Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Corruption Related Abstracts

62 Direct Democracy: The Best Administrative System for Nigeria

Authors: Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim


The research assessed representative democracy as an administrative system in Nigeria, by highlighting the failure of the state. It also looked at some components of direct democracy in Switzerland. Therefore, the paper focused on direct democracy, using secondary sources of data. In conclusion, the research offers direct democracy as a solution to the failure of the Nigerian administrative system especially as it affects participation, developmental programmes and institutionalized corruption.

Keywords: Corruption, Participation, Direct Democracy, Nigeria, national development

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61 Local Investment Climate and the Role of (Sustainable) FDI: The Case Of Georgia

Authors: Vakhtang Charaia


The article focuses on the role of FDI in Georgia’s economic development for the last decade. To attract as much FDI as possible a proper investment climate should be on the place-institutional, policy and regulatory environment. Well-developed investment climate is the chance and motivation for both, local economy and foreign companies, to generate maximum income, create new work places and improve the quality of life. FDI trend is one of the best indicators of country’s economic sustainability and its attractiveness. Especially for small and developing countries, the amount of FDI matters, therefore, most of such countries are trying to compete with each other through improving their investment climate according to different world famous indexes. As a result of impressive reforms since 2003, Georgian economy was benefited with large invasion of FDI. However, the level of per capita GDP is still law in comparison to Eastern European countries and it should be improved. The main idea of the paper is to show a real linkage between FDI and employment ration, on the case of Georgian economy.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Employment, Corruption, Taxes, Economic growth, Foreign Direct Investment

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60 Human Security and Human Trafficking Related Corruption

Authors: Ekin D. Horzum


The aim of the proposal is to examine the relationship between human trafficking related corruption and human security. The proposal suggests that the human trafficking related corruption is about willingness of the states to turn a blind eye to the human trafficking cases. Therefore, it is important to approach human trafficking related corruption in terms of human security and human rights violation to find an effective way to fight against human trafficking. In this context, the purpose of this proposal is to examine the human trafficking related corruption as a safe haven in which trafficking thrives for perpetrators.

Keywords: human security, Human Rights, Corruption, Human trafficking, Organized Crime

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59 Political Alienation and Corruption in Libya

Authors: Mabroka B. Al-Werfalli


This paper looks at some aspects of Libya’s political culture relating to corruption and tries to map the links that bond political alienation to corruption. The subject was approached by surveying opinion. The study, of which culture of corruption was part, concerned the phenomena of political alienation in Libya. It was based on a survey conducted in winter 2001 and targeted a sample of 877 participants from the city of Benghazi. The questions were designed to determine the extent to which corruption is seen, by the Libyans, as a national problem. It also describes perceptions about levels, types and causes of corruption; trust in governmental institutions and senior officials of the State and assessments of anti-corruption regulations and actions taken by the regime.

Keywords: Corruption, Anti-Corruption, Political culture, culture of corruption, participating in corruption, political alienation

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58 On the Effect of Immigration on Destination: Country Corruption

Authors: Eugen Dimant, Tim Krieger, Margarete Redlin


This paper analyzes the impact of migration on destination-country corruption levels. Capitalizing on a comprehensive dataset consisting of annual immigration stocks of OECD coun-tries from 207 countries of origin for the period 1984-2008, we explore different channels through which corruption might migrate. We employ different estimation methods using fixed effects and Tobit regressions in order to validate our findings. What is more, we also address the issue of endogeneity by using the Difference-Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator. Independent of the econometric methodology we consistently find that while general migration has an insignificant effect on the destination country’s corruption level, immigration from corruption-ridden origin countries boosts corruption in the destination country. Our findings provide a more profound understanding of the economic implications associated with migration flows.

Keywords: Migration, Corruption, impact of migration, destination-country corruption

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57 Social Accountability: Persuasion and Debate to Contain Corruption

Authors: A. Lambert-Mogiliansky


In this paper, we investigate the properties of simple rules for reappointment aimed at holding a public official accountable and monitor his activity. The public official allocates budget resources to various activities which results in the delivery of public services to citizens. He has discretion over the use of resource so he can divert some of them for private ends. Because of a liability constraint, zero diversion can never be secured in all states. The optimal reappointment mechanism under complete information is shown to exhibit some leniency thus departing from the zero tolerance principle. Under asymmetric information (about the state), a rule with random verification in a pre-announced subset is shown to be optimal in a class of common rules. Surprisingly, those common rules make little use of hard information about service delivery when available. Similarly, PO's claim about his record is of no value to improve the performance of the examined rules. In contrast requesting that the PO defends his records publicly can be very useful if the service users are given the chance to refute false claims with cheap talk complaints: the first best complete information outcome can be approached in the absence of any observation by the manager of the accountability mechanism.

