Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

correlates Related Abstracts

7 Prevalence and Correlates of Anemia in Adolescents in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Aljohara M. Alquaiz, Tawfik A. M. Khoja, Abdullah Alsharif, Ambreen Kazi, Ashry Gad Mohamed, Hamad Al Mane, Abdullah Aldiris, Shaffi Ahamed Shaikh


Objective: To determine the prevalence and correlates of anemia in male and female adolescents in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design: A cross-sectional community based study setting: Five primary health care centers in Riyadh. Subjects: We invited 203 male and 292 female adolescents aged 13-18 years for interview, anthropometric measurements and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with coulter cellular analysis system using light scatter method. Results: Using the WHO cut-off of Hb < 12gms/dl, 16.7%(34) males and 34%(100) females were suffering from anemia. The mean Hb (±SD) in males and females was 13.5(±1.4) and 12.3(±1.2) mg/dl, respectively. Mean(±SD) MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW in male and female adolescents were 77.8(±6.2) vs76.4(±10.3)fL, 26.1(±2.7) vs25.5(±2.6)pg, 32.7(±2.4) vs32.2(±2.6)g/dL, 13.9(±1.4) vs13.6(±1.3)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that positive family history of iron deficiency anemia(IDA)(OR 4.7,95%CI 1.7–12.2), infrequent intake (OR 3.7,95%CI 1.3–10.0) and never intake of fresh juices(OR 3.5,95%CI 1.4–9.5), 13 to 14 years age (OR 3.1,95%CI 1.2–9.3) were significantly associated with anemia in male adolescents; whereas in females: family history of IDA (OR 3.4, 95%CI 1.5–7.6), being over-weight(OR 3.0,95%CI 1.4–6.1), no intake of fresh juice (OR 2.6,95%CI 1.4–5.1), living in an apartment (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.1-3.8) or living in small house (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.2-5.3) were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion: Anemia is more prevalent among Saudi female adolescents as compared to males. Important factors like positive family history of IDA, overweight, lack of fresh juice intake and low socioeconomic status are significantly associated with anemia in adolescents.

Keywords: Obesity, Adolescents, Anemia, correlates

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6 Suicidal Ideation and Associated Factors among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007-2014

Authors: Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid


Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess suicidal ideation and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States. Methods: The analysis included 30284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN that participated in the cross-sectional Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. Results: The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 12.3%, significantly higher in girls (15.1%) than boys (9.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries with the highest prevalence of suicidal ideation was in the Philippines (17.0%) and Vietnam (16.9%) and the lowest in Myanmar (1.1%) and Indonesia (4.2%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender, older age (14 or 15 years), living in a low income or lower middle income country, having no friends, loneliness, bullying victimization, having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, lack of parental or guardian support, tobacco use and having a history of ever got drunk were associated with suicidal ideatiion. Conclusion: Different rates of suicidal ideation were observed in ASEAN member states. Several risk factors for suicidal ideation were identified which can help guide preventive efforts.

Keywords: suicidal behaviour, ASEAN, correlates, adolesents

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5 Correlates of Pedagogic Malpractices

Authors: Chinaza Uleanya, Martin Duma, Bongani Gamede


The research investigated pedagogic malpractices by lecturers in sub-Sahara African universities. The population of the study consisted of undergraduates and lecturers in selected universities in Nigeria and South Africa. Mixed method approach was adopted for data collection. The sample population of the study was 480 undergraduate students and 16 lecturers. Questionnaires with 4 point Likert-scale were administered to 480 respondents while interviews were conducted with 6 lecturers. In addition, the teaching strategies of 10 lecturers were observed. Data analyses indicated that poor work environment demotivates lecturers and makes them involved in pedagogic malpractice which is one of the causes of learning challenges faced by undergraduates. The finding of the study also shows that pedagogic malpractice contributes to the high rate of dropout in sub-Sahara African universities. Based on the results, it was recommended that qualified lecturers be employed and given conducive environments to work.

Keywords: pedagogy, correlates, malpractice, pedagogic malpractice

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4 Correlates of Income Generation of Small-Scale Fish Processors in Abeokuta Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayodeji Motunrayo Omoare


Economically fish provides an important source of food and income for both men and women especially many households in the developing world and fishing has an important social and cultural position in river-rine communities. However, fish is highly susceptible to deterioration. Consequently, this study was carried out to correlate income generation of small-scale women fish processors in Abeokuta metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria. Eighty small-scale women fish processors were randomly selected from five communities as the sample size for this study. Collected data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that the mean age of the respondents was 31.75 years with average household size of 4 people while 47.5% of the respondents had primary education. Most (86.3%) of the respondents were married and had spent more than 11 years in fish processing. The respondents were predominantly Yoruba tribe (91.2%). Majority (71.3%) of the respondents used traditional kiln for processing their fish while 23.7% of the respondents used hot vegetable oil to fry their fish. Also, the result revealed that respondents sourced capital from Personal Savings (48.8%), Cooperatives (27.5%), Friends and Family (17.5%) and Microfinance Banks (6.2%) for fish processing activities. The respondents generated an average income of ₦7,000.00 from roasted fish, ₦3,500.00 from dried fish, and ₦5,200.00 from fried fish daily. However, inadequate processing equipment (95.0%), non-availability of credit facility from microfinance banks (85.0%), poor electricity supply (77.5%), inadequate extension service support (70.0%), and fuel scarcity (68.7%) were major constraints to fish processing in the study area. Results of chi-square analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between personal characteristics (χ2 = 36.83, df = 9), processing methods (χ2 = 15.88, df = 3) and income generated at p < 0.05 level of significance. It can be concluded that significant relationship existed between processing methods and income generated. The study, therefore, recommends that modern processing equipment should be made available to the respondents at a subsidized price by the agro-allied companies.

