Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

core-shell Related Abstracts

10 Electrochemical Properties of Bimetallic Silver-Platinum Core-Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: Fredrick O. Okumu, Mangaka C. Matoetoe

Abstract:

Silver-platinum (Ag-Pt) bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with varying mole fractions (1:1, 1:3 and 3:1) were prepared by co-reduction of hexachloroplatinate and silver nitrate with sodium citrate. Upon successful formation of both monometallic and bimetallic (BM) core shell nanoparticles, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to characterize the NPs. The drop coated nanofilms on the GC substrate showed characteristic peaks of monometallic Ag NPs; Ag+/Ag0 redox couple as well as the Pt NPs; hydrogen adsorption and desorption peaks. These characteristic peaks were confirmed in the bimetallic NPs voltammograms. The following varying current trends were observed in the BM NPs ratios; GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 > GCE/Ag-Pt 3:1 > GCE/Ag-Pt 1:1. Fundamental electrochemical properties which directly or indirectly affects the applicability of films such as; diffusion coefficient (D), electroactive surface coverage, electrochemical band gap, electron transfer coefficient (α) and charge (Q) were assessed using Randles - Sevcik plot and Laviron’s equations . High charge and surface coverage was observed in GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 which supports its enhanced current. GCE/Ag-Pt 3:1 showed high diffusion coefficient while GCE/Ag-Pt 1:1 possessed high electron transfer coefficient that is facilitated by its high apparent heterogeneous rate constant relative to other BM NPs ratios. Surface redox reaction was determined as adsorption controlled in all modified GCEs. Surface coverage is inversely proportional to size; therefore the surface coverage data suggests that Ag-Pt 1:1 NPs have a small particle size. Generally, GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 depicts the best electrochemical properties.

Keywords: Characterization, Nanoparticles, electrochemical, core-shell

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9 Synthesis of Nano Iron Copper Core-Shell by Using K-M Reactor

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed AbdelKawy, A. H. El-Shazly

Abstract:

In this study, Nano iron-copper core-shell was synthesized by using Kinetic energy micro reactor ( K-M reactor). The reaction between nano-pure iron with copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) beside NaCMC as a stabilizer at K-M reactor gives many advantages in comparison with the traditional chemical method for production of nano iron-Copper core-shell in batch reactor. Many factors were investigated for its effect on the process performance such as initial concentrations of nano iron and copper sulphate pentahydrate solution. Different techniques were used for investigation and characterization of the produced nano iron particles such as SEM, XRD, UV-Vis, XPS, TEM and PSD. The produced Nano iron-copper core-shell particle using micro mixer showed better characteristics than those produced using batch reactor in different aspects such as homogeneity of the produced particles, particle size distribution and size, as core diameter 10nm particle size were obtained. The results showed that 10 nm core diameter were obtained using Micro mixer as compared to 80 nm core diameter in one-fourth the time required by using traditional batch reactor and high thickness of copper shell and good stability.

Keywords: core-shell, nano iron, reduction reaction, K-M reactor

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8 Development of PCL/Chitosan Core-Shell Electrospun Structures

Authors: Hilal T. Sasmazel, Seda Surucu

Abstract:

Skin tissue engineering is a promising field for the treatment of skin defects using scaffolds. This approach involves the use of living cells and biomaterials to restore, maintain, or regenerate tissues and organs in the body by providing; (i) larger surface area for cell attachment, (ii) proper porosity for cell colonization and cell to cell interaction, and (iii) 3-dimensionality at macroscopic scale. Recent studies on this area mainly focus on fabrication of scaffolds that can closely mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) for creation of tissue specific niche-like environment at the subcellular scale. Scaffolds designed as ECM-like architectures incorporating into the host with minimal scarring/pain and facilitate angiogenesis. This study is related to combining of synthetic PCL and natural chitosan polymers to form 3D PCL/Chitosan core-shell structures for skin tissue engineering applications. Amongst the polymers used in tissue engineering, natural polymer chitosan and synthetic polymer poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) are widely preferred in the literature. Chitosan has been among researchers for a very long time because of its superior biocompatibility and structural resemblance to the glycosaminoglycan of bone tissue. However, the low mechanical flexibility and limited biodegradability properties reveals the necessity of using this polymer in a composite structure. On the other hand, PCL is a versatile polymer due to its low melting point (60°C), ease of processability, degradability with non-enzymatic processes (hydrolysis) and good mechanical properties. Nevertheless, there are also several disadvantages of PCL such as its hydrophobic structure, limited bio-interaction and susceptibility to bacterial biodegradation. Therefore, it became crucial to use both of these polymers together as a hybrid material in order to overcome the disadvantages of both polymers and combine advantages of those. The scaffolds here were fabricated by using electrospinning technique and the characterizations of the samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Additionally, gas permeability test, mechanical test, thickness measurement and PBS absorption and shrinkage tests were performed for all type of scaffolds (PCL, chitosan and PCL/chitosan core-shell). By using ImageJ launcher software program (USA) from SEM photographs the average inter-fiber diameter values were calculated as 0.717±0.198 µm for PCL, 0.660±0.070 µm for chitosan and 0.412±0.339 µm for PCL/chitosan core-shell structures. Additionally, the average inter-fiber pore size values exhibited decrease of 66.91% and 61.90% for the PCL and chitosan structures respectively, compare to PCL/chitosan core-shell structures. TEM images proved that homogenous and continuous bead free core-shell fibers were obtained. XPS analysis of the PCL/chitosan core-shell structures exhibited the characteristic peaks of PCL and chitosan polymers. Measured average gas permeability value of produced PCL/chitosan core-shell structure was determined 2315±3.4 g.m-2.day-1. In the future, cell-material interactions of those developed PCL/chitosan core-shell structures will be carried out with L929 ATCC CCL-1 mouse fibroblast cell line. Standard MTT assay and microscopic imaging methods will be used for the investigation of the cell attachment, proliferation and growth capacities of the developed materials.

