Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

correlations Related Abstracts

6 Correlations in the Ising Kagome Lattice

Authors: Antonio Aguilar Aguilar, Eliezer Braun Guitler


Using a previously developed procedure and with the aid of algebraic software, a two-dimensional generalized Ising model with a 4×2 unitary cell (UC), we obtain a Kagome Lattice with twelve different spin-spin values of interaction, in order to determine the partition function per spin L(T). From the partition function we can study the magnetic behavior of the system. Because of the competition phenomenon between spins, a very complex behavior among them in a variety of magnetic states can be observed.

Keywords: correlations, Ising, Kagome, exact functions

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5 Correlation of Material Mechanical Characteristics Obtained by Means of Standardized and Miniature Test Specimens

Authors: Vaclav Mentl, P. Zlabek, J. Volak


New methods of mechanical testing were developed recently that are based on making use of miniature test specimens (e.g. Small Punch Test). The most important advantage of these method is the nearly non-destructive withdrawal of test material and small size of test specimen what is interesting in cases of remaining lifetime assessment when a sufficient volume of the representative material cannot be withdrawn of the component in question. In opposite, the most important disadvantage of such methods stems from the necessity to correlate test results with the results of standardised test procedures and to build up a database of material data in service. The correlations among the miniature test specimen data and the results of standardised tests are necessary. The paper describes the results of fatigue tests performed on miniature tests specimens in comparison with traditional fatigue tests for several steels applied in power producing industry. Special miniature test specimens fixtures were designed and manufactured for the purposes of fatigue testing at the Zwick/Roell 10HPF5100 testing machine. The miniature test specimens were produced of the traditional test specimens. Seven different steels were fatigue loaded (R = 0.1) at room temperature.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, correlations, miniature test specimens, small punch test, micro-tensile test, mini-charpy impact test

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4 Hydrodynamics of Selected Ethiopian Rift Lakes

Authors: Kassaye Bewketu Zellelew


The Main Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes suffer from water level fluctuations due to several natural and anthropocentric factors. Lakes located at terminal positions are highly affected by the fluctuations. These fluctuations are disturbing the stability of ecosystems, putting very serious impacts on the lives of many animals and plants around the lakes. Hence, studying the hydrodynamics of the lakes was found to be very essential. The main purpose of this study is to find the most significant factors that contribute to the water level fluctuations and also to quantify the fluctuations so as to identify lakes that need special attention. The research method included correlations, least squares regressions, multi-temporal satellite image analysis and land use change assessment. The results of the study revealed that much of the fluctuations, specially, in Central Ethiopian Rift are caused by human activities. Lakes Abiyata, Chamo, Ziway and Langano are declining while Abaya and Hawassa are rising. Among the studied lakes, Abiyata is drastically reduced in size (about 28% of its area in 1986) due to both human activities (most dominant ones) and natural factors. The other seriously affected lake is Chamo with about 11% reduction in its area between 1986 and 2010. Lake Abaya was found to be relatively stable during this period (showed only a 0.8% increase in its area). Concerned bodies should pay special attention to and take appropriate measures on lakes Abiyata, Chamo and Hawassa.

Keywords: Hydrodynamics, correlations, lake level fluctuation, landsat satellite images

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3 Complex Network Analysis of Seismicity and Applications to Short-Term Earthquake Forecasting

Authors: Kahlil Fredrick Cui, Marissa Pastor


Earthquakes are complex phenomena, exhibiting complex correlations in space, time, and magnitude. Recently, the concept of complex networks has been used to shed light on the statistical and dynamical characteristics of regional seismicity. In this work, we study the relationships and interactions of seismic regions in Chile, Japan, and the Philippines through weighted and directed complex network analysis. Geographical areas are digitized into cells of fixed dimensions which in turn become the nodes of the network when an earthquake has occurred therein. Nodes are linked if a correlation exists between them as determined and measured by a correlation metric. The networks are found to be scale-free, exhibiting power-law behavior in the distributions of their different centrality measures: the in- and out-degree and the in- and out-strength. The evidence is also found of preferential interaction between seismically active regions through their degree-degree correlations suggesting that seismicity is dictated by the activity of a few active regions. The importance of a seismic region to the overall seismicity is measured using a generalized centrality metric taken to be an indicator of its activity or passivity. The spatial distribution of earthquake activity indicates the areas where strong earthquakes have occurred in the past while the passivity distribution points toward the likely locations an earthquake would occur whenever another one happens elsewhere. Finally, we propose a method that would project the location of the next possible earthquake using the generalized centralities coupled with correlations calculated between the latest earthquakes and a geographical point in the future.

