Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 86

Corporate Social Responsibility Related Abstracts

86 Cost Benefit Analysis and Adjustments of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Airline Industry

Authors: Roman Asatryan

Abstract:

The decision-making processes in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) among firms in general and airlines in particular have to do with the benefits that accrue through those investments. The crux of the matter is not whether to invest in CSR or not, but rather, how firms can quantify the benefits derived from such investments. This paper analyzes the cost benefit adjustment strategies for firms in the airline industry in their CSR strategy adoption and implementation. The adjustment strategies identified will enable firms in the airline industry to have a basis for determining the worth of such CSR investments. This paper discusses the cost and benefit analysis model in order to understand the ways airlines can reduce costs and increase returns on CSR, or balance the cost and benefits. The analysis from this study points to the fact that economic concepts especially the CBA are useful, though they are not without challenges. The challenge arises when it is problematic to express the real impact of the externality in monetary terms. The use of rational maximization of the gains may seem to be a rather optimistic goal mainly because of environmental variability, perceptual uncertainty, and imperfect knowledge about the potential externality. This paper concludes that the CBA model gives a basic understanding of the motivations for investing in intangible assets like CSR. Consequently, it sets the tone for formulating relevant hypothesis in empirical studies in investment in CSR in particular and other intangible assets in business operations.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Cost-benefit analysis, Airline Industry

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85 Role of Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

Authors: Fareeha zafar, Amber Zahid, Fatima Naseer, Maham Atta

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Corporate social authority (CSR) talk, scholarly scrutinize, open arrangement and media editorials, which have thrived in the previous not many decades according to the craving to characterize the nexus between business and social order had a tendency to center primarily on expansive corporate associations which are required to act mindfully. The enormous organizations have for a long time pulled in huge volume of expositive expression on CSR. Almost no expositive expression is presently accessible to upgrade our comprehension about the engagement of little and medium-measured endeavors (SMEs) in CSR. The SMEs, regularly characterized differently regarding turnover terrible stake quality, proprietorship structure and the amount of workers, is a noteworthy part worldwide as far as monetary ecological and the social effect they make. This paper endeavoured to extend this obvious research bay, characterized the way of SMEs the total commitments of the area to economies of both advanced and advancing countries and their part engagement in CSR. The study embraced qualitative literary works review strategy. An audit of the negligible expositive expression furnished knowledge and characterized the course of examination in this significant and underexplored region of study. SMEs were discovered to perform parts connected with group improvement, representative activities, consumerism, natural movements, and production network necessities. To defeat the imperatives going up against SMEs engagement in CSR activities the paper prescribed expanded assets, preparing programs advancement of SMEs arranged instruments and guidelines to guide appropriation and execution and government mediation systems to make the fundamental motivating forces and underpin administrations for adequate engagement.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, small and medium-sized enterprises, responsible practices, corporate citizenship

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84 Effect of Media Reputation on Financial Performance and Abnormal Returns of Corporate Social Responsibility Winner

Authors: Yu-Chen Wei, Dan-Leng Wang

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This study examines whether the reputation from media press affect the financial performance and market abnormal returns around the announcement of corporate social responsibility (CSR) award in the Taiwan Stock Market. The differences between this study and prior literatures are that the media reputation of media coverage and net optimism are constructed by using content analyses. The empirical results show the corporation which won CSR awards could promote financial performance next year. The media coverage and net optimism related to CSR winner are higher than the non-CSR companies prior and after the CSR award is announced, and the differences are significant, but the difference would decrease when the day was closing to announcement. We propose that non-CSR companies may try to manipulate media press to increase the coverage and positive image received by investors compared to the CSR winners. The cumulative real returns and abnormal returns of CSR winners did not significantly higher than the non-CSR samples however the leading returns of CSR winners would higher after the award announcement two months. The comparisons of performances between CSR and non-CSR companies could be the consideration of portfolio management for mutual funds and investors.

Keywords: Media, Corporate Social Responsibility, Reputation Management, Financial Performance, abnormal returns

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83 Key Factors for Stakeholder Engagement and Sustainable Development

Authors: Jo Rhodes, Peter Lok, Bruce Bergstrom, Vincent Cheng

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The aim of this study is to determine key factors and processes for multinationals (MNCs) to develop an effective stakeholder engagement and sustainable development framework. A qualitative multiple-case approach was used. A triangulation method was adopted (interviews, archival documents and observations) to collect data on three global firms (MNCs). 9 senior executives were interviewed for this study (3 from each firm). An initial literature review was conducted to explore possible practices and factors (the deductive approach) to sustainable development. Interview data were analysed using Nvivo to obtain appropriate nodes and themes for the framework. A comparison of findings from interview data and themes, factors developed from the literature review and cross cases comparison were used to develop the final conceptual framework (the inductive approach). The results suggested that stakeholder engagement is a key mediator between ‘stakeholder network’ (internal and external factors) and outcomes (corporate social responsibility, social capital, shared value and sustainable development). Key internal factors such as human capital/talent, technology, culture, leadership and processes such as collaboration, knowledge sharing and co-creation of value with stakeholders were identified. These internal factors and processes must be integrated and aligned with external factors such as social, political, cultural, environment and NGOs to achieve effective stakeholder engagement.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Corporate Social Responsibility, Engagement, stakeholder, shared value

