 ng/mL; T: 551.33±46.62 to 520.42±43.78 ng/dL, p>0.05). However, the LV treatment caused a significant decrease in C values after exercise (16.56±1.05 to 11.64±1.85 nmol/L, p<0.05). In conclusion, acute LV exercise only slightly increase muscle activation which may not cause effective exercise response. However, acute LV exercise reduces C level, which may reduce the catabolic response. The probable reason might partly due to the vibration rhythmically which massage on muscles.

Keywords: Growth Hormone, cortisol, lactic acid, testosterone

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6 The Fabrication of Stress Sensing Based on Artificial Antibodies to Cortisol by Molecular Imprinted Polymer

Authors: Supannika Klangphukhiew, Roongnapa Srichana, Rina Patramanon

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Cortisol has been used as a well-known commercial stress biomarker. A homeostasis response to psychological stress is indicated by an increased level of cortisol produced in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Chronic psychological stress contributing to the high level of cortisol relates to several health problems. In this study, the cortisol biosensor was fabricated that mimicked the natural receptors. The artificial antibodies were prepared using molecular imprinted polymer technique that can imitate the performance of natural anti-cortisol antibody with high stability. Cortisol-molecular imprinted polymer (cortisol-MIP) was obtained using the multi-step swelling and polymerization protocol with cortisol as a target molecule combining methacrylic acid:acrylamide (2:1) with bisacryloyl-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-ethylenediamine and ethylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine as cross-linkers. Cortisol-MIP was integrated to the sensor. It was coated on the disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for portable electrochemical analysis. The physical properties of Cortisol-MIP were characterized by means of electron microscope techniques. The binding characteristics were evaluated via covalent patterns changing in FTIR spectra which were related to voltammetry response. The performance of cortisol-MIP modified SPCE was investigated in terms of detection range, high selectivity with a detection limit of 1.28 ng/ml. The disposable cortisol biosensor represented an application of MIP technique to recognize steroids according to their structures with feasibility and cost-effectiveness that can be developed to use in point-of-care.

Keywords: cortisol, molecular imprinted polymer, stress biomarker, screen-printed carbon electrode

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5 Manganese Contamination Exacerbates Reproductive Stress in a Suicidally-Breeding Marsupial

Authors: Ami Fadhillah Amir Abdul Nasir, Amanda C. Niehaus, Skye F. Cameron, Frank A. Von Hippel, John Postlethwait​, Robbie S. Wilson

Abstract:

For suicidal breeders, the physiological stresses and energetic costs of breeding are fatal. Environmental stressors such as pollution should compound these costs, yet suicidal breeding is so rare among mammals that this is unknown. Here, we explored the consequences of metal contamination to the health, aging and performance of endangered, suicidally-breeding northern quolls (Dasyurus hallucatus) living near an active manganese mine on Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, Australia. We found respirable manganese dust at levels exceeding international recommendations even 20km from mining sites and substantial accumulation of manganese within quolls’ hair, testes, and in two brain regions—the neocortex and cerebellum, responsible for sensory perception and motor function, respectively. Though quolls did not differ in sprint speeds, motor skill, or manoeuvrability, those with higher accumulation of manganese crashed at lower speeds during manoeuvrability tests, indicating a potential effect on sight or cognition. Immune function and telomere length declined over the breeding season, as expected with ageing, but manganese contamination exacerbated immune declines and suppressed cortisol. Unexpectedly, male quolls with higher levels of manganese had longer telomeres, supporting evidence of unusual telomere dynamics among Dasyurids—though whether this affects their lifespan is unknown. We posit that sublethal contamination via pollution, mining, or urbanisation imposes physiological costs on wildlife that may diminish reproductive success or survival.

Keywords: Ecotoxicology, cortisol, heavy metal, manganese, telomere length, locomotor

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4 The Influence of Training and Competition on Cortisol Levels and Sleep in Elite Female Athletes

Authors: Shannon O’Donnell, Matthew Driller, Gregory Jacobson, Steve Bird

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Stress hormone levels in a competition vs. training setting are yet to be evaluated in elite female athletes. The effect that these levels of stress have on subsequent sleep quality and quantity is also yet to be investigated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate different psychophysiological stress markers in competition and training environments and the subsequent effect on sleep indices in an elite female athlete population. The study involved 10 elite female netball athletes (mean ± SD; age = 23 ± 6 yrs) providing multiple salivary hormone measures and having their sleep monitored on two occasions; a match day, and a training day. The training and match were performed at the same time of day and were matched for intensity and duration. Saliva samples were collected immediately pre (5:00 pm) and post session (7:15 pm), and at 10:00 pm and were analysed for cortisol concentrations. Sleep monitoring was performed using wrist actigraphy to assess total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE%) and sleep latency (SL). Cortisol levels were significantly higher (p < 0.01) immediately post the match vs post training (mean ± SD; 0.925 ± 0.341 μg/dL and 0.239 ± 0.284 μg/dL, respectively) and at 10:00pm (0.143 ± 0.085 μg/dL and 0.072 ± 0.064 μg/dL, respectively, p < 0.01). The difference between trials was associated with a very large effect (ES: 2.23) immediately post (7:15 pm) and a large effect (ES: 1.02) at 10:00 pm. There was a significant reduction in TST (mean ± SD; -117.9 ± 111.9 minutes, p < 0.01, ES: -1.89) and SE% (-7.7 ± 8.5%, p < 0.02, ES: -0.79) on the night following the netball match compared to the training session. Although not significant (p > 0.05), there was an increase in SL following the netball match v the training session (67.0 ± 51.9 minutes and 38.5 ± 29.3 minutes, respectively), which was associated with a moderate effect (ES: 0.80). The current study reports that cortisol levels are significantly higher and subsequent sleep quantity and quality is significantly reduced in elite female athletes following a match compared to a training session.