Keywords: Corruption, Accountability, Debate, Persuasion

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56 Institutional Capacity and Corruption: Evidence from Brazil

Authors: Dalson Figueiredo, Enivaldo Rocha, Ranulfo Paranhos, José Alexandre


This paper analyzes the effects of institutional capacity on corruption. Methodologically, the research design combines both descriptive and multivariate statistics to examine two original datasets based on secondary data. In particular, we employ a principal component model to estimate an indicator of institutional capacity for both state audit institutions and subnational judiciary courts. Then, we estimate the effect of institutional capacity on two dependent variables: (1) incidence of administrative irregularities and (2) time elapsed to judge corruption cases. The preliminary results using ordinary least squares, negative binomial and Tobit models suggest the same conclusions: higher the institutional audit capacity, higher is the probability of detecting a corruption case. On the other hand, higher the institutional capacity of state judiciary, the lower is the time to judge corruption cases.

Keywords: Corruption, institutional capacity, state level institutions, evidence from Brazil

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55 Competition, Performance and Ethnicity: Explaining Corruption in Ghana and Kenya

Authors: Roxanne J. Kovacs


This paper shows that political corruption in Ghana and Kenya does not, as is assumed by a considerable part of the academic literature, depend on the level of party competition as such, but rather on the kinds of issues that parties compete about. Party competition in Ghana revolves around party performance, which gives political leaders a strong incentive to control corruption. In contrast, party competition in Kenya revolves around ethnic identities, which directly reduces competition based on candidate quality and therefore fosters corruption.

Keywords: Corruption, Electoral Competition, Kenya, Ghana

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54 Aesthetic and Social Vision in Abubakar Gimba’s a Toast in the Cemetery

Authors: James Funsho Tope


Being the prolific writer that he is, Gimba’s collection of Short Stories, A Toast in the Cemetery, brings out the themes of decay and corruption in the urban setting through the use of images, symbols, setting and character. Gimba seeks through these media to reveal the decay and corruption in the society. Gimba uses aesthetics to convey his message, thus making a call for change in the fabrics of society.

Keywords: Society, Corruption, Images, Symbolism, Character, decay, setting

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53 Corruption in the Financial Services Industry: Is Regulation the Panacea?

Authors: Maria Krambia-Kapardis, Elisavet Charalambous


Corruption has given rise to extensive discussion due to its notorious consequences. It undermines democracy, brings in inequalities and imbalances and weakens governance. With the recent financial turmoil pinpointing that corruption has played a vital part, lessons have to be learned and actions have to be taken. Regulation can be the means for doing so as it advances transparency and accountability, leaving no space for corruption to flourish. Much depends though on the culture of a state and how determined it is to mark the end of corruption.

Keywords: Culture, Corruption, European Union, banking regulation

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52 Preventing Corruption in Dubai: Governance, Contemporary Strategies and Systemic Flaws

Authors: Graham Brooks, Belaisha Bin Belaisha, Hakkyong Kim


The problem of preventing and/or reducing corruption is a major international problem. This paper, however, specifically focuses on how organisations in Dubai are tackling the problem of money laundering. This research establishes that Dubai has a clear international anti-money laundering framework but suffers from some national weaknesses such as diverse anti-money laundering working practice, lack of communication, sharing information and disparate organisational vested self-interest.

Keywords: Governance, Prevention, Corruption, Strategies, Money Laundering

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51 The Determinants of Country Corruption: Unobserved Heterogeneity and Individual Choice- An empirical Application with Finite Mixture Models

Authors: Alessandra Marcelletti, Giovanni Trovato


Corruption in public offices is found to be the reflection of country-specific features, however, the exact magnitude and the statistical significance of its determinants effect has not yet been identified. The paper aims to propose an estimation method to measure the impact of country fundamentals on corruption, showing that covariates could differently affect the extent of corruption across countries. Thus, we exploit a model able to take into account different factors affecting the incentive to ask or to be asked for a bribe, coherently with the use of the Corruption Perception Index. We assume that discordant results achieved in literature may be explained by omitted hidden factors affecting the agents' decision process. Moreover, assuming homogeneous covariates effect may lead to unreliable conclusions since the country-specific environment is not accounted for. We apply a Finite Mixture Model with concomitant variables to 129 countries from 1995 to 2006, accounting for the impact of the initial conditions in the socio-economic structure on the corruption patterns. Our findings confirm the hypothesis of the decision process of accepting or asking for a bribe varies with specific country fundamental features.