Keywords: Women, Income, correlates, fish processors, small-scale

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3 Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents in Mendefera Community, Eritrea

Authors: Estifanos H. Zeru


Introduction: Epidemiological research is important to draw need-based rational public health policy. However, research on child and adolescent mental health in low and middle income countries, where socioeconomic, political, cultural, biological and other mental health hazards are in abundance, is almost nonexistent. To the author's knowledge, there is no published research in this field in Eritrea, whose child and adolescent population constitutes 53% of its total population. Study Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and identify their socio-demographic correlates among children and adolescents in Mendefera, Eritrea. The study aims to provide local information to public health policymakers to guide policy in service development. Methodology: In a cross-sectional two stage procedure, both the Parent and Child versions of the SDQ were used to screen 314 children and adolescents aged 4-17 years, recruited by a multi-stage random sampling method. All parents/adult guardians also completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. All children and adolescents who screened positive for any of the SDQ abnormality sub-classes were selected for the second stage interview, which was conducted using the K-SADS-PL 2009 Working Draft version to generate specific DSM-IV diagnoses. All data gathered was entered into CSPro version 6.2 and was then transported in to and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Results: Prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders was found to be 13.1%. Adolescents 11-17 years old and males had higher prevalence than children 4-10 years old and females, respectively. Behavioral disorders were the commonest disorders (9.9%), followed by affective disorders (3.2%) and anxiety disorders (2.5). Chronic medical illness in the child, poor academic performance, difficulties with teachers in school, psychopathology in a family member and parental conflict were found to be independently associated with these disorders. Conclusion: Prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in Eritrea is high. Promotion, prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation for child and adolescent mental health services need to be made widely available in the country. The socio-demographic correlates identified by this study can be targeted for intervention. The need for further research is emphasized.

Keywords: Children, Adolescents, correlates, Eritrea, DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, K-SAD-PL 2009, prevalence and correlates, SDQ

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2 Correlates of Modes of Transportation to Work among Working Adults in Ernakulam District, Kerala

Authors: Anjaly Joseph, Elezebeth Mathews


Transportation and urban planning is the least recognised area for physical activity promotion in India, unlike developed regions. Identifying the preferred transportation modalities and factors associated with it is essential to address these lacunae. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of modes of transportation to work, and its correlates among working adults in Ernakulam District, Kerala. A cross sectional study was conducted among 350 working individuals in the age group of 18-60 years, selected through multi-staged stratified random sampling in Ernakulam district of Kerala. The inclusion criteria were working individuals 18-60 years, workplace at a distance of more than 1 km from the home and who worked five or more days a week. Pregnant women/women on maternity leave and drivers (taxi drivers, autorickshaw drivers, and lorry drivers) were excluded. An interview schedule was used to capture the modes of transportation namely, public, private and active transportation, socio demographic details, travel behaviour, anthropometric measurements and health status. Nearly two-thirds (64 percent) of them used private transportation to work, while active commuters were only 6.6 percent. The correlates identified for active commuting compared to other modes were low socio-economic status (OR=0.22, CI=0.5-0.85) and presence of a driving license (OR=4.95, CI= 1.59-15.45). The correlates identified for public transportation compared to private transportation were female gender (OR= 17.79, CI= 6.26-50.31), low income (OR=0.33, CI= 0.11-0.93), being unmarried (OR=5.19, CI=1.46-8.37), presence of no or only one private vehicle in the house (OR=4.23, CI=1.24-20.54) and presence of convenient public transportation facility to workplace (OR=3.97, CI= 1.66-9.47). The association between body mass index (BMI) and public transportation were explored and found that public transport users had lesser BMI than private commuters (OR=2.30, CI=1.23-4.29). Policies that encourage active and public transportation needs to be introduced such as discouraging private vehicle through taxes, introduction of convenient and safe public transportation facility, walking/cycling paths, and paid parking facility.

Keywords: public transportation, India, Active transportation, correlates, transportation modes

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1 Correlates of Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Rating Scale and Psycho-Productive Multiple Choice Test for Assessing Students' Performance in Rice Production in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Authors: Ogbonnaya Elom, Francis N. Azunku, Ogochukwu Onah


This study was carried out to determine the correlates of cost effectiveness analysis of rating scale and psycho-productive multiple choice test for assessing students’ performance in rice production. Four research questions were developed and answered, while one hypothesis was formulated and tested. Survey and correlation designs were adopted. The population of the study was 20,783 made up of 20,511 senior secondary (SSII) students and 272 teachers of agricultural science from 221 public secondary schools. Two schools with one intact class of 30 students each was purposely selected as sample based on certain criteria. Four sets of instruments were used for data collection. One of the instruments-the rating scale, was subjected to face and content validation while the other three were subjected to face validation only. Cronbach alpha technique was utilized to determine the internal consistency of the rating scale items which yielded a coefficient of 0.82 while the Kudder-Richardson (K-R 20) formula was involved in determining the stability of the psycho-productive multiple choice test items which yielded a coefficient of 0.80. Method of data collection involved a step-by-step approach in collecting data. Data collected were analyzed using percentage, weighted mean and sign test to answer the research questions while the hypothesis was tested using Spearman rank-order of correlation and t-test statistic. Findings of the study revealed among others, that psycho-productive multiple choice test is more effective than rating scale when the former is applied on the two groups of students. It was recommended among others, that the external examination bodies should integrate the use of psycho- productive multiple choice test into their examination policy and direct secondary schools to comply with it.

Keywords: Cost-Effectiveness, correlates, rating scale, psycho-productive multiple-choice scale

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