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82 The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility and Knowledge Management Factors on Students’ Job Performance: A Case Study of Silpakorn University’s Internship Program

Authors: Naritphol Boonjyakiat

Abstract:

This research attempts to investigate the effects of corporate social responsibility and knowledge management factors on students’ job performance of the Silpakorn University’s internship program within various organizations. The goal of this study is to fill the literature gap by gaining an understanding of corporate social responsibility and the knowledge management factors that fundamentally relate to students’ job performance within the organizations. Thus, this study will focus on the outcomes that were derived from a set of secondary data that were obtained using a Silpakorn university’s data base of 200 students and selected employer assessment and evaluation forms from the companies. The results represent the perceptions of students towards the corporate social responsibility aspects and knowledge management factors within the university and their job performance evaluation from the employers in various organizations. The findings indicate that corporate social responsibility and knowledge management have significant effects on students’ job performance. This study may assist us in gaining a better understanding of the integrated aspects of university and workplace environments to discover how to optimally allocate university’s resources and management approaches to gain benefits from corporate social responsibility and knowledge management practices toward students’ job performance within an organizational experience settings. Therefore, there is a sufficient reason to believe that the findings can contribute to research in the area of CSR, KM, and job performance as essential aspect of involved stakeholder.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Corporate Social Responsibility, Job Performance, internship program

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81 Corporate Socially Responsible and Financial Performance in the Tourism-Related Industries

Authors: Yu Shan Wang

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Different from other industries, the structure of the tourism industry depends to a large degree the environmental and cultural resources. The industry has to undertake social responsibilities for its commercial behaviour. This paper refers to the seven dimensions of the KLD STATS in 1991-2011 as the indicator to CSR practices. The purpose is to investigate what CSR activities create significant impacts on accounting-based financials and firm values by delving into different CSR dimensions. Meanwhile, this paper takes into consideration S&P 500 and control variables (firm sizes and financial leverage). In fact, the commercial behavior of the tourism-related industry may result in negative impacts on the economy and the society. Therefore, this paper classifies a positive set of CSR elements and a negative set of CSR elements for the tourism-related industry in order to examine their respective effects on short-term profitability and long-term firm values. This can shed light on which CSR dimensions exhibit significant impacts on CFP better than holistic CSR indicators, and hence provide more useful information to investors and corporates. This paper uses quantile regressions to avoid the impact of outliers in the data set. This helps to offer specific information so that companies can make informed decisions.

Keywords: Tourism, Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, firm value, corporate financial performance, CFP

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80 Greening of Supply Chains: Benefits and Challenges Faced

Authors: Anurag Reddy Ramireddy, Abrar Ahmed, G. Sourya Sri Harsha, Pushkala Muralidharan

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Supply chains have been developing over time since the inception of commercial trade and barter. The Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is a powerful way to differentiate a company from its competitors and it can greatly influence the plan success. With increased awareness to corporate responsibility and the requirement to meet the terms with environmental policy, GSCM is becoming increasingly important for companies. This paper explains the concept of green supply chain management, the difference between conventional supply chain management and green supply management and how GSCM benefits organizations while at the same time supporting a sustainable environment system. An effort has also been made to analyse research already done in this field while exploring the challenges and barriers that organizations face in implementing GSCM practices in their existing systems.

Keywords: Sustainability, Corporate Social Responsibility, green supply chain management

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79 The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility and Knowledge Management Factors on University's Students' Learning Process

Authors: Naritphol Boonyakiat

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This research attempts to investigate the effects of corporate social responsibility and knowledge management factors on students’ learning process of the Silpakorn University. The goal of this study is to fill the literature gap by gaining an understanding of corporate social responsibility and the knowledge management factors that fundamentally relate to students’ learning process within the university context. Thus, this study will focus on the outcomes that derive from a set of quantitative data that were obtained using Silpakorn university’s database of 200 students. The results represent the perceptions of students regarding the impact of corporate social responsibility and knowledge management factors on their learning process within the university. The findings indicate that corporate social responsibility and knowledge management have significant effects on students’ learning process. This study may assist us in gaining a better understanding of the integrated aspects of university and learning environments to discover how to allocate optimally university’s resources and management approaches to gain benefits from corporate social responsibility and knowledge management practices toward students’ learning process within the university bodies. Therefore, there is a sufficient reason to believe that the findings can contribute to research in the area of CSR, KM and students’ learning process as an essential aspect of university’s stakeholder.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Corporate Social Responsibility, learning process, university’s students

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78 Corporate Social Responsibility and Students’ Job Performance: A Case Study of Silpakorn University’s Internship Program

Authors: Naritphol Boonyakiat

Abstract:

This research attempts to investigate the relationship between corporate social responsibility and students’ job performance of the Silpakorn University’s internship program within various organizations. The goal of this study is to fill the literature gap by gaining an understanding of corporate social responsibility that fundamentally relate to students’ job performance within the organizations. Thus, this study will focus on the outcomes that derive from selected employers’ qualitative assessment and evaluation forms from various companies. The results represent the perceptions of students towards the corporate social responsibility aspects and their job performance evaluation from the employers in various organizations. The findings indicate that corporate social responsibility has significant effects on students’ job performance. This study may assist us in gaining a better understanding of the integrated aspects of university and workplace environments to discover how to allocate optimally university’s resources and management approaches to gain benefits from corporate social responsibility practices toward students’ job performance within an organizational setting. Therefore, there is good reason to believe that the findings can contribute to research in the area of CSR and students’ job performance as an essential aspect of long-term success sustainability.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Job Performance, internship program, university students

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77 Opportunities and Options for Government to Promote Corporate Social Responsibility in the Czech Republic

Authors: Pavel Adámek

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The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the Czech Republic has evolved notably during the last few years and an issue that started as an interest- and motive-based activity for businesses is becoming more commonplace. Governments have a role to play in ensuring that corporations behave according to the rules and norms of society and can legislate, foster, collaborate with businesses and endorse good practice in order to facilitate the development of CSR. The purpose of this paper is to examine the opportunities and options of CSR in government policy and research its relevance to a business sector. An increasing number of companies is engaging in responsible activities, the public awareness of CSR is rising, and customers are giving higher importance to CSR of companies in their choice. By drawing on existing CSR approach in Czech and understanding of CSR are demonstrated. The paper provides an overview, more detailed government approach of CSR.

Keywords: Instruments, Government policy, Corporate Social Responsibility, approach

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76 Corporate Social Responsibility in an Experimental Market

Authors: Nikolaos Georgantzis, Efi Vasileiou

Abstract:

We present results from experimental price-setting oligopolies in which green firms undertake different levels of energy-saving investments motivated by public subsidies and demand-side advantages. We find that consumers reveal higher willingness to pay for greener sellers’ products. This observation in conjunction to the fact that greener sellers set higher prices is compatible with the use and interpretation of energy-saving behaviour as a differentiation strategy. However, sellers do not exploit the resulting advantage through sufficiently high price-cost margins, because they seem trapped into “run to stay still” competition. Regarding the use of public subsidies to energy-saving sellers we uncover an undesirable crowding-out effect of consumers’ intrinsic tendency to support green manufacturers. Namely, consumers may be less willing to support a green seller whose energy-saving strategy entails a direct financial benefit. Finally, we disentangle two alternative motivations for consumer’s attractions to pro-social firms; first, the self-interested recognition of the firm’s contribution to the public and private welfare and, second, the need to compensate a firm for the cost entailed in each pro-social action. Our results show the prevalence of the former over the latter.

Keywords: Experiments, Corporate Social Responsibility, Altruism, Energy Savings, public good, vertical differentiation

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75 Asia Pacific University of Technology and Innovation

Authors: Esther O. Adebitan, Florence Oyelade

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The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was initiated by the UN member nations’ aspiration for the betterment of human life. It is expressed in a set of numerical ‎and time-bound targets. In more recent time, the aspiration is shifting away from just the achievement to the sustainability of achieved MDGs beyond the 2015 target. The main objective of this study was assessing how much the hotel industry within the Nigerian Federal Capital Territory (FCT) as a member of the global community is involved in the achievement of sustainable MDGs within the FCT. The study had two population groups consisting of 160 hotels and the communities where these are located. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 60 hotels based on large, medium ‎and small hotels categorisation, while simple random sampling technique was used to elicit information from 30 residents of three of the hotels host communities. The study was guided by tree research questions and two hypotheses aimed to ascertain if hotels see the need to be involved in, and have policies in pursuit of achieving sustained MDGs, and to determine public opinion regarding hotels contribution towards the achievement of the MDGs in their communities. A 22 item questionnaire was designed ‎and administered to hotel managers while 11 item questionnaire was designed ‎and administered to hotels’ host communities. Frequency distribution and percentage as well as Chi-square were used to analyse data. Results showed no significant involvement of the hotel industry in achieving sustained MDGs in the FCT and that there was disconnect between the hotels and their immediate communities. The study recommended that hotels should, as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility pick at least one of the goals to work on in order to be involved in the attainment of enduring Millennium Development Goals.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Hotels, host communities, MDGs, FCT

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74 Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on the Organisational Performance

Authors: Jagbir Singh Kadyan, C. A. Suman Kadyan

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The researchers attempts to establish whether a relationship exists between the social activities undertaken & the funds that has been spent by the selected corporate organisations. Corporate listed on the (NSE) National Stock Exchange of India, under different categories shall be selected as a sample for the purpose of this study. The researches shall also study the dynamics of corporate social responsibility funding, financing & management of corporate social responsibility funds by the above selected organisations in the Indian context. The rationale behind selecting & undertaking specific corporate social responsibility activities shall be analysed & interpreted to discover the real drivers of corporate social responsibility. Besides above, an attempt shall further make an effort to understand & analyse the nature of impact on the selected corporate organisations on its overall performances due to the activities undertaken under their specific corporate social responsibility programs.

