Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

corn starch Related Abstracts

3 Preparation and Properties of Chloroacetated Natural Rubber Rubber Foam Using Corn Starch as Curing Agent

Authors: Ploenpit Boochathum, Pitchayanad Kaolim, Phimjutha Srisangkaew


In general, rubber foam is produced based on the sulfur curing system. However, the remaining sulfur in the rubber product waste is burned to sulfur dioxide gas causing the environment pollution. To avoid using sulfur as curing agent in the rubber foam products, this research work proposes non-sulfur curing system by using corn starch as a curing agent. The ether crosslinks were proposed to be produced via the functional bonding between hydroxyl groups of the starch molecules and chloroacetate groups added on the natural rubber molecules. The chloroacetated natural rubber (CNR) latex was prepared via the epoxidation reaction of the concentrated natural rubber latex, subsequently, epoxy rings were attacked by chloroacetic acid to produce hydroxyl groups and chloroacetate groups on the rubber molecules. Foaming agent namely NaHCO3 was selected to add in the CNR latex due to the low decomposition temperature at about 50°C. The appropriate curing temperature was assigned to be 90°C that is above gelatinization temperature; 60-70°C, of starch. The effect of weight ratio of starch, i.e., 0 phr, 3 phr and 5 phr, on the physical properties of CNR rubber foam was investigated. It was found that density reduced from 0.81 g/cm3 for 0 phr to 0.75 g/cm3 for 3 phr and 0.79 g/cm3 for 5 phr. The ability to return to its original thickness after prolonged compressive stresses of CNR rubber foam cured with starch loading of 5 phr was found to be considerably better than that of CNR rubber foam cured with starch 3 phr and CNR rubber foam without addition of starch according to the compression set that was determined to decrease from 66.67% to 40% and 26.67% with the increase loading of starch. The mechanical properties including tensile strength and modulus of CNR rubber foams cured using starch were determined to increase except that the elongation at break was found to decrease. In addition, all mechanical properties of CNR rubber foams cured with the starch 3 phr and 5 phr were found to be slightly different and drastically higher than those of CNR rubber foam without the addition of starch. This research work indicates that starch can be applicable as a curing agent for CNR rubber. This is confirmed by the increase of the elastic modulus (G') of CNR rubber foams that was cured with the starch over the CNR rubber foam without curing agent. This type of rubber foam is believed to be one of the biodegradable and environment-friendly product that can be cured at low temperature of 90°C.

Keywords: chloroacetated natural rubber, corn starch, non-sulfur curing system, rubber foam

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2 Comparison of White Sauce Prepared from Native and Chemically Modified Corn and Pearl Millet Starches

Authors: Marium Shaikh, Tahira M. Ali, Abid Hasnain


Physical and sensory properties of white sauces prepared from native and chemically modified corn and pearl millet starches were compared. Interestingly, no syneresis was observed in hydroxypropylated corn and pearl millet starch containing white sauce even after nine days of cold storage (4 °C), while other modifications also reduced the syneresis significantly in comparison to their native counterparts. White sauce containing succinylated corn starch showed least oil separation due to its greater emulsion stability. Light microscopy was used to visualize the size and shape of fat globules, and it was found that they were most homogenously distributed in succinylated and hydroxypropylated samples. Sensory results revealed that chemical modification of corn and pearl millet starch improved the consistency, thickness and overall acceptability of white sauces. Viscosity profiles showed that pasting parameters of native pearl millet starch are almost similar to native corn starch suggesting pearl millet starch as an alternative of corn starch. Also, white sauce prepared from modified pearl millet starch showed better cold storage stability in terms of various textural attributes like hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and springiness.

Keywords: succinylation, corn starch, pearl millet, hydroxypropylation, white sauce

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1 Synthesis and Properties of Oxidized Corn Starch Based Wood Adhesive

Authors: Salise Oktay, Nilgun Kizilcan, Basak Bengu


At present, formaldehyde-based adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde (UF), melamine-formaldehyde (MF), melamine – urea-formaldehyde (MUF), etc. are mostly used in wood-based panel industry because of their high reactivity, chemical versatility, and economic competitiveness. However, formaldehyde-based wood adhesives are produced from non- renewable resources and also formaldehyde is classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group B1) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Therefore, there has been a growing interest in the development of environment-friendly, economically competitive, bio-based wood adhesives to meet wood-based panel industry requirements. In this study, like a formaldehyde-free adhesive, oxidized starch – urea wood adhesives was synthesized. In this scope, firstly, acid hydrolysis of corn starch was conducted and then acid thinned corn starch was oxidized by using hydrogen peroxide and CuSO₄ as an oxidizer and catalyst, respectively. Secondly, the polycondensation reaction between oxidized starch and urea conducted. Finally, nano – TiO₂ was added to the reaction system to strengthen the adhesive network. Solid content, viscosity, and gel time analyses of the prepared adhesive were performed to evaluate the adhesive processability. FTIR, DSC, TGA, SEM characterization techniques were used to investigate chemical structures, thermal, and morphological properties of the adhesive, respectively. Rheological analysis of the adhesive was also performed. In order to evaluate the quality of oxidized corn starch – urea adhesives, particleboards were produced in laboratory scale and mechanical and physical properties of the boards were investigated such as an internal bond, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, formaldehyde emission, etc. The obtained results revealed that oxidized starch – urea adhesives were synthesized successfully and it can be a good potential candidate to use the wood-based panel industry with some developments.

Keywords: corn starch, nano-TiO₂, formaldehyde emission, wood adhesives

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