Keywords: Corruption, Finite Mixture Models, Concomitant Variables, Countries Classification

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50 Political Alienation: Paving the Road to Corruption

Authors: Mabrouka Al-Werfalli


This paper aims to highlight reasons beyond the prevalence of “culture of corruption” amongst Libyans. One of the most prominent reason for the Libyan revolution in February 2011 was the pervasiveness of corruption. Corruption in Libya remained a significant problem despite harsh legislation and a robust anti-corruption discourse undertaken by the previous regime. The long-standing political corruption in Libya has offered ample opportunity for the evolution of a structure of negative values and morals. This has formed what is termed as a “culture of corruption”, which has induced people to accept and justify corrupt behaviour. The paper is a part of a study concerns the phenomenon of political alienation in Libya which was based on a survey conducted in 2001 in the city of Benghazi. The finding shows that abuse of power looms large within all activities. Embezzlement and misuse of public funds for personal enrichment is thought to be rife within public bodies, institutions, companies, factories, banks and enterprises owned entirely or partially by the state.

Keywords: Corruption, Anti-Corruption, culture of corruption, political alienation, participation in corruption, abuse of power, embezzlement

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49 The Crossroads of Corruption and Terrorism in the Global South

Authors: Stephen M. Magu


The 9/11 and Christmas bombing attacks in the United States are mostly associated with the inability of intelligence agencies to connect dots based on intelligence that was already available. The 1998, 2002, 2013 and several 2014 terrorist attacks in Kenya, on the other hand, are probably driven by a completely different dynamic: the invisible hand of corruption. The World Bank and Transparency International annually compute the Worldwide Governance Indicators and the Corruption Perception Index respectively. What perhaps is not adequately captured in the corruption metrics is the impact of corruption on terrorism. The World Bank data includes variables such as the control of corruption, (estimates of) government effectiveness, political stability and absence of violence/terrorism, regulatory quality, rule of law and voice and accountability. TI's CPI does not include measures related to terrorism, but it is plausible that there is an expectation of some terrorism impact arising from corruption. This paper, by examining the incidence, frequency and total number of terrorist attacks that have occurred especially since 1990, and further examining the specific cases of Kenya and Nigeria, argues that in addition to having major effects on governance, corruption has an even more frightening impact: that of facilitating and/or violating security mechanisms to the extent that foreign nationals can easily obtain identification that enables them to perpetuate major events, targeting powerful countries' interests in countries with weak corruption-fighting mechanisms. The paper aims to model interactions that demonstrate the cost/benefit analysis and agents' rational calculations as being non-rational calculations, given the ultimate impact. It argues that eradication of corruption is not just a matter of a better business environment, but that it is implicit in national security, and that for anti-corruption crusaders, this is an argument more potent than the economic cost / cost of doing business argument.

Keywords: Identification, Corruption, Terrorism, global south, passports

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48 Complicity of Religion in Legalizing Corruption: Perspective from an Emerging Economy

Authors: S. Opadere Olaolu


Religion, as a belief-system, has been with humanity for a long time. It has been recognised to impact the lives of individuals, groups, and communities that hold it dear. Whether the impact is regarded as positive or not depends on the assessor. Thus, for reasons of likely subjectiveness, possible irrationality, and even outright deliberate abuse, most emerging economies seek to follow the pattern of separating the State from religion; yet it is certain that the influence of religion on the State is incontrovertible. Corruption, on the other hand, though difficult to define in precise terms, is clearly perceptible. It could manifest in very diverse ways, including the abuse of a position of trust for the gain of an individual, or of a group with shared ulterior motive. Religion has been perceived, among others, as a means to societal stability, marital stability, infusion of moral rectitude, and conscience with regards to right and wrong. In time past, credible and dependable characters reposed largely and almost exclusively with those bearing deep religious conviction. Even in the political circle, it was thought that the involvement of those committed to religion would bring about positive changes, for the benefit of the society at large. On the contrary, in recent times, religion has failed in these lofty expectations. The level of corruption in most developing economies, and the increase of religion seem to be advancing pari passu. For instance, religion has encroached into political space, and vice versa, without any differentiable posture to the issue of corruption. Worse still, religion appears to be aiding and abetting corruption, overtly and/or covertly. Therefore, this discourse examined from the Nigerian perspective—as a developing economy—, and from a multidisciplinary stand-point of Law and Religion, the issue of religion; secularism; corruption; romance of religion and politics; inability of religion to exemplify moral rectitude; indulgence of corruption by religion; and the need to keep religion in private sphere, with proper checks. The study employed primary and secondary sources of information. The primary sources included the Constitutions of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999, as amended; judicial decisions; and the Bible. The secondary sources comprised of information from books, journals, newspapers, magazines and Internet documents. Data obtained from these sources were subjected to content analysis. Findings of this study include the breach of constitutional provisions to keep religion out of State affairs; failure of religion to curb corruption; outright indulgence of corruption by religion; and religion having become a political tool. In conclusion, it is considered apposite still to keep the State out of religion, and to seek enforcement of the constitutional provisions in this respect. The stamp of legality placed on overt and covert corruption by religion should be removed by all means.

