Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Corrosion Resistance Related Abstracts

14 The Corrosion Resistance of P/M Alumix 431D Compacts

Authors: J. Kazior, A. Szewczyk-Nykiel, T. Pieczonka, M. Laska


Aluminium alloys are an important class of engineering materials for structural applications. This is due to the fact that these alloys have many interesting properties, namely, low density, high ratio of strength to density, good thermal and electrical conductivity, good corrosion resistance as well as extensive capabilities for shaping processes. In case of classical PM technology a particular attention should be paid to the selection of appropriate parameters of compacting and sintering processes and to keeping them. The latter need arises from the high sensitivity of aluminium based alloy powders on any fluctuation of technological parameters, in particular those related to the temperature-time profile and gas flow. Only then the desired sintered compacts with residual porosity may be produced. Except high mechanical properties, the other profitable properties of almost fully dense sintered components could be expected. Among them is corrosion resistance, rarely investigated on PM aluminium alloys. Thus, in the current study the Alumix 431/D commercial, press-ready grade powder was used for this purpose. Sintered compacts made of it in different conditions (isothermal sintering temperature, gas flow rate) were subjected to corrosion experiments in 0,1 M and 0,5 M NaCl solutions. The potentiodynamic curves were used to establish parameters characterising the corrosion resistance of sintered Alumix 431/D powder, namely, the corrosion potential, the corrosion current density, the polarization resistance, the breakdown potential. The highest value of polarization resistance, the lowest value of corrosion current density and the most positive corrosion potential was obtained for Alumix431/D powder sintered at 600°C and for highest protective gas flow rate.

Keywords: Industry, sintering, Corrosion Resistance, Aluminium Alloys

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13 Effect of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on Aluminium Alloy Used for Making Heat Exchangers in Automotive HVAC System

Authors: H. Mohit


In automotive air conditioning system, two heat exchangers are used as evaporator and condenser which are placed inside the bonnet of a car in a compact manner. The dust particles from outside and moisture content produced during the process leads to formation of impure particles on the surface of evaporator coil. But in condenser coil, the impure particles are settling down due to dust from atmosphere. The major problem of the heat exchanger used in automotive air conditioning is leakage of refrigerant due to corrosion. This effect of corrosion will lead to damage on the surface of heat exchanger and leakage of refrigerant from the system. To protect from corrosion, coatings are applied on its surfaces. Nowadays, to improve the corrosion resistance of these heat exchangers, hydrophilic coatings are used, which is very expensive. Cryogenic treatment is one method which involves the treatment of materials below -150 °C using the cryogenic fluid such as liquid nitrogen. In this project work, a study of improvement in corrosion resistance of materials of aluminium alloys of various grades as AA 1100, AA 6061, AA 6063 and AA 2024 that are mainly used for fin and tube heat exchangers in automotive air conditioning system is made. In total, five different processes are selected for these grades of aluminium alloy and various parameters like corrosion rate, dimensional stability, hardness and microstructure are measured. The improvements were observed in these parameters while comparing it with conventional heat treatment process.

Keywords: Materials Science, Corrosion Resistance, cryogenic treatment, dimensional stability

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12 Effects of Alkaline Pretreatment Parameters on the Corrosion Resistance and ‎Wettability of Magnesium Implant

Authors: Mahtab Assadian, Mohd Hasbullah Idris, Mostafa Rezazadeh Shirdar, Mohammad Mahdi Taheri, ‎S. Izman


Corrosion behaviour and surface roughness of magnesium substrate were investigated after NaOH pretreatment in different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 molar) and duration of (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h). Creation of Mg(OH)2 barrier layer after pretreatment enhanced corrostion resistance as well as wettability of substrate surface. Characterization including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to detect the existence of this barrier layer. Surface roughness and wettability of substrate was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement respectively. It is found that magnesium treated by 1M NaOH for 30 min reveals higher corrosion resistance and lower water contact angle of substrate surface. In addition, this investigation indicates that pH value of SBF solution is strongly influenced by different time and concentration of alkaline pretreatment.