Keywords: Earthquake, Complex Networks, Hazard Assessment, correlations

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2 The Aromaticity of P-Substituted O-(N-Dialkyl)Aminomethylphenols

Authors: Khodzhaberdi Allaberdiev


Aromaticity, one of the most important concepts in organic chemistry, has attracted considerable interest from both experimentalists and theoreticians. The geometry optimization of p-substituted o-(N-dialkyl)aminomethylphenols, o-DEAMPH XC₆ H₅CH ₂Y (X=p-OCH₃, CH₃, H, F, Cl, Br, COCH₃, COOCH₃, CHO, CN and NO₂, Y=o-N (C₂H₅)₂, o-DEAMPHs have been performed in the gas phase using the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level. Aromaticities of the considered molecules were investigated using different indices included geometrical (HOMA and Bird), electronic (FLU, PDI and SA) magnetic (NICS(0), NICS(1) and NICS(1)zz indices. The linear dependencies were obtained between some aromaticity indices. The best correlation is observed between the Bird and PDI indices (R² =0.9240). However, not all types of indices or even different indices within the same type correlate well among each other. Surprisingly, for studied molecules in which geometrical and electronic cannot correctly give the aromaticity of ring, the magnetism based index successfully predicts the aromaticity of systems. 1H NMR spectra of compounds were obtained at B3LYP/6–311+G(d,p) level using the GIAO method. Excellent linear correlation (R²= 0.9996) between values the chemical shift of hydrogen atom obtained experimentally of 1H NMR and calculated using B3LYP/6–311+G(d,p) demonstrates a good assignment of the experimental values chemical shift to the calculated structures of o-DEAMPH. It is found that the best linear correlation with the Hammett substituent constants is observed for the NICS(1)zz index in comparison with the other indices: NICS(1)zz =-21.5552+1,1070 σp- (R²=0.9394). The presence intramolecular hydrogen bond in the studied molecules also revealed changes the aromatic character of substituted o-DEAMPHs. The HOMA index predicted for R=NO2 the reduction in the π-electron delocalization of 3.4% was about double that observed for p-nitrophenol. The influence intramolecular H-bonding on aromaticity of benzene ring in the ground state (S0) are described by equations between NICS(1)zz and H-bond energies: experimental, Eₑₓₚ, predicted IR spectroscopical, Eν and topological, EQTAIM with correlation coefficients R² =0.9666, R² =0.9028 and R² =0.8864, respectively. The NICS(1)zz index also correlates with usual descriptors of the hydrogen bond, while the other indices do not give any meaningful results. The influence of the intramolecular H-bonding formation on the aromaticity of some substituted o-DEAMPHs is criteria to consider the multidimensional character of aromaticity. The linear relationships as well as revealed between NICS(1)zz and both pyramidality nitrogen atom, ΣN(C₂H₅)₂ and dihedral angle, φ CAr – CAr -CCH₂ –N, to characterizing out-of-plane properties.These results demonstrated the nonplanar structure of o-DEAMPHs. Finally, when considering dependencies of NICS(1)zz, were excluded data for R=H, because the NICS(1) and NICS(1)zz values are the most negative for unsubstituted DEAMPH, indicating its highest aromaticity; that was not the case for NICS(0) index.

Keywords: dft, Aromaticity, correlations, aminomethylphenols

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1 Validation of Existing Index Properties-Based Correlations for Estimating the Soil–Water Characteristic Curve of Fine-Grained Soils

Authors: Karim Kootahi, Seyed Abolhasan Naeini


The soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC), which represents the relationship between suction and water content (or degree of saturation), is an important property of unsaturated soils. The conventional method for determining SWCC is through specialized testing procedures. Since these procedures require specialized unsaturated soil testing apparatus and lengthy testing programs, several index properties-based correlations have been developed for estimating the SWCC of fine-grained soils. There are, however, considerable inconsistencies among the published correlations and there is no validation study on the predictive ability of existing correlations. In the present study, all existing index properties-based correlations are evaluated using a high quality worldwide database. The performances of existing correlations are assessed both graphically and quantitatively using statistical measures. The results of the validation indicate that most of the existing correlations provide unacceptable estimates of degree of saturation but the most recent model appears to be promising.

Keywords: Validation, correlations, index properties, SWCC

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