Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

coronary angiography Related Abstracts

7 An Autopsy Case of Blunt Chest Trauma from a Traffic Accident Complicated by Chest Compression Due to Resuscitation Attempts

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

Abstract:

Coronary artery dissection leading to acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. A 67-year-old woman suffered blunt chest trauma following a traffic accident. The electrocardiogram revealed acute posterior ST-segment elevation and myocardial infarction and coronary angiography demonstrated acute right coronary artery dissection. Following the death of the victim an autopsy was performed after cardiopulmonary support had been carried out. In this case report, we describe the case of a woman with blunt chest trauma, who developed an acute myocardial infarction secondary to right coronary artery dissection. Although there was additional the blunt chest trauma due to chest compression, we confirmed the injury at autopsy and by histological findings.

Keywords: Autopsy, blunt chest trauma, right coronary artery dissection, coronary angiography, histological examination

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6 Angiographic Evaluation of ETT (Treadmill) Positive Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Saidur Rahman Khan, Farzana Islam

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the factors which predetermine the coronary artery disease in patients having positive Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT) that is treadmill results and coronary artery findings. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at Department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute,Dhaka,Bangladesh from 1st January, 2014 to 31st August, 2014. All patients who had done ETT (treadmill) for chest pain diagnosis were studied. One hundred and four patients underwent coronary angiogram after positive treadmill result. Patients were divided into two groups depending upon the angiographic findings, i.e. true positive and false positive. Positive treadmill test patients who have coronary artery involvement these are called true positive and who have no involvement they are called false positive group. Both groups were compared with each other. Results: Out of 104 patients, 81 (77.9%) patients had true positive ETT and 23 (22.1%) patients had false positive ETT. The mean age of patients in positive ETT was 53.46± 8.06 years and male mean age was 53.63±8.36 years and female was 52.87 ± 7.0 years. Sixty nine (85.19%) male patients and twelve (14.81%) female patients had true positive ETT, whereas 15 (65.21%) males and 8 (34.79%) females had false positive ETT, this was statistically significant (p<0.032)difference in the two groups(sex) in comparison of true and false positive ETT. The risk factors of these patients like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history and smoking were seen among these patients. Hypertensive patients having true positive which were statically significant (p<0.004) and diabetic, dyslipidaemic patients having true positive which were statically significant (p < 0.032 & 0.030).True positive patients had family history were 68 (83.95%) and smoking were 52 (64.20%), where family history patients had statistically significant(p<0.017) between two groups of patients and smokers were significant (p<0.012). 46 true positive patients achieved THR which was not statistically significant (P<0.138)and 79 true patients had abnormal resting ECG whether it was significant (p<0.036). Amongst the vessels involvement the most common was LAD 55 (67.90%), followed by LCX 42 (51.85%), RCA 36 (44.44%) and the LMCA was 9 (11.11%), .40 patients (49.38%) had SVD, 26 (30.10%) had DVD, 15(18.52%) had TVD and 23 had normal coronary arteries. Conclusion: It can be concluded that among the female patients who have positive ETT with normal resting ECG, who had achieved target heart rate are likely to have a false positive test result. Conversely male patients,resting abnormal ECG who had not achieved THR, symptom limited ETT, have a hypertension, diabetis, dyslipidaemic, family history and smoking are likely to have a true positive treadmill test result.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, coronary angiography, exercise tolerance test, true positive, false positive

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5 The Use of Emergency Coronary Angiography in Patients Following Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Subsequent Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation

Authors: Scott Ashby, Emily Granger, Mark Connellan

Abstract:

Objectives: 1) To identify if emergency coronary angiography improves outcomes in studies examining OHCA from assumed cardiac aetiology? 2) If so, is it indicated in all patients resuscitated following OHCA, and if not, who is it indicated for? 3) How effective are investigations for screening for the appropriate patients? Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is one of the leading mechanisms of death, and the most common causative pathology is coronary artery disease. In-hospital treatment following resuscitation greatly affects outcomes, yet there is debate over the most effective protocol. Methods: A literature search was conducted over multiple databases to identify all relevant articles published from 2005. An inclusion criterion was applied to all publications retrieved, which were then sorted by type. Results: A total of 3 existing reviews and 29 clinical studies were analysed in this review. There were conflicting conclusions, however increased use of angiography has shown to improve outcomes in the majority of studies, which cover a variety of settings and cohorts. Recommendations: Currently, emergency coronary angiography appears to improve outcomes in all/most cases of OHCA of assumed cardiac aetiology, regardless of ECG findings. Until a better tool for screening is available to reduce unnecessary procedures, the benefits appear to outweigh the costs/risks.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Resuscitation, out of hospital cardiac arrest, coronary angiography

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4 Patient Outcomes Following Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Scott Ashby, Emily Granger, Mark Connellan

Abstract:

Background: In-hospital management of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) is complex as the aetiologies are varied. Acute coronary angiography has been shown to improve outcomes for patients with coronary occlusion as the cause; however, these patients are difficult to identify. ECG results may help identify these patients, but the accuracy of this diagnostic test is under debate, and requires further investigation. Methods: Arrest and hospital management information was collated retrospectively for OHCA patients who presented to a single clinical site between 2009 and 2013. Angiography results were then collected and checked for significance with survival to discharge. The presence of a severe lesion (>70%) was then compared to categorised ECG findings, and the accuracy of the test was calculated. Results: 104 patients were included in this study, 44 survived to discharge, 52 died and 8 were transferred to other clinical sites. Angiography appears to significantly correlate with survival to discharge. ECG showed 54.8% sensitivity for detecting the presence of a severe lesion within the group that received angiography. A combined criterion including any ECG pathology showed 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value, however, a low specificity and positive predictive value. Conclusion: In the cohort investigated, ST elevation on ECG is not a sensitive enough screening test to be used to determine whether OHCA patients have coronary stenosis as the likely cause of their arrest, and more investigation into whether screening with a combined ECG criterion, or whether all patients should receive angiography routinely following OHCA is needed.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Resuscitation, out of hospital cardiac arrest, coronary angiography

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3 Allopurinol Prophylactic Therapy in the Prevention of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in High Risk Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Seyed Fakhreddin Hejazi, Leili Iranirad, Mohammad Sadeghi, Mohsen Talebizadeh

Abstract:

Background: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains to be a potentially serious complication of radiographic procedures. We performed this clinical trial to assess the preventive effect of allopurinol against CIN in high-risk patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 140 patients with at least two risk factors for CIN undergoing coronary angiography were randomly assigned to either the allopurinol group or the control group. Patients in the allopurinol group received 300 mg allopurinol 24 hours before a procedure and intravenous hydration for 12 hours before and after coronary angiography, whereas patients in the control group received intravenous hydration. Serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid were measured before contrast exposure and at 48 hours. CIN was defined as an increase of 25% in serum creatinine (SCr) or >0.5 mg/dl 48 hours after contrast administration. Results: CIN occurred in 11 out of 70 (7.9%) patients in the control group and in 8 out of 70 (5.7%) patients in the allopurinol group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of CIN between the two groups at 48 hours after administering the radiocontrast agent (p = 0.459). However, there were significant differences between the two groups in SCr, BUN, uric acid, and eGFR 48 hours after radiocontrast administration (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that allopurinol had no substantial efficacy over hydration protocol in high-risk patients for the development of CIN.