Keywords: Corruption, Religion, complicity, legalizing

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47 Evaluating the Impact of Judicial Review of 2003 “Radical Surgery” Purging Corrupt Officials from Kenyan Courts

Authors: Charles A. Khamala


In 2003, constrained by an absent “rule of law culture” and negative economic growth, the new Kenyan government chose to pursue incremental judicial reforms rather than comprehensive constitutional reforms. President Mwai Kibaki’s first administration’s judicial reform strategy was two pronged. First, to implement unprecedented “radical surgery,” he appointed a new Chief Justice who instrumentally recommended that half the purportedly-corrupt judiciary should be removed by Presidential tribunals of inquiry. Second, the replacement High Court judges, initially, instrumentally-endorsed the “radical surgery’s” administrative decisions removing their corrupt predecessors. Meanwhile, retention of the welfare-reducing Constitution perpetuated declining public confidence in judicial institutions culminating in refusal by the dissatisfied opposition party to petition the disputed 2007 presidential election results, alleging biased and corrupt courts. Fatefully, widespread post-election violence ensued. Consequently, the international community prompted the second Kibaki administration to concede to a new Constitution. Suddenly, the High Court then adopted a non-instrumental interpretation to reject the 2003 “radical surgery.” This paper therefore critically analyzes whether the Kenyan court’s inconsistent interpretations–pertaining to the constitutionality of the 2003 “radical surgery” removing corruption from Kenya’s courts–was predicated on political expediency or human rights principles. If justice “must also seen to be done,” then pursuit of the CJ’s, Judicial Service Commission’s and president’s political or economic interests must be limited by respect for the suspected judges and magistrates’ due process rights. The separation of powers doctrine demands that the dismissed judges should have a right of appeal which entails impartial review by a special independent oversight mechanism. Instead, ignoring fundamental rights, Kenya’s new Supreme Court’s interpretation of another round of vetting under the new 2010 Constitution, ousts the High Court’s judicial review jurisdiction altogether, since removal of judicial corruption is “a constitutional imperative, akin to a national duty upon every judicial officer to pave way for judicial realignment and reformulation.”

Keywords: Corruption, Judicial Review, administrative decisions, fair hearing, (non) instrumental

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46 Anti-Corruption, an Important Challenge for the Construction Industry!

Authors: Ahmed Stifi, Sascha Gentes, Fritz Gehbauer


The construction industry is perhaps one of the oldest industry of the world. The ancient monuments like the egyptian pyramids, the temples of Greeks and Romans like Parthenon and Pantheon, the robust bridges, old Roman theatres, the citadels and many more are the best testament to that. The industry also has a symbiotic relationship with other . Some of the heavy engineering industry provide construction machineries, chemical industry develop innovative construction materials, finance sector provides fund solutions for complex construction projects and many more. Construction Industry is not only mammoth but also very complex in nature. Because of the complexity, construction industry is prone to various tribulations which may have the propensity to hamper its growth. The comparitive study of this industry with other depicts that it is associated with a state of tardiness and delay especially when we focus on the managerial aspects and the study of triple constraint (time, cost and scope). While some institutes says the complexity associated with it as a major reason, others like lean construction, refers to the wastes produced across the construction process as the prime reason. This paper introduces corruption as one of the prime factors for such delays.To support this many international reports and studies are available depicting that construction industry is one of the most corrupt sectors worldwide, and the corruption can take place throught the project cycle comprising project selection, planning, design, funding, pre-qualification, tendering, execution, operation and maintenance, and even through the reconstrction phase. It also happens in many forms such as bribe, fraud, extortion, collusion, embezzlement and conflict of interest and the self-sufficient. As a solution to cope the corruption in construction industry, the paper introduces the integrity as a key factor and build a new integrity framework to develop and implement an integrity management system for construction companies and construction projects.

Keywords: Corruption, Integrity, construction industry, Lean construction

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45 Anti Corruption Conventions in Nigeria: Legal and Administrative Challenges

Authors: Mohammed Albakariyu Kabir


There is a trend in development discourse to understand and explain the level of corruption in Nigeria, its anti-corruption crusade and why it is failing, as well as its level of compliance with International standards of United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) & African Union Convention on Converting and Preventing Corruption) to which Nigeria is a signatory. This paper discusses the legal and Constitutional provisions relating to corrupt practices and safeguards in Nigeria, as well as the obstacles to the implementation of these Conventions.The paper highlights the challenges posed to the Anti-Corruption crusade by analysing the loopholes that exist both in administrative structure and in scope of the relevant laws. The paper argues that Nigerian Constitution did not make adequate provisions for the implementation of the conventions, hence a proposal which will ensure adequate provision for implementing the conventions to better the lives of Nigerians. The paper concludes that there is the need to build institutional parameters, adequate constitutional and structural safeguards, as well as to synergise strategies, collaborations and alliances to facilitate the timely domestication and implementation of the conventions.