Keywords: chitosan, PCL, core-shell, coaxial electrospinning, tissue scaffold

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7 Structural and Optical Characterization of [email protected] Core–Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: A. Pourahmad, Sh. Gharipour

Abstract:

The present work describes the preparation and characterization of nanosized SiO2@PbS core-shell particles by using a simple wet chemical route. This method utilizes silica spheres formation followed by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method assisted lead sulphide shell layer formation. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis spectroscopic, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. The morphological studies revealed the uniformity in size distribution with core size of 250 nm and shell thickness of 18 nm. The electron microscopic images also indicate the irregular morphology of lead sulphide shell layer. The structural studies indicate the face-centered cubic system of PbS shell with no other trace for impurities in the crystal structure.

Keywords: Semiconductor, nanostructure, XRD, core-shell, optical property

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6 Poly (Acrylonitrile-Co-Methylacrylate)/Poly N-Methyl Pyrrole and Pyrrole Nanocomposites

Authors: A. Sezai Sarac, Fatma Zehra Engin Sagirli, Eyup Sabri Kayali

Abstract:

In this study, Poly (acrylonitrile-co-methylacrylate)/N-Methyl Pyrrole and Pyrrole ([P(AN-co-MA)]-NMPy and [P(AN-co-MA)]-PPy) core–shell nanoparticles were obtained by in situ emulsion polymerization in the presence of Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDBS and SDS) by using ammonium per sulphate in the aqueous medium. The spectroscopic characterizations during the formation of nanocomposites were studied using Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer (Uv-Vis). Electrical conductivity of the emulsion solution was measured by Conductivity Meter from aqueous sample solution. Also, yield of the powder nanocomposites was measured. SDBS and SDS used for investigation of surfactant effect on yield, electrical conductivity and polymerization process. Determination of polymerization yield, (FTIR-ATR) and (Uv-Vis) prove that the SDBS surfactant become more incorporated into the conducting polymers and there is strong interaction between the [P(AN-co-MA)]-PPy derivatives which prepared by these surfactants. The similar inclusion of SDS into conducting polymers was not observed, there is a remarkable difference at nanocomposites which prepared with SDS.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, surfactant, core-shell, pyrole

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5 Carbonyl Iron Particles Modified with Pyrrole-Based Polymer and Electric and Magnetic Performance of Their Composites

Authors: Miroslav Mrlik, Marketa Ilcikova, Martin Cvek, Josef Osicka, Michal Sedlacik, Vladimir Pavlinek, Jaroslav Mosnacek

Abstract:

Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are a unique type of materials consisting of two components, magnetic filler, and elastomeric matrix. Their properties can be tailored upon application of an external magnetic field strength. In this case, the change of the viscoelastic properties (viscoelastic moduli, complex viscosity) are influenced by two crucial factors. The first one is magnetic performance of the particles and the second one is off-state stiffness of the elastomeric matrix. The former factor strongly depends on the intended applications; however general rule is that higher magnetic performance of the particles provides higher MR performance of the MRE. Since magnetic particles possess low stability properties against temperature and acidic environment, several methods how to improve these drawbacks have been developed. In the most cases, the preparation of the core-shell structures was employed as a suitable method for preservation of the magnetic particles against thermal and chemical oxidations. However, if the shell material is not single-layer substance, but polymer material, the magnetic performance is significantly suppressed, due to the in situ polymerization technique, when it is very difficult to control the polymerization rate and the polymer shell is too thick. The second factor is the off-state stiffness of the elastomeric matrix. Since the MR effectivity is calculated as the relative value of the elastic modulus upon magnetic field application divided by elastic modulus in the absence of the external field, also the tuneability of the cross-linking reaction is highly desired. Therefore, this study is focused on the controllable modification of magnetic particles using a novel monomeric system based on 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)ethyl methacrylate. In this case, the short polymer chains of different chain lengths and low polydispersity index will be prepared, and thus tailorable stability properties can be achieved. Since the relatively thin polymer chains will be grafted on the surface of magnetic particles, their magnetic performance will be affected only slightly. Furthermore, also the cross-linking density will be affected, due to the presence of the short polymer chains. From the application point of view, such MREs can be utilized for, magneto-resistors, piezoresistors or pressure sensors especially, when the conducting shell on the magnetic particles will be created. Therefore, the selection of the pyrrole-based monomer is very crucial and controllably thin layer of conducting polymer can be prepared. Finally, such composite particle consisting of magnetic core and conducting shell dispersed in elastomeric matrix can find also the utilization in shielding application of electromagnetic waves.

Keywords: Particle Modification, core-shell, atom transfer radical polymerization, electromagnetic waves shielding

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4 Core-Shell Type Magnetic Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Yogita Patil-Sen

Abstract:

Magnetic nanoparticles such as those made of iron oxide have been widely explored as biocatalysts, contrast agents, and drug delivery systems. However, some of the challenges associated with these particles are agglomeration and biocompatibility, which lead to concern of toxicity of the particles, especially for drug delivery applications. Coating the particles with biocompatible materials such as lipids and peptides have shown to improve the mentioned issues. Thus, these core-shell type nanoparticles are emerging as the new class of nanomaterials for targeted drug delivery applications. In this study, various types of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles are prepared and characterized using techniques, such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The heating ability of nanoparticles is tested under oscillating magnetic field. The efficacy of the nanoparticles as drug carrier is also investigated. The loading of an anticancer drug, Doxorubicin at 18 °C is measured up to 48 hours using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The drug release profile is obtained under thermal incubation condition at 37 °C and compared with that under the influence of oscillating field. The results suggest that the core-shell nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour, although, coating reduces the magnetic properties of the particles. Both the uncoated and coated particles show good heating ability, again it is observed that coating decreases the heating behaviour of the particles. However, coated particles show higher drug loading efficiency than the uncoated particles and the drug release is much more controlled under the oscillating magnetic field. Thus, the results strongly indicate the suitability of the prepared core-shell type nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles and their potential in magnetic hyperthermia applications and for hyperthermia cancer therapy.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, Targeted drug delivery, hyperthermia, core-shell

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3 Synthesis of Carbonyl Iron Particles Modified with Poly (Trimethylsilyloxyethyl Methacrylate) Nano-Grafts

Authors: Miroslav Mrlik, Martin Cvek, Michal Sedlacik, Tomas Plachy

Abstract:

Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are multi-phase composite materials containing micron-sized ferromagnetic particles dispersed in an elastomeric matrix. Their properties such as modulus, damping, magneto-striction, and electrical conductivity can be controlled by an external magnetic field and/or pressure. These features of the MREs are used in the development of damping devices, shock attenuators, artificial muscles, sensors or active elements of electric circuits. However, imperfections on the particle/matrix interfaces result in the lower performance of the MREs when compared with theoretical values. Moreover, magnetic particles are susceptible to corrosion agents such as acid rains or sea humidity. Therefore, the modification of particles is an effective tool for the improvement of MRE performance due to enhanced compatibility between particles and matrix as well as improvements of their thermo-oxidation and chemical stability. In this study, the carbonyl iron (CI) particles were controllably modified with poly(trimethylsilyloxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMATMS) nano-grafts to develop magnetic core–shell structures exhibiting proper wetting with various elastomeric matrices resulting in improved performance within a frame of rheological, magneto-piezoresistance, pressure-piezoresistance, or radio-absorbing properties. The desired molecular weight of PHEMATMS nano-grafts was precisely tailored using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The CI particles were firstly functionalized using a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane agent, followed by esterification reaction with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide. The ATRP was performed in the anisole medium using ethyl α-bromoisobutyrate as a macroinitiator, N, N´, N´´, N´´-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine as a ligand, and copper bromide as an initiator. To explore the effect PHEMATMS molecular weights on final properties, two variants of core-shell structures with different nano-graft lengths were synthesized, while the reaction kinetics were designed through proper reactant feed ratios and polymerization times. The PHEMATMS nano-grafts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