Keywords: Performance, Recovery, cortisol, netball

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3 Profile of Cortisol in Bali's Crossbreed Cows for 120 Hours Shipping Using Traditional Vessel

Authors: Pudji Astuti, Hindar Panguji, Nichlah Rifqiyah, Irkham Widiono

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Many transportations of livestock in Indonesia is still managed traditionally. Transportation involves several things that may cause stress, from a certain treatment or other factors, either externally or internally, that act as stressors. This study aimed to determine the profile of cortisol and IL-6 in female Bali breeding cattle transported for 120 hours using 100 GT traditional vessels with two floors and a capacity of 300-400 heads. Before transportation, all of the animals have got the vaccination. Blood samples from thirty cows were taken before transportation, during loading, during docking, and after transportation. ELISA method was used to analyze the concentration of cortisol and IL6. The averages of cortisol concentration before transportation, during loading, docking, and after transportation were 78.21±27.96 ng/mL, 90.78±30.91 ng/mL, 69.90±53.92 ng/mL and 69.34±32.03 ng/mL respectively. The average concentration of IL-6 before, during, docking and after transportation were 259.86±70.16 pg/mL, 315.41±64.21 pg/mL, 410.13±247.43 pg/mL dan 424.81±98.86 pg/mL. It was concluded there were no differences in cortisol concentrations and level of IL6 of each cow at different stages of transportation (p > 0.05) It would be possible that vaccination could reduce the fluctuation of cortisol.

Keywords: Shipping, cortisol, vessel, Bali's breed cows, IL6

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2 The Impact of One Session of Kumite Training, Speed Kata and Strength Kata on the Rate of Viscosity, Fibrinogen and Plasma Lipid Profile in Young Karate Player Women

Authors: Miesam Golzadeh Gangraj, Abbas Ganbari Niaki, Lila Bahrami

Abstract:

The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of one session of Karate training (Kumite, speed Kata and strength Kata) on viscosity, fibrinogen and plasma lipid profile in young Karate player women. To this end, 40 individuals with required condition were selected and randomly placed in four groups. 10 mL forearm venous blood was taken before and immediately after a session of training for measuring variables. Data were analyzed using statistical methods (covariance, by consideration of group factor) and Bonfferoni post hoc test and the significant difference was determined in P ≤ 0.05. The variation of plasma fibrinogen concentration was not meaningful. The variation of plasma viscosity concentration was not meaningful in groups and between groups. The variation of cortisol concentration was meaningful before and after and between control and experimental groups; however, no difference was observed between three experimental groups. The variation of complete cholesterol, neither tri-glyceride nor intense lipoprotein, was meaningful and significant difference was just seen between control and Kumite groups. The results show that despite meaningful changes in fibrinogen levels, plasma viscosity has not been much affected that might be due to lack of variation in other effective variables such as TG, HDL and hematocrit. Based on the results of present study, it seems that the use of speed Kata seems to be more appropriate to increase the performance of Karate player than strength Karate.

Keywords: viscosity, cortisol, female karate player, fibrinogen, lactate di-dehydrogenase

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1 The Cooperation among Insulin, Cortisol and Thyroid Hormones in Morbid Obese Children and Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma

Abstract:

Obesity, a disease associated with a low-grade inflammation, is a risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). So far, MetS risk factors such as parameters related to glucose and lipid metabolisms as well as blood pressure were considered for the evaluation of this disease. There are still some ambiguities related to the characteristic features of MetS observed particularly in pediatric population. Hormonal imbalance is also important, and quite a lot information exists about the behaviour of some hormones in adults. However, the hormonal profiles in pediatric metabolism have not been cleared yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the profiles of cortisol, insulin, and thyroid hormones in children with MetS. The study population was composed of morbid obese (MO) children without (Group 1) and with (Group 2) MetS components. WHO BMI-for age and sex percentiles were used for the classification of obesity. The values above 99 percentile were defined as morbid obesity. Components of MetS (central obesity, glucose intolerance, high blood pressure, high triacylglycerol levels, low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol) were determined. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Ratios as well as obesity indices were calculated. Insulin, cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T3 and free T4 analyses were performed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Data were evaluated by statistical package for social sciences program. p<0.05 was accepted as the degree for statistical significance. The mean ages±SD values of Group 1 and Group 2 were 9.9±3.1 years and 10.8±3.2 years, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) values were calculated as 27.4±5.9 kg/m2 and 30.6±8.1 kg/m2, successively. There were no statistically significant differences between the ages and BMI values of the groups. Insulin levels were statistically significantly increased in MetS in comparison with the levels measured in MO children. There was not any difference between MO children and those with MetS in terms of cortisol, T3, T4 and TSH. However, T4 levels were positively correlated with cortisol and negatively correlated with insulin. None of these correlations were observed in MO children. Cortisol levels in both MO as well as MetS group were significantly correlated. Cortisol, insulin, and thyroid hormones are essential for life. Cortisol, called the control system for hormones, orchestrates the performance of other key hormones. It seems to establish a connection between hormone imbalance and inflammation. During an inflammatory state, more cortisol is produced to fight inflammation. High cortisol levels prevent the conversion of the inactive form of the thyroid hormone T4 into active form T3. Insulin is reduced due to low thyroid hormone. T3, which is essential for blood sugar control- requires cortisol levels within the normal range. Positive association of T4 with cortisol and negative association of it with insulin are the indicators of such a delicate balance among these hormones also in children with MetS.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Children, insulin, Thyroid Hormones, cortisol

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