Keywords: Education, Society, Health, Environment, Sustainability, Sanitation, Corporate Social Responsibility, organisational performance, national stock exchange

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73 Corporate Social Responsibility in Indian Apparel Industry

Authors: Archana Gandhi

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Indian apparel manufacturers see several benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). At the same time, they clearly face steep challenges in its implementation. From the perspective of the participants, the challenges tend to outweigh the benefits. The short-term expenses, misperceptions about the financial benefits of CSR and the additional burden of implementing CSR-related policies and activities tend to overshadow perceptions of the long-term benefits. CSR activities currently seen in the Indian apparel industry are primarily people focused, society-focused or environment-focused. However, most CSR activities focus on employee welfare, including teaching employees about health and safety awareness, creating opportunities for community building, and providing general education to employees. Employee retention is very high in socially responsible Indian firms as compared to non-CSR firms, largely because CSR plays a crucial role in overall employee satisfaction, which translates to worker loyalty and low turnover. Employee retention and commitment are not the​ only potential benefits of CSR in the Indian apparel industry. CSR can also enhance a company’s image. Although it is a long-term benefit, being socially responsible can build a company’s social reputation and help it to gain others’ trust. Buyers do not hesitate to do business with these companies, since it is difficult to find socially responsible firms in India.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Apparel Industry, Workers, improve work life

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72 An Examination of Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study of Zenith Bank PLC Jalingo

Authors: Abubakar Mohammed Bakoji

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The paper examine business ethics through it pursuit for corporate social responsibility to the society in which the business long existed, Zenith bank PLC was selected as case study for it longer period of its business in the state, in order to achieve the research objective of the paper which sought the following: i. To examine relationship between business ethics and corporate social responsibility in Zenith bank PLC Jalingo; ii. To establish whether or not such ethics statement that acclaim corporate social responsibility are adhere to by the Zenith bank PLC Jalingo; iii. To determine the benefit drive by the society on the corporate social responsibility of Zenith bank PLC Jalingo to the people of the state of their operation. The research was conducted using qualitative research design approach, where convenience sampling technique was adopted using semi structured interview to one of the key staff of Zenith bank PLC Jalingo and five other beneficiaries of Zenith bank PLC corporate social responsibility projects served as respondents. The data obtained was analyze using content analysis and the result of the findings revealed that Zenith bank PLC has a Good business ethics and they adhere to the ethics, that they have completed several viable projects to the state as their corporate social responsibility and the beneficiaries and the respondents beneficiaries has confirmed and have produced evidence of how the projects has assisted in stifle their hardship. Hence, business ethics has a significant relationship with corporate social responsibility in Zenith bank PLC Jalingo.

Keywords: Business Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, Zenith Bank PLC

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71 Social Structure of Corporate Social Responsibility Programme in Pantai Harapan Jaya Village, Bekasi Regency, West Java

Authors: Auliya Adzilatin Uzhma, Ismu Rini Dwi, I. Nyoman Suluh Wijaya

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Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programme in Pantai Harapan Jaya village is cultivation of mangrove and fishery capital distribution, to achieve the goal the CSR programme needed participation from the society in it. Moeliono in Fahrudin (2011) mentioned that participation from society is based by intrinsic reason from inside people it self and extrinsic reason from the other who related to him. The fundamental connection who caused more boundaries from action which the organization can do called the social structure. The purpose of this research is to know the form of public participation and the social structure typology of the villager and people who is participated in CSR programme. The key actors of the society and key actors of the people who’s participated also can be known. This research use Social Network Analysis method by knew the Rate of Participation, Density and Centrality. The result of the research is people who is involved in the programme is lived in Dusun Pondok Dua and they work in fisheries field. The density value from the participant is 0.516 it’s mean that 51.6% of the people that participated is involved in the same step of CSR programme.

Keywords: Social Network Analysis, Corporate Social Responsibility, Social Structure, Public Participation

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70 Community Participation of the Villagers: Corporate Social Responsibility Programme in Pantai Harapan Jaya Village, Bekasi Regency, West Java

Authors: I. Nyoman Suluh Wijaya, Auliya Adzillatin Uzhma, Ismu Rini Dwi Ari

Abstract:

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programme in Pantai Harapan Jaya village is cultivation of mangrove and fishery capital distribution, to achieve the goal the CSR programme needed participation from the society in it. Moeliono in Fahrudin (2011) mentioned that participation from society is based by intrinsic reason from inside people it self and extrinsic reason from the other who related to him or from connection with other people. The fundamental connection who caused more boundaries from action which the organization can do called the social structure. The purpose of this research is to know the form of public participation and the density of the villager and people who is participated in CSR programme. This research use Social Network Analysis method by knew the Rate of Participation and Density. The result of the research is people who is involved in the programme is lived in Dusun Pondok Dua and they work in fisheries field. Rate of Participation is 11,61 and that means people involved in 11 or 12 activites of CSR Programme. The rate of participation of CSR Programme is categorized as high rate participation. The density value from the participant is 0.516 it’s mean that 51.6% of the people that participated is involved in the same step of CSR programme.