Keywords: Corruption, Poverty, Anti-Corruption, Domestication, convention, state parties

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44 Political will in Fighting Corruption in Vietnam

Authors: Anh Dao Vu, Bill Ryan


The Vietnamese government struggles to grapple with the problem of rampant corruption, one of the most challenging difficulties the country faces. According to Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2014, Vietnam ranks 119 out of 175 countries. The CPI gives Vietnam a score of 31 on a scale from 0 to 100, where 0 indicates ‘highly corrupt’ and 100 represents ‘very clean’. Corruption eats into the national GDP of Vietnam, causing a loss of 3% to 4% of GDP per annum. In general, the Vietnamese people’s trust in their government to wage an effective fight against corruption, especially in the public sector, has been greatly eroded in recent years. Some substantial public demonstrations persuaded the government to implement strong anti-corruption measures. However, so far those measures have not been particularly successful. One of the main reasons for this shortcoming is that neither the Communist Party of Vietnam nor the government has demonstrated sufficiently strong ‘political will’ in fighting corruption. There remains a large gap between rhetoric and reality. This paper will examine the reasons why insufficient ‘political will’ is displayed in the ostensible fight against public sector corruption, and how certain anti-corruption strategies will both strengthen levels of political commitment to the fight against corruption while enhancing the effectiveness of that essential national endeavor.

Keywords: Corruption, Anti-Corruption, Vietnam, political will

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43 The Assessment of the Comparative Efficiency of Reforms through the Integral Index of Transformation

Authors: Samson Davoyan, Ashot Davoyan, Ani Khachatryan


The indexes (Global Competitiveness Index, Economic Freedom Index, Human Development Index, etc.) developed by different international and non-government organizations in time and space express the quantitative and qualitative features of different fields of various reforms implemented in different countries. The main objective of our research is to develop new methodology that we will use to create integral index based on many indexes and that will include many areas of reforms. To achieve our aim we have used econometric methods (regression model for panel data method). The basis of our methodology is the development of the new integral index based on quantitative assessment of the change of two main parameters: the score of the countries by different indexes and the change of the ranks of countries for following two periods of time. As a result of the usage of methods for analyzes we have defined the indexes that are used to create the new integral index and the scales for each of them. Analyzing quantitatively and qualitatively analysis through the integral index for more than 100 countries for 2009-2014, we have defined comparative efficiency that helps to conclude in which directions countries have implemented reforms more effectively compared to others and in which direction reforms have implemented less efficiently.

Keywords: Development, Economic, Social, Corruption, Program, comparative, index, reforms, rank

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42 Does Women Involvement in Politics Decrease Corruption? A Context Based Approach to the Corruption Rate Index of ASEAN Countries

Authors: Lu Anne A. Godinez, May Claudine I. Gador, Preacious G. Gumolon, Louiechi Von R. Mendoza, Neil Bryan N. Moninio


Gender equality and women empowerment is the third of eight Millennium Development Goals. Understanding corruption’s linkages to gender equality issues and how it impacts women’s empowerment is part of the broader process of advancing women’s rights and understanding the gender dimensions of democratic governance. Taking a long view of political (corruption index) and the social (women empowerment) dimension — a view from 2015 to 2030, a context based forecast was conducted to forecast the ASEAN corruption index in the next 15 years, answering the question: “Does women political involvement decrease corruption rate index of ASEAN countries in the next 15 years?” The study have established that there will be an increase women political involvement in the ASEAN countries in the next 15 years that will cause a drop on corruption rate index. There will be a significant decline on corruption rate index in 2030. This change entails reform not only in the political aspect of progress, but to the social aspect as well. Finally, the political aspect is increasing at a constant rate however a double or triple increase of the social aspect is seen to be the key solution for corruption.

Keywords: Women, Corruption, Rule of Law, educational attainment, women political involvement, gender equity index, economic participation, political empowerment, control of corruption, regulatory quality, voice and accountability government effectiveness, political stability and corruption perception index

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41 Full Disclosure Policy: Transparency in Fiscal Administration