Keywords: Corrosion Resistance, Magnesium, Wettability, NaOH pretreatment

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11 Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of New Developed Titanium Alloys in Ringer’s Solution

Authors: Yasser M. Abd-elrhman, Mohamed A. Gepreel, Kiochi Nakamura, Ahmed Abd El-Moneim, Sengo Kobayashi, Mervat M. Ibrahim


Titanium alloys are known as highly bio compatible metallic materials due to their high strength, low elastic modulus, and high corrosion resistance in biological media. Besides other important material features, the corrosion parameters and corrosion products are responsible for limiting the biological and chemical bio compatibility of metallic materials that produce undesirable reactions in implant-adjacent and/or more distant tissues. Electrochemical corrosion behaviors of novel beta titanium alloys, Ti-4.7Mo-4.5Fe, Ti-3Mo-0.5Fe, and Ti-2Mo-0.5Fe were characterized in naturally aerated Ringer’s solution at room temperature compared with common used biomedical titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys were investigated through open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization measurements and optical microscope (OM). A high corrosion resistance was obtained for all alloys due to the stable passive film formed on their surfaces. The new present alloys are promising metallic biomaterials for the future, owing to their very low elastic modulus and good corrosion resistance capabilities.

Keywords: Corrosion Resistance, Titanium Alloys, Ringer’s solution, electrochemical corrosion

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10 Effect of Al Particles on Corrosion Resistance of Electrodeposited Ni-Al Composite Coatings

Authors: M. Adabi, A. Amadeh


Electrodeposition is known as a relatively economical and simple technique commonly used for preparation of metallic and composite coatings. Electrodeposited composite coatings produced by dispersion of particles into the metal matrix show better properties than pure metallic coatings. In recent years, many researches were carried out on Ni matrix coatings reinforced by ceramic particles such as Ni-SiC, Ni-Al2O3, Ni-WC, Ni-CeO2, Ni-ZrO2, Ni-TiO2 to improve their corrosion and wear resistance. However, little effort has been made on incorporation of metal particles into Ni matrix. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce Ni–Al composite coating on 6061 aluminum alloy by pulse plating and to investigate the effects of electrodeposition parameters, e.g. concentration Al particles in the electrolyte and current density, on composition and corrosion resistance of the composite coatings. The morphology and corrosion behavior of the coated 6061 Al alloys were studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and potentiodynamic polarization method, respectively. The results indicated that the addition of Al particles up to 50 g L-1 increased the amount of co-deposited Al particles in nickel matrix. It is also observed that the incorporation of Al particles decreased with increasing current density. Meanwhile, the corrosion resistance of the coatings shows an increment by increasing the content of Al particles into nickel matrix.

Keywords: Corrosion Resistance, current density, Ni-Al composite coating

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9 Microstructural and Corrosion Analysis of a Ti-Nb-Ta Biocompatible Dental Implant Alloy

Authors: Roxana Maria Angelescu, Doina Răducanu, Mariana Lucia Angelescu, Ion Cincă, Vasile Dănuţ Cojocaru, Cosmin Cotruț, Şerban Nicolae


Titanium alloys are often used for biomedical applications as hard tissue replacements, such as: orthopedic implants, spinal fixation devices and dental implants. Their advantages are well known and demonstrated: excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility and good corrosion resistance, but it is also known that the main disadvantage of the metallic materials is their tendency of corrosion in in-vivo environments. In 1987, titanium was found to be the only metallic biomaterial that osseointegrates. The aim of this study was to investigate the microstructure and the corrosion behavior of the Ti-20Nb-5Ta wt% alloy. In this case Nb stabilizes the β-Ti structure and Ta is a highly passivating metal. The as studied alloy was melt under argon protective atmosphere in a levitation induction melting furnace, type FIVE CELES - MP25, with a nominal power of 25 kW and a melting capacity of 30 cm3. The microstructure of the as studied alloy was analyzed by using the electronic microscope Tescan Vega II-XMU. The phase structure of the as studied alloy was determined, as well as the crystalline grain size (100-200µ). To determine the corrosion behavior of the as studied alloy, the technique used was the linear polarization, with the PARSTAT 4000 potentiostat, produced by Princeton Applied Research; potentiodynamic curves were obtained with the VeraStudio v.2.4.2 software.