Keywords: Social Network Analysis, Corporate Social Responsibility, community participation, urban and regional studies

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69 Mining in Peru and Local Governance: Assessing the Contribution of CRS Projects

Authors: Sandra Carrillo Hoyos

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Mining activities in South America have significantly grown during the last decades, given the abundance of natural resources, the implemented governmental policies to incentivize foreign investment as well as the boom in international prices for metals and oil between 2002 and 2008. While this context allowed the region to occupy a leading position between the top producers of minerals around the world, it has also meant an increase in socio-environmental conflicts which have generated costs and negative impacts not only for the companies but especially for the governments and local communities.During the latest decade, the mining sector in Peru has faced with the social resistance of a large number of communities, which began organizing actions against the implementation of high investing projects. The dissatisfaction has derived in the prevalence of socio-environmental conflicts associated with mining activities, some of them never solved into an agreement. In order to prevent those socio-environmental conflicts and obtain the social license from local communities, most of the mining companies have developed diverse initiatives within the framework of policies and practices of corporate social responsibility (CSR). This paper has assessed the mining sector’s contribution toward the local development management along the last decade, as part of CSR strategies as well as the policies promoted by the Peruvian State. This assessment found that, in the beginning, these initiatives have been based on a philanthropic approach and were reacting to pressures from local stakeholders to maintain the consent to operate from the surrounding communities as well as to create, as a result, a harmonious atmosphere for operations. Due to the weak State presence, such practices have increased the expectations of communities related to the participation of mining companies in solving structural development problems, especially those related to primary needs, infrastructure, education, health, among others. In other words, this paper was focused on analyze in what extent these initiatives have promoted local empowerment for development planning and integrated management of natural resources from a territorial approach. From this perspective, the analysis demonstrates that, while the design and planning of social investment initiatives have improved due to the sector´s sustainability approach, many companies have developed actions beyond their competence during this process. In some cases, the referenced actions have generated dependency with communities, even though this relationship has not exempted the companies of conflict situations with unfortunate consequences. Furthermore, the social programs developed have not necessarily generated a significant impact in improving the quality of life of affected populations. In fact, it is possible to identify that those regions with high mining resources and investment are facing with a situation of poverty and high dependency on mining production. In spite of the revenues derived from mining industry, local governments have not been able to translate the royalties into sustainable development opportunities. For this reason, the proposed paper suggests some challenges for the mining sector contribution to local development based on the best practices and lessons learnt from a benchmarking for the leading mining companies.

Keywords: Mining, Corporate Social Responsibility, Local Development, socio-environmental conflict

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68 Ethical Consumers, The Myth or the Reality?: The Effects of Ethics in CSR on Corporate Authenticity and Pro-Firm Behaviours

Authors: K. Shim, J. N. Kim

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This study investigates how consumers’ evaluations of a multinational corporation’s corporate social responsibility program connected to the perceived corporate authenticity and consumers’ pro-firm behavioral intention. With special attention to the two different types of CSR motives, business-oriented CSR motive and society-oriented motive, the current study empirically tests a theoretical model of a mediating role of corporate authenticity between perception of CSR motives and the consumers’ subsequent pro-firm behaviours. Results indicate significant mediation effects of corporate authenticity between perception of altruistic and societal CSR motives and consumers’ pro-firm behaviours. Unlike previous notions of the negative influence of self-interested motives on corporate authenticity, perceived strategic and business-oriented motives in CSR does not negatively affect the evalution of corporate authenticity when stakeholders have utilitarian ethical perspectives. Unlike the Korean participants, US participants are not willing to conduct pro-firm behaviors when they perceive strategic and business-oriented CSR motives. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, corporate authenticity, CSR motives, strategic CSR, utilitarian ethics, kantian ethics

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67 Corporate Social Responsibility Practices of Local Large Firms in the Developing Economies: The Case of the East Africa Region

Authors: Lilian Kishimbo

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This study aims to examine Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of local large firms of East Africa region. In this study CSR is defined as all actions that go beyond obeying minimum legal requirements as espoused by other authors. Despite the increase of CSR literature empirical evidence clearly demonstrate an imbalance of CSR studies in the developing countries . Moreover, it is evident that most of the research on CSR in developing economies emerges from large fast-growing economies or BRICS members (i.e. Brazil, India, China and South Africa), and Indonesia and Malaysia and a further call for more research in Africa is particularly advocated. Taking Africa as an example, there are scanty researches on CSR practices, and the few available studies are mainly from Nigeria and South Africa leaving other parts of Africa for example East Africa underrepresented. Furthermore, in the face of globalization, experience shows that literature has focused mostly on multinational companies (MNCs) operating in either North-North or North-South and less on South-South indigenous local firms. Thus the existing literature in Africa shows more studies of MNCs and little is known about CSR of local indigenous firms operating in the South particularly in the East Africa region. Accordingly, this paper explores CSR practices of indigenous local large firms of East Africa region particularly Kenya and Tanzania with the aim of testing the hypothesis that do local firms of East Africa region engage in similar CSR practices as firms in other parts of the world?. To answer this question only listed local large firms were considered based on the assumption that they are large enough to engage. Newspapers were the main source of data and information collected was supplemented by business Annual Reports for the period 2010-2012. The research finding revealed that local firms of East Africa engage in CSR practices. However, there are some differences in the set of activities these firms prefers to engage in compared to findings from previous studies. As such some CSR that were given priority by firms in East Africa were less prioritized in the other part of the world including Indonesia. This paper will add knowledge to the body of CSR and experience of CSR practices of South-South indigenous firms where is evidenced to have a relative dearth of literature on CSR. Finally, the paper concludes that local firms of East Africa region engage in similar activities like other firms globally. But firms give more priority to some activities such education and health related activities. Finally, the study intends to assist policy makers at firm’s levels to plan for long lasting projects related to CSR for their stakeholders.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, developing countries, Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, indigenous firms