Authors: Joyly Jill Apud


Corruption is an all-encompassing issue worldwide. Many attempts have been done to address such cases especially by the government through increasing transparency. The Philippine government increased the mechanism of transparency by opening to public its financial transactions through Full Disclosure Policy – mandating all local governments to post in their websites all financial transactions (Philippine Public Transparency Reporting Project, 2011). For transparency to be fully realized, the challenge lies in creating a mechanism where the constituents are encouraged to engage as social auditors. In line of the said challenge, the study focused in Davao City, Philippines measuring the respondent’s awareness, access and utilization of Full Disclosure Policy (FDP). Particularly, this study determined the significant difference on the awareness, access and utilization of respondents when grouped according to sector and the significant relationship between respondents’ awareness and in the access and utilization of FDP reports. The study used descriptive-correlation, Mean, Anova and Pearson R as statistical treatment. The 120 respondents are from the different sectors of Davao City. These are the Academe, Youth, LGUs, NGOs, Business, and Church groups. The awareness of the respondents was measured in three main categories: Existence of the Policy, Content of the Policy and the Manner of Publication. Access and Utilization of the FDP reports is divided into three: Budget Reports, Procurement Reports and Special Purpose Fund Reports. Results showed that the respondents are moderately aware of the Policy. Though it manifested that the respondents are aware of the disclosure, they are unaware of the Full Disclosure Policy and Full Disclosure Policy Portal. Moreover, the respondents seldom access and utilize all the FDP reports. Further results revealed that there is a significant difference in the awareness and the access and utilization of FDP when grouped according to sector. Moreover, significant relationship in the awareness and the access and utilization of the FDP is evident. It showed that the higher the awareness on FDP, the higher the level of access and utilization on the FDP reports.

Keywords: Corruption, Participation, e-Governance, Budget Transparency

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40 The State and Poverty Reduction Strategy in Nigeria: An Assessement

Authors: Musa Ogah Ari


Poverty has engaged the attention of the global community. Both the rich and poor countries are concerned about its prevalence and impacts. This phenomenon is more pervasive among developing countries with the greater challenges manifesting among African countries. In Nigeria people live with very low income, and so decent three-square meals, clothes, shelter and other basic necessities are very difficult to come by for most of the population. Qualitative health facilities are seriously lacking to over 160 million population in the state. Equally lacking are educational and social infrastructures that can be available to the people at affordable rates. Roads linking the interior parts of the state are generally in deplorable conditions, particularly in the rainy season. Safe drinking water is hard to come by as the state is not properly placed and equipped to function in full capacity to serve the interest of the people. The challenges of poverty is definitely enormous for both the national and state governments consequently, debilitating scourge of poverty. As the ruling elites in Nigeria claim to reduce the rising profile of poverty through series of policies and programmes, food production, promotion and funding of co-operatives for agriculture, improvement of infrastructures at the rural areas to guaranteeing employment through skill acquisition, assistance of rural women to break away from poverty and the provision of small scale credit facilities to poor members of the public were abysmally low. It is observed that the poverty alleviation programmes and policies failed because they were by nature, character and implementation pro-elites and anti-masses. None of the programmes or policies engaged the rural poor either in terms of formulation or implementation.

Keywords: Corruption, Poverty, Strategies, government policies, the state, social amenities

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39 Corruption and the Entrenchment of the Rule of Law in Nigeria

Authors: Grace Titilayo, Kolawole-Amao


Influence and authority of law within society should be respected by all and sundry regardless of individual status. Rule of law implies that every citizen is subject to the law. In a society governed by the rule of law, government and its officials and agents are also held subject to and accountable under the law. Law should not be employed to suit individual tenets. Where the rule of law operates, the government is the government of law and not of men. Corruption is a factor that kills the growth of the rule of law. Where corruption flourishes, the rule of law fails, simply put, corruption is a threat to the rule of law. It bastardized and undermines the rule of law and good governance principles - where men rule at their discretion rather than the use of the rule of law which makes governance processes ineffective. Corruption is prevalent all over the world, and has extremely far reaching effects. Many of the world’s greatest challenges have been amplified by corruption, for example poverty, unequal distribution of wealth and resources, and world hunger and it weakens the application and the entrenchment of the rule of law. It saps citizens' trust in their governments and undercuts government credibility. This paper will discuss the rule of law in the present democratic system in Nigeria, the impact of corruption on the rule of law in Nigeria and how corruption undermines and subverts the entrenchment of the rule of law in the present day Nigeria.

Keywords: Corruption, Rule of Law, Authority, Nigeria, influence

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38 Anti-Graft Instruments and Their Role in Curbing Corruption: Integrity Pact and Its Impact on Indian Procurement