Keywords: coronary angiography, contrast-induced nephropathy, allopurinol, contrast agent

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2 Evaluation of the Gamma-H2AX Expression as a Biomarker of DNA Damage after X-Ray Radiation in Angiography Patients

Authors: Reza Fardid, Aliyeh Alipour

Abstract:

Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common and deadliest diseases. A coronary angiography is an important tool for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Because angiography is performed by exposure to ionizing radiation, it can lead to harmful effects. Ionizing radiation induces double-stranded breaks in DNA, which is a potentially life-threatening injury. The purpose of the present study is an investigation of the phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the location of the double-stranded break in Peripheral blood lymphocytes as an indication of Biological effects of radiation on angiography patients. Materials and Methods: This method is based on measurement of the phosphorylation of histone (gamma-H2AX, gH2AX) level on serine 139 after formation of DNA double-strand break. 5 cc of blood from 24 patients with angiography were sampled before and after irradiation. Blood lymphocytes were removed, fixed and were stained with specific ϒH2AX antibodies. Finally, ϒH2AX signal as an indicator of the double-strand break was measured with Flow Cytometry Technique. Results and discussion: In all patients, an increase was observed in the number of breaks in double-stranded DNA after irradiation (20.15 ± 14.18) compared to before exposure (1.52 ± 0.34). Also, the mean of DNA double-strand break was showed a linear correlation with DAP. However, although induction of DNA double-strand breaks associated with radiation dose in patients, the effect of individual factors such as radiosensitivity and regenerative capacity should not be ignored. If in future we can measure DNA damage response in every patient angiography and it will be used as a biomarker patient dose, will look very impressive on the public health level. Conclusion: Using flow cytometry readings which are done automatically, it is possible to detect ϒH2AX in the number of blood cells. Therefore, the use of this technique could play a significant role in monitoring patients.

Keywords: Ionizing Radiation, coronary angiography, DSB of DNA, ϒH2AX

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1 The Clinical Manifestations of Myocardial Bridging in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Alexey Yu. Martynov, Sulejman Bayramov

Abstract:

Introduction: The myocardial bridging is the most common anomaly of the coronary arteries (CA). Depending on the examination method, the frequency of detected myocardial bridges (MB) varies in a rather wide range. The typical clinical manifestations of MB are angina pectoris, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death. Objective: To study the incidence of MB in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). To assess clinical manifestations of MB in patients admitted with CAD. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 19159 case histories of patients admitted at clinical city hospital in Moscow from 01.01.2018 to 31.12 2019 with CAD was performed. 9384 patients’ coronary angiographies (CAG) were examined for MB. The localization of MB, the degree of coronary contraction by MB, the number of MB, isolated MB and combined with CAD were assessed. The clinical manifestations of MB were determined. Results: MB was detected in 52 patients all with one myocardial bridge. 20 patients with MB have intact CA, and 32 patients have MB combined with CAD. Among 20 patients with intact CA: I degree of MB contraction (up to 50%) was detected in 9 patients. Clinical manifestations in five cases were angina pectoris, in 3 myocardial infarction (MI) - 1 patients with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), 2 without ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI), 1 post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS). Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, vasospastic angina (VSA) in 1 patient. II degree of MB contraction (up to 50-70%) was determined in 9 patients: in seven cases angina pectoris was detected, 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, VSA in 3 patients. III degree of MB contraction (> 70%) detected in 2 patients. II FC stable angina in one case, PICS in another. Among 32 patients having MB combined with CAD I degree of MB contraction was observed in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations in 12 cases were angina pectoris in 8 II FC and in 4 III FC, 7 MI 6 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. II degree of MB contraction was detected in 7 patients, 4 of them had angina pectoris, 3 MI 2 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI. Stable angina II FC in 3, VSA in 1 patients. III degree of MB contraction was diagnosed in five patients. In two cases, II FC and III FC stable angina were observed, 2 MI with STEMI and NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Conclusions: MB incidence is one in 368 patients with CAD. The most common involvement (68%) is MB combined with CA atherosclerotic lesions. MB with intact CA are detected in one-third (32%) of patients. The first-degree MB contraction is most frequent condition. MI is more often detected in intact CA with first degree MB than in the second degree. The degree of MB contraction was not correlated with the severity of the clinical manifestations.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, coronary angiography, clinical manifestations, myocardial bridging, stable angina

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