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66 The Real Meaning of Corporate Social Responsibility and It Impact to a Business

Authors: J. Tamosaityte

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The research paper analyzed the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) meaning and how the meaning of CSR evoluted and changed during the last years. The paper suggests to expand CSR understanding in framework of Corporate Socially Responsible Behavior (CSRB), CSR integration into business strategy and CSR effect with stakeholders engagement, when all the business is based on CSR. A business that is fully based on CSR may act in a more successful way and reach better business results in the long-term perspective. Strong business’s commitment to CSR might also strengthen company’s reputation and be one of significant element to achieve business sustainability.

Keywords: Strategy, Corporate Social Responsibility, reputation, corporate socially responsible behavior, stakeholders engagement

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65 Corporate Social Responsibility the New Route to Competitive Advantage: An Applied Study on Telecommunication Sector in Egypt

Authors: Rania Sherif Abd El-Azim

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The role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in business has evolved and led to an era where industry leaders can no longer overlook the importance of being participative corporate citizens. This is not only because of the media’s skeptical attitude toward whether or not companies’ CSR efforts are sincere but also due to key stakeholders’ ability to hold companies to a higher standard than ever before as companies can gain competitive advantage through CSR. These programs result in addressing global challenges, such as climate, and poverty, or simply improving employee retention, so it has become increasingly clear that CSR is not just the new trend for companies but a necessary tool that organizations must integrate into their overall business strategies to build a stronger reputation as well as to also increase credibility among their key audience and enhance customers’ willingness to repurchase, pay premium price and enhancing positive word of mouth. According to the literature review, the link between CSR and competitive advantage at the firm level has long been an important topic for both CSR researchers and practitioners. Thus CSR can play an important role in enhancing the firm's competitive advantage, which seems an attractive area to investigate specially in Egypt. So, this paper will investigate the role of corporate social responsibility in enhancing the firm competitive advantage.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, competitive advantage, Corporate Reputation, customers' willingness to repurchase, willingness to pay premium price, positive word of mouth

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64 Climate Change Law and Transnational Corporations

Authors: Manuel Jose Oyson

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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warned in its most recent report for the entire world “to both mitigate and adapt to climate change if it is to effectively avoid harmful climate impacts.” The IPCC observed “with high confidence” a more rapid rise in total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) emissions from 2000 to 2010 than in the past three decades that “were the highest in human history”, which if left unchecked will entail a continuing process of global warming and can alter the climate system. Current efforts, however, to respond to the threat of global warming, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, have focused on states, and fail to involve Transnational Corporations (TNCs) which are responsible for a vast amount of GHG emissions. Involving TNCs in the search for solutions to climate change is consistent with an acknowledgment by contemporary international law that there is an international role for other international persons, including TNCs, and departs from the traditional “state-centric” response to climate change. Putting the focus of GHG emissions away from states recognises that the activities of TNCs “are not bound by national borders” and that the international movement of goods meets the needs of consumers worldwide. Although there is no legally-binding instrument that covers TNC activities or legal responsibilities generally, TNCs have increasingly been made legally responsible under international law for violations of human rights, exploitation of workers and environmental damage, but not for climate change damage. Imposing on TNCs a legally-binding obligation to reduce their GHG emissions or a legal liability for climate change damage is arguably formidable and unlikely in the absence a recognisable source of obligation in international law or municipal law. Instead a recourse to “soft law” and non-legally binding instruments may be a way forward for TNCs to reduce their GHG emissions and help in addressing climate change. Positive effects have been noted by various studies to voluntary approaches. TNCs have also in recent decades voluntarily committed to “soft law” international agreements. This development reflects a growing recognition among corporations in general and TNCs in particular of their corporate social responsibility (CSR). While CSR used to be the domain of “small, offbeat companies”, it has now become part of mainstream organization. The paper argues that TNCs must voluntarily commit to reducing their GHG emissions and helping address climate change as part of their CSR. One, as a serious “global commons problem”, climate change requires international cooperation from multiple actors, including TNCs. Two, TNCs are not innocent bystanders but are responsible for a large part of GHG emissions across their vast global operations. Three, TNCs have the capability to help solve the problem of climate change. Assuming arguendo that TNCs did not strongly contribute to the problem of climate change, society would have valid expectations for them to use their capabilities, knowledge-base and advanced technologies to help address the problem. It would seem unthinkable for TNCs to do nothing while the global environment fractures.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Transnational Corporations, climate change law

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63 Corporate Social Responsibility a Comparison between European and Latin American Companies

Authors: Eva Wagner, Lucely Vargas

Abstract:

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) plays an important role in (large-scale) enterprises’ business strategy in developed and emerging countries. This article approaches CSR in international comparison by examining the CSR reporting of 116 leading companies in Austria, Germany, Colombia and Chile from 2006 to 2010. We have used an independently developed scoring model which analyzes reported CSR-activities using seven dimensions to efficiently assess CSR. The study reveals that there are significant differences in CSR-commitment among countries and regions: German companies, as expected, lead most of the investigated CSR dimensions revealing stronger commitment to CSR than their Austrian, Colombian and Chilean counterparts. Even if Latin American companies lag behind their European counterparts, they exhibit high CSR-performance in the social dimension: corporate giving and philanthropic activities are firmly anchored in the tradition of Latin American companies. This indicates that particular CSR-emphases reflect the political and social circumstances of each individual country.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, international comparison, corporate social performance

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62 Zakat and Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Analysis in Increasing Its Value

Authors: Afrizon Reskino

Abstract:

The Article explores how the role of Zakat and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can enhance corporate values. This research is a descriptive study which aimed to find out how the impact of Zakat and CSR disclosure towards corporate values. Sample taken in this research is the company has entered into the Jakarta Islamic Index, and it estimated to have implemented CSR and also made statements of sources and uses of Zakat taking PT. INCO, PT. Inducement and PT. Semen Gresik. The reasons for selecting of three companies are known from the data and facts every year they always provide significant CSR funds. CSR and charity both have a role and responsibility for the welfare of the peoples. This study found that in 2008, debt-to-equity ratio of PT. INCO approximately 15%. In 2009, It increased to 23%. While Debt-to-equity ratio of PT Semen Gresik increase of 3% to 4%. PT Inducement is weaken from 10% to 7%, but the average debt-to-equity ratio of the three companies has increased.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, zakat, charity, corporate values

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61 Embedding Looping Concept into Corporate CSR Strategy for Sustainable Growth: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Vani Tanggamani, Azlan Amran

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The issues of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) have been extended from developmental economics to corporate and business in recent years. Research in issues related to CSR is deemed to make higher impacts as CSR encourages long-term economy and business success without neglecting social, environmental risks, obligations and opportunities. Therefore, CSR is a key matter for any organisation aiming for long term sustainability since business incorporates principles of social responsibility into each of its business decisions. Thus, this paper presents a theoretical proposition based on stakeholder theory from the organisational perspective as a foundation for better CSR practices. The primary subject of this paper is to explore how looping concept can be effectively embedded into corporate CSR strategy to foster sustainable long term growth. In general, the concept of a loop is a structure or process, the end of which is connected to the beginning, whereas the narrow view of a loop in business field means plan, do, check, and improve. In this sense, looping concept is a blend of balance and agility with the awareness to know when to which. Organisations can introduce similar pull mechanisms by formulating CSR strategies in order to perform the best plan of actions in real time, then a chance to change those actions, pushing them toward well-organized planning and successful performance. Through the analysis of an exploratory study, this paper demonstrates that approaching looping concept in the context of corporate CSR strategy is an important source of new idea to propel CSR practices by deepening basic understanding through the looping concept which is increasingly necessary to attract and retain business stakeholders include people such as employees, customers, suppliers and other communities for long-term business survival. This paper contributes to the literature by providing a fundamental explanation of how the organisations will experience less financial and reputation risk if looping concept logic is integrated into core business CSR strategy.The value of the paper rests in the treatment of looping concept as a corporate CSR strategy which demonstrates "looping concept implementation framework for CSR" that could further foster business sustainability, and help organisations move along the path from laggards to leaders.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainable Growth, looping concept, stakeholder theory

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60 Law, Regulatory Transformations and Evolving Paradigm: The Case of Corporate Social Responsibility in India

Authors: Shuchi Bharti

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This article intends to analyse the transforming nature of state and corporate sector relationship in the light of evolving regulatory and institutional aspects pertaining to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in India. The focus is on evaluating the accounts of law and decentred discourses, relevant within the changing regulatory and institutional paradigm that substantially goes ahead of formal legal control of state towards corporate actors. At this vantage point, it is important to understand the state’s posture towards a changing scenario particularly as the tone is set by regulatory parameters pertaining to CSR to drive process of engagement with the stakeholders. The tripartite framework of the article intends to focus on finding on the vital interconnected aspects of the CSR provisions (Section 135) of The Companies Act 2013 (The Act), rise of new institutions and the emergence of the decentred regulatory space. Thus is earmarked in a neo-liberal paradigm; state is witnessed to perform a responsive function in engendering enhanced public role for the corporate sector. In this overarching framework the aim is to undertake a causal, exploratory and relational analysis of aspects pertaining law, regulation and institutional transformations. Firstly, focus is drawn on to investigate the relational facets of the advent of law and regulatory framework of CSR. Secondly, in the light of the historical evolution, a causal connection is attempted between globalization, emergence of international soft law framework and the Indian case of CSR. Finally, I look into how the new Companies Act mandates CSR expenditure vis- a -vis multiple parameters and guidelines.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Stakeholders, soft law, decentred regulation

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59 Psychodiagnostic Tool Development for Measurement of Social Responsibility in Ukrainian Organizations

Authors: Olena Kovalchuk

Abstract:

How to define the understanding of social responsibility issues by Ukrainian companies is a contravention question. Thus, one of the practical uses of social responsibility is a diagnostic tool development for educational, business or scientific purposes. So the purpose of this research is to develop a tool for measurement of social responsibility in organization. Methodology: A 21-item questionnaire “Organization Social Responsibility Scale” was developed. This tool was adapted for the Ukrainian sample and based on the questionnaire “Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility” which connects ethical and socially responsible behavior to different aspects of the organizational effectiveness. After surveying the respondents, the factor analysis was made by the method of main compounds with orthogonal rotation VARIMAX. On the basis of the obtained results the 21-item questionnaire was developed (Cronbach’s alpha – 0,768; Inter-Item Correlations – 0,34). Participants: 121 managers at all levels of Ukrainian organizations (57 males; 65 females) took part in the research. Results: Factor analysis showed five ethical dilemmas concerning the social responsibility and profit compatibility in Ukrainian organizations. Below we made an attempt to interpret them: — Social responsibility vs profit. Corporate social responsibility can be a way to reduce operational costs. A firm’s first priority is employees’ morale. Being ethical and socially responsible is the priority of the organization. The most loaded question is "Corporate social responsibility can reduce operational costs". Significant effect of this factor is 0.768. — Profit vs social responsibility. Efficiency is much more important to a firm than ethics or social responsibility. Making the profit is the most important concern for a firm. The dominant question is "Efficiency is much more important to a firm than whether or not the firm is seen as ethical or socially responsible". Significant effect of this factor is 0.793. — A balanced combination of social responsibility and profit. Organization with social responsibility policy is more attractive for its stakeholders. The most loaded question is "Social responsibility and profitability can be compatible". Significant effect of this factor is 0.802. — Role of Social Responsibility in the successful organizational performance. Understanding the value of social responsibility and business ethics. Well-being and welfare of the society. The dominant question is "Good ethics is often good business". Significant effect of this factor is 0.727. — Global vision of social responsibility. Issues related to global social responsibility and sustainability. Innovative approaches to poverty reduction. Awareness of climate change problems. Global vision for successful business. The dominant question is "The overall effectiveness of a business can be determined to a great extent by the degree to which it is ethical and socially responsible". Significant effect of this factor is 0.842. The theoretical contribution. The perspective of the study is to develop a tool for measurement social responsibility in organizations and to test questionnaire’s adequacy for social and cultural context. Practical implications. The research results can be applied for designing a training programme for business school students to form their global vision for successful business as well as the ability to solve ethical dilemmas in managerial practice. Researchers interested in social responsibility issues are welcome to join the project.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, ethical behaviour, Cronbach’s alpha, psychodiagnostic tool

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58 Reclaiming Corporate Social Responsibility: A Research Agenda for Socio-Industrial Interdependence

Authors: Leah Ritchie

Abstract:

By many accounts, the most recent economic recession and subsequent lack-luster recovery has demonstrated that corporate social responsibility is in a state of crisis. This crisis represents an opportunity for CSR scholars to play a role in restoring long-term economic growth and consumer confidence. In its current state however, CSR may not be in a position to facilitate positive change. In an attempt to remain relevant, the field has shifted toward a performance-based agenda that demonstrates in practical terms, how CSR can positively affect the financial and strategic performance of the firm. This paper argues that if CSR is to play a central role in helping to create a more equitable balance of power between industry and society, it must demonstrate the symbiotic nature of the relationship between these two entities, not just in terms of compartmentalized strategic and financial gain for the firm, but also toward maintaining a 'do no harm' imperative. Given the evidence that harm done to society is ultimately turned back on the firm, this is not simply a moralistic imperative. In order to affect change, CSR must also create an activist agenda to raise consciousness among the general citizenry toward mobilizing, uncovering, and repairing breeches in the implicit social contract between business and society.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, multiple stakeholder view, economic recession, housing crisis

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57 Corporate Social Responsibility: A Paradigm Shift in the New Indian Companies Act, 2013

Authors: Suvankar Chakraborty

Abstract:

Introduction: Corporate Social Responsibility means the obligations of business to act in a manner which will serve the best interests of the Society. The Companies Act , 2013 for the first time has emphasized on the fact that every company having net worth of rupees five hundred crore or more, or turnover of rupees one thousand crore or more or a net profit of rupees five crore or more during any financial year shall constitute a Corporate Social Responsibility Committee of the Board consisting of three or more directors, out of which at least one director shall be an independent director. In the previous Companies Act, 1956 there was no such compulsion for constituting a Corporate Social Responsibility Committee. Objective: This study examines the changes in the perception of corporate sectors so far as social responsibility is concerned. Methodology: The study is based on secondary data obtained from various websites of different corporate sectors and the Gazette of India related to Companies Act, 1956 and the new Companies Act, 2013. For capturing the perception of the corporate world regarding the provisions of CSR in the new Companies Act, 2013, primary data has been collected through structured questionnaire. Findings: Corporate Social Responsibility can put a company on a strong base of sustainable development and in facing the business risk of foreclosure or winding up. Shouldering social responsibility on a long-term basis can help a company not only in increasing its reputation in the business world but also helps in minimizing Government intervention. . But, there can hardly be any universal rule that the area of social responsibility being wholly and solely dependent on the ethical aspect of the corporate sectors. But having said that it may be asserted that business ethics may be a key driver of CSR activities rather than rule based CSR activities in the years to come.

Keywords: Business Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, companies act, CSR committee

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