Authors: Jot Prakash Kaur


The paper aims to showcase that with the introduction of anti-graft instruments and willingness of the governments towards their implementation, a significant change can be witnessed in the anti-corruption landscape of any country. Since the past decade anti-graft instruments have been introduced by several international non-governmental organizations with the vision of curbing corruption. Transparency International’s ‘Integrity Pact’ has been one such initiative. Integrity Pact has been described as a tool for preventing corruption in public contracting. Integrity Pact has found its relevance in a developing country like India where public procurement constitutes 25-30 percent of Gross Domestic Product. Corruption in public procurement has been a cause of concern even though India has in place a whole architecture of rules and regulations governing public procurement. Integrity Pact was first adopted by a leading Oil and Gas government company in 2006. Till May 2015, over ninety organizations had adopted Integrity Pact, of which majority of them are central government units. The methodology undertaken to understand impact of Integrity Pact on Public procurement is through analyzing information received from important stakeholders of the instrument. Government, information was sought through Right to Information Act 2005 about the details of adoption of this instrument by various government organizations and departments. Contractor, Company websites and annual reports were used to find out the steps taken towards implementation of Integrity Pact. Civil Society, Transparency International India’s resource materials which include publications and reports on Integrity Pact were also used to understand the impact of Integrity Pact. Some of the findings of the study include organizations adopting Integrity pacts in all kinds of contracts such that 90% of their procurements fall under Integrity Pact. Indian State governments have found merit in Integrity Pact and have adopted it in their procurement contracts. Integrity Pact has been instrumental in creating a brand image of companies. External Monitors, an essential feature of Integrity Pact have emerged as arbitrators for the bidders and are the first line of procurement auditors for the organizations. India has cancelled two defense contracts finding it conflicting with the provisions of Integrity Pact. Some of the clauses of Integrity Pact have been included in the proposed Public Procurement legislation. Integrity Pact has slowly but steadily grown to become an integral part of big ticket procurement in India. Government’s commitment to implement Integrity Pact has changed the way in which public procurement is conducted in India. Public Procurement was a segment infested with corruption but with the adoption of Integrity Pact a number of clean up acts have been performed to make procurement transparent. The paper is divided in five sections. First section elaborates on Integrity Pact. Second section talks about stakeholders of the instrument and the role it plays in its implementation. Third section talks about the efforts taken by the government to implement Integrity Pact in India. Fourth section talks about the role of External Monitor as Arbitrator. The final section puts forth suggestions to strengthen the existing form of Integrity Pact and increase its reach.

Keywords: Corruption, Procurement, integrity pact, vigilance

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37 Corruption, a Prelude to Problems of Governance in Pakistan

Authors: Umbreen Javaid


Pakistan’s experience with nascent, yet to be evolved democratic institutions inherited from the British Empire, has not been a pleasant one when evaluated in terms of good governance, development, and success of anti-corruption mechanisms. The country has remained entangled in a vicious circle of accumulating large budget deficits, dwindling economy, low foreign direct investment, political instability, and rising terrorism. It is thus not surprising that no account of the state aimed at analyzing the six-decade journey since her inception is replete with negative connotations like dysfunctional, failed, fragile or weak state. The limited pool of experience of handling democratic institutions and lack of political will be on the part of country’s political elite to transform the society on democratic footings have left Pakistan as a “limited access order” state. The widespread illiteracy becomes a double edge sword when a largely illiterate electorate elects representatives who mostly come from a semi-educated background with the limited understanding of democratic minutiae and little or no proclivity to resist monetary allures. The prevalence of culture of patronage with widespread poverty coupled with absence of a comprehensive system of investigating, prosecuting and adjudicating cases of corruption encourage the practice that has been eroding the state’s foundations since her inception owing to the unwillingness of the traditional elites who have been strongly resistant towards any attempts aimed at disseminating powers. An analytical study of the historical, political, cultural, economic and administrative hurdles that have been at work in impeding Pakistan’s transition to a democratic, accountable society would be instrumental in understanding the issue of widespread plague of corruption and state’s inefficiency to cope with it effectively. The issue of corruption in Pakistan becomes more important when seen in the context of her vulnerability to terrorism and religious extremism. In this regard, Pakistan needs to learn a lot from developed countries in order to evolve a comprehensive strategy for combating and preventing this pressing issue.

Keywords: Corruption, Pakistan, Anti-Corruption, limited access order

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36 'It’s a Very, Very New Old South Africa…': Exploring Some Race, Corruption and Protest Issues in Zakes Mda’s 'Our Lady of Benoni'

Authors: Bongani Clearance Thela


It seems that theatre remains a practical method for mobilising people and their ideologies; and South African literature has strengthened over the years as a result of the events which took place during both the Apartheid and Post-Apartheid eras. Hence, the problem noted in this study is that, generally, many people seem to believe that the issues which were a concern during Apartheid times in South Africa no longer exist in Post-Apartheid South Africa, whereas, it is seems that they still do. Post-Apartheid playwrights such as Zakes Mda among others, explore these issues in their works. There are common themes between the two periods, for this reason, distinction can only be drawn in terms of the context. Therefore, this study explores solutions offered by the themes of protest, corruption and race in Zakes Mda’s Our Lady of Benoni. The study uses real events and Mda’s play to reveal that there is a reinvention of Apartheid times’ issues into Post-Apartheid times’ issues. Moreover, the theme of race is explored with reference to class issues. Also, the study aims at highlighting some distinctions between the Apartheid period and Post-Apartheid period as shown by the playwright, Zakes Mda’s fictitious version as seen in some of his characters in the play. Theatre in general has always protested, it is either against an issue or for an issue; therefore, this paper will also explore the various ways in which the theme of protest is undertaken in the study of theatre. Respectively, the paper looks in the literal protest found in Mda’s Our Lady of Benoni in order to provide critical understanding with regard to the notion undertaken in this study. The paper goes on to provide an alternative discussion of the theme of protest; it critically evaluates issues such as corruption and race in terms of class that the playwright, Mda addresses in his play. In conclusion, this paper will use other relevant examples other than Mda’s drama, Our Lady of Benoni, in order to prove that there is a reinvention of Apartheid issues in Post-Apartheid issues in South Africa.

Keywords: Corruption, Race, Class, Protest

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35 Mapping the Ties That Bind: Corruption, Political Alienation and Culture of Corruption

Authors: Mabrouka Immhemd Al-Werfalli


How are political alienation and corruption related? What is the nature of relationship linking corruption and political alienation? When citizens withdraw their loyalty from their political regime and leaders, they highlight their alienation from them. The link between corruption and political alienation is that the individual would intentionally involve in corruption particularly when a state of lawlessness prevails. This paper represents a challenge- how to gauge a link between political alienation culture of corruption and corruption. It aims to highlight the political alienation related factors that determine the levels of corruption in Libya. One of the most prominent reasons for the Libyan uprising in February 2011 was the pervasiveness of corruption. Corruption in Libya remained a significant problem despite a robust anti-corruption discourse and harsh legislation undertaken by the previous regime. The long-standing political corruption in Libya has offered ample opportunity for the evolution of a structure of negative values and morals. This has formed what is termed as a ‘culture of corruption’, which has induced people to accept and justify corrupt behavior. The paper is a part of a study concerns the phenomenon of political alienation in Libya which was based on a survey conducted in 2001 in the city of Benghazi. The finding shows that abuse of power, embezzlement and misuse of public funds for personal enrichment was thought to be rife within public bodies, institutions, companies, factories, banks and enterprises owned entirely or partially by the state.

Keywords: Corruption, Anti-Corruption, Libya, culture of corruption, political alienation, participation in corruption, abuse of power, embezzlement

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34 Factors Affecting Corruption in Ethiopia from Higher Education Instructors' Perceptions: Evidence from Business and Economics College, Bahir Dar University

Authors: Asmamaw Yigzaw Chirkos


Corruption increasingly has become one of the greatest challenges of the contemporary world. It undermines good government and rule of law and in turn leads to the misallocation of public resources, harms both the private and public sector and particularly hurts the poor. Corruption is found everywhere, but it is deep-rooted in the poor countries of Sub-Saharan Africa countries. Corruption in developing countries continues to be one of the greatest factors of poverty and underdevelopment. As it is the case in other developing countries, in Ethiopia, the culture of corruption has grown roots in the society at large and become endemic. Institutions, which were designed for the regulation of the relationships between citizens and the State, are being used instead for the personal enrichment of public officials and other corrupt private agents. This paper, therefore, assesses the major factors affecting Corruption in Ethiopia from higher education instructors’ Perceptions with special reference to Business and Economics College of Bahir Dar University. The findings of the study support several previously conducted studies in that each factor examined had a moderate to high positive correlation with corruption, where r ranged between .35 and .54. In addition, the 13 variables together explain about 37 percent change in perceived corruption in Ethiopia (R²= .37).

Keywords: Corruption, factors, Ethiopia, Bahir Dar university, instructors perceptions

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33 Effects of Corruption and Logistics Performance Inefficiencies on Container Throughput: The Latin America Case

Authors: Fernando Seabra, Giulia P. Flores, Karolina C. Gomes


Trade liberalizations measures, as import tariff cuts, are not a sufficient trigger for trade growth. Given that price margins are narrow, traders and cargo operators tend to opt out of markets where the process of goods clearance is slow and costly. Excess paperwork and slow customs dispatch not only lead to institutional breakdowns and corruption but also to increasing transaction cost and trade constraints. The objective of this paper is, therefore, two-fold: First, to evaluate the relationship between institutional and infrastructural performance indexes and trade growth in container throughput; and, second, to investigate the causes for differences in container demurrage and detention fees in Latin American countries (using other emerging countries as benchmarking). The analysis is focused on manufactured goods, typically transported by containers. Institutional and infrastructure bottlenecks and, therefore, the country logistics efficiency – measured by the Logistics Performance Index (LPI, World Bank-WB) – are compared with other indexes, such as the Doing Business index (WB) and the Corruption Perception Index (Transparency International). The main results based on the comparison between Latin American countries and the others emerging countries point out in that the growth in containers trade is directly related to LPI performance. It has also been found that the main hypothesis is valid as aspects that more specifically identify trade facilitation and corruption are significant drivers of logistics performance. The exam of port efficiency (demurrage and detention fees) has demonstrated that not necessarily higher level of efficiency is related to lower charges; however, reductions in fees have been more significant within non-Latin American emerging countries.

Keywords: Corruption, Latin America, container throughput, logistics performance index

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