Keywords: Microstructure, Corrosion Resistance, Titanium Alloys

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8 Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Zn-Ni-Al2O3 Nano Composite Coatings

Authors: Soroor Ghaziof, Wei Gao


Zn alloy and composite coatings are widely used in buildings and structures, automobile and fasteners industries to protect steel component from corrosion. In this paper, Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings were electrodeposited on mild steel using a novel sol enhanced electroplating method. In this method, transparent Al2O3 sol was added into the acidic Zn-Ni bath to produced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings. The effect of alumina sol on the electrodeposition process, and coating properties was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, XRD, ESEM and Tafel test. Results from XRD tests showed that the structure of all coatings was single γ-Ni5Zn21 phase. Cyclic voltammetry results showed that the electrodeposition overpotential was lower in the presence of alumina sol in the bath, and caused the reduction potential of Zn-Ni to shift to more positive values. Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano composite coatings produced more uniform and compact deposits, with fine grained microstructure when compared to Zn-Ni coatings. The corrosion resistance of Zn-Ni coatings was improved significantly by incorporation of alumina nano particles into the coatings.

Keywords: steel, Corrosion Resistance, sol-enhanced electroplating, Zn-Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings

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7 Bond Strength of Nano Silica Concrete Subjected to Corrosive Environments

Authors: Muhammad S. El-Feky, Mohamed I. Serag, Ahmed M. Yasien, Hala Elkady


Reinforced concrete requires steel bars in order to provide the tensile strength that is needed in structural concrete. However, when steel bars corrode, a loss in bond between the concrete and the steel bars occurs due to the formation of rust on the bars surface. Permeability of concrete is a fundamental property in perspective of the durability of concrete as it represents the ease with which water or other fluids can move through concrete, subsequently transporting corrosive agents. Nanotechnology is a standout amongst active research zones that envelops varies disciplines including construction materials. The application of nanotechnology in the corrosion protection of metal has lately gained momentum as nano scale particles have ultimate physical, chemical and physicochemical properties, which may enhance the corrosion protection in comparison to large size materials. The presented research aims to study the bond performance of concrete containing relatively high volume nano silica (up to 4.5%) exposed to corrosive conditions. This was extensively studied through tensile, bond strengths as well as the permeability of nano silica concrete. In addition micro-structural analysis was performed in order to evaluate the effect of nano silica on the properties of concrete at both; the micro and nano levels. The results revealed that by the addition of nano silica, the permeability of concrete mixes decreased significantly to reach about 50% of the control mix by the addition of 4.5% nano silica. As for the corrosion resistance, the nano silica concrete is comparatively higher resistance than ordinary concrete. Increasing Nano Silica percentage increased significantly the critical time corresponding to a metal loss (equal to 50 ϻm) which usually corresponding to the first concrete cracking due to the corrosion of reinforcement to reach about 49 years instead of 40 years as for the normal concrete. Finally, increasing nano Silica percentage increased significantly the residual bond strength of concrete after being subjected to corrosive environment. After being subjected to corrosive environment, the pullout behavior was observed for the bars embedded in all of the mixes instead of the splitting behavior that was observed before being corroded. Adding 4.5% nano silica in concrete increased the residual bond strength to reach 79% instead of 27% only as compared to control mix (0%W) before the subjection of the corrosive environment. From the conducted study we can conclude that the Nano silica proved to be a significant pore blocker material.

Keywords: Concrete, Permeability, Corrosion Resistance, bond strength, nano silica

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6 Characterization of AlOOH Film Containing Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Prepared on Al Alloy by Steam Coating

Authors: Takahiro Ishizaki, Ai Serizawa, Kotaro Mori


Al alloys have been used as advanced structural materials in automobile and railway industries because of excellent physical and mechanical properties such as low density, good heat conductivity, and high specific strength. Their low corrosion resistance, however, limits their use in the corrosive environment. To improve the corrosion resistance of the Al alloys, the development of a novel coating technology has been highly desirable. Chemical conversion methods using layered double hydroxide (LDH) have attracted much attention because the LDH can suppress corrosion reaction due to their trapping ability of corrosive anions such as Cl- between layers. In this presentation, we report on a novel preparation method of AlOOH film containing Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) on Al alloy by steam coating. The corrosion resistance of the composite film including LDH was especially focused. Al-Mg-Si alloy was used as the substrate. The substrates were ultrasonically cleaned in ethanol for 10 min. The cleaned substrates were set in the autoclave with a 100 mL capacity. 20 ml of ultrapure water was located at the bottom of the autoclave to produce steam. The autoclave was heated up to a temperature of 100 to 200 °C, and then held at this temperature for up to 48 h, and was subsequently cooled naturally to room temperature, resulting in the formation of anticorrosive films on Al alloys. The resultant films were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM and electrochemical measurements. FE-SEM image of film surface treated at 180 °C for 48 h demonstrated that needle-like nanostructure was densely formed on the surface. XRD patterns revealed that the film formed on the Al alloys by steam coating was composed of crystal AlOOH and Mg-Al LDH. The corrosion resistance of the film was evaluated using electrochemical measurements. The potentiodynamic polarization curves of the film coated and uncoated substrates of Al-Mg-Si alloy after immersion in the 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution for 30 min revealed that the corrosion current density, jcorr, of the film coated sample decreased by more than two orders of magnitude as compared to the uncoated sample, indicating that the corrosion resistance of the substrates of Al-Mg-Si alloy were improved by the formation of the anticorrosive film via steam coating.

Keywords: Corrosion Resistance, Aluminum Alloy, boehmite, steam process

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5 Corrosion Resistance of 17-4 Precipitation Hardenable Stainless Steel Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Michella Alnajjar, Frederic Christien, Krzysztof Wolski, Cedric Bosch


Additive manufacturing (AM) has gained more interest in the past few years because it allows 3D parts often having a complex geometry to be directly fabricated, layer by layer according to a CAD model. One of the AM techniques is the selective laser melting (SLM) which is based on powder bed fusion. In this work, the corrosion resistance of 17-4 PH steel obtained by SLM is investigated. Wrought 17-4 PH steel is a martensitic precipitation hardenable stainless steel. It is widely used in a variety of applications such as aerospace, medical and food industries, due to its high strength and relatively good corrosion resistance. However, the combined findings of X-Ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) proved that SLM-ed 17-4 PH steel has a fully ferritic microstructure, more specifically δ ferrite. The microstructure consists of coarse ferritic grains elongated along the build direction, with a pronounced solidification crystallographic texture. These results were associated with the high cooling and heating rates experienced throughout the SLM process (10⁵-10⁶ K/s) that suppressed the austenite formation and produced a 'by-passing' phenomenon of this phase during the numerous thermal cycles. Furthermore, EDS measurements revealed a uniform distribution of elements without any dendritic structure. The extremely high cooling kinetics induced a diffusionless solidification, resulting in a homogeneous elemental composition. Consequently, the corrosion properties of this steel are altered from that of conventional ones. By using electrochemical means, it was found that SLM-ed 17-4 PH is more resistant to general corrosion than the wrought steel. However, the SLM-ed material exhibits metastable pitting due to its high porosity density. In addition, the hydrogen embrittlement of SLM-ed 17-4 PH steel is investigated, and a correlation between its behavior and the observed microstructure is made.

Keywords: Corrosion Resistance, Selective Laser Melting, Hydrogen embrittlement

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4 Waste-Based Surface Modification to Enhance Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Bronze Alloy

Authors: Wilson Handoko, Farshid Pahlevani, Isha Singla, Himanish Kumar, Veena Sahajwalla


Aluminium bronze alloys are well known for their superior abrasion, tensile strength and non-magnetic properties, due to the co-presence of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) as alloying elements and have been commonly used in many industrial applications. However, continuous exposure to the marine environment will accelerate the risk of a tendency to Al bronze alloys parts failures. Although a higher level of corrosion resistance properties can be achieved by modifying its elemental composition, it will come at a price through the complex manufacturing process and increases the risk of reducing the ductility of Al bronze alloy. In this research, the use of ironmaking slag and waste plastic as the input source for surface modification of Al bronze alloy was implemented. Microstructural analysis conducted using polarised light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). An electrochemical corrosion test was carried out through Tafel polarisation method and calculation of protection efficiency against the base-material was determined. Results have indicated that uniform modified surface which is as the result of selective diffusion process, has enhanced corrosion resistance properties up to 12.67%. This approach has opened a new opportunity to access various industrial utilisations in commercial scale through minimising the dependency on natural resources by transforming waste sources into the protective coating in environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways.

Keywords: Corrosion Resistance, Tafel polarisation, aluminium bronze, waste-based surface modification

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3 Diamond-Like Carbon-Based Structures as Functional Layers on Shape-Memory Alloy for Orthopedic Applications

Authors: Marek Hebda, Piotr Jablonski, Krzysztof Mars, Wiktor Niemiec, Agnieszka Kyziol, Halina Krawiec, Karol Kyziol


NiTi alloys, possessing unique mechanical properties such as pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect (SME), are suitable for many applications, including implanthology and biomedical devices. Additionally, these alloys have similar values of elastic modulus to those of human bones, what is very important in orthopedics. Unfortunately, the environment of physiological fluids in vivo causes unfavorable release of Ni ions, which in turn may lead to metalosis as well as allergic reactions and toxic effects in the body. For these reasons, the surface properties of NiTi alloys should be improved to increase corrosion resistance, taking into account biological properties, i.e. excellent biocompatibility. The prospective in this respect are layers based on DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) structures, which are an attractive solution for many applications in implanthology. These coatings (DLC), usually obtained by PVD (Physical Vapour Deposition) and PA CVD (Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition) methods, can be also modified by doping with other elements like silicon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, titanium and silver. These methods, in combination with a suitably designed structure of the layers, allow the possibility co-decide about physicochemical and biological properties of modified surfaces. Mentioned techniques provide specific physicochemical properties of substrates surface in a single technological process. In this work, the following types of layers based on DLC structures (incl. Si-DLC or Si/N-DLC) were proposed as prospective and attractive approach in surface functionalization of shape memory alloy. Nitinol substrates were modified in plasma conditions, using RF CVD (Radio Frequency Chemical Vapour Deposition). The influence of plasma treatment on the useful properties of modified substrates after deposition DLC layers doped with silica and/or nitrogen atoms, as well as only pre-treated in O2 NH3 plasma atmosphere in a RF reactor was determined. The microstructure and topography of the modified surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, the atomic structure of coatings was characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy. The research also included the evaluation of surface wettability, surface energy as well as the characteristics of selected mechanical and biological properties of the layers. In addition, the corrosion properties of alloys after and before modification in the physiological saline were also investigated. In order to determine the corrosion resistance of NiTi in the Ringer solution, the potentiodynamic polarization curves (LSV – Linear Sweep Voltamperometry) were plotted. Furthermore, the evolution of corrosion potential versus immersion time of TiNi alloy in Ringer solution was performed. Based on all carried out research, the usefullness of proposed modifications of nitinol for medical applications was assessed. It was shown, inter alia, that the obtained Si-DLC layers on the surface of NiTi alloy exhibit a characteristic complex microstructure, increased surface development, which is an important aspect in improving the osteointegration of an implant. Furthermore, the modified alloy exhibits biocompatibility, the transfer of the metal (Ni, Ti) to Ringer’s solution is clearly limited.

Keywords: Corrosion Resistance, bioactive coatings, doped DLC structure, NiTi alloy, RF CVD

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2 Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I

Authors: M. F. Alrubaie, S. A. Salih, W. A. Abbas


Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.

Keywords: Durability, chloride attack, Corrosion Resistance, corrosion inhibitor, SIFCON, chloride environments, slurry infiltrated fiber concrete

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1 Development and Characterization of a Fluorinated-Ethylene-Propylene (FEP) Polymer Coating on Brass Faucets

Authors: S. Zouari, H. Ghorbel, H. Liao, R. Elleuch


Research is increasingly moving towards the use of surface treatment processes to limit environmental effects. Electrolytic plating has traditionally been seen as a way to protect brass products, especially faucets, from mechanical and chemical damage. However, this method was not effective industrially, economically and ecologically. The aim of this work is to develop non-usual polymer coatings for brass faucets in order to improve the performance of brass and to replace electrolytic chromium coatings, thereby reducing environmental impact. Fluorinated-Ethylene-Propylene polymer (FEP) was chosen for its excellent mechanical and chemical properties and its good environmental performance. This coating was developed by spraying (painting) process onto brass substrates. The coatings obtained were characterized using a scanning electron microscope to evaluate the morphology of the deposits and their porosity rate. Grid adhesion, surface energy and corrosion tests (salt spray) were also performed to evaluate the mechanical and chemical behavior of these coatings properly. The results show that the deposits obtained have a homogeneous microstructure with a very low porosity rate. The results of the grid adhesion test prove the conformity of the test according to the NF077 standard. The coatings have a hydrophobic character following the low values of surface energy obtained and a very good resistance to corrosion. These results are interesting and may represent real technological issues in the industrial field.

Keywords: Adhesion, Corrosion Resistance, Surface energy, brass, FEP coatings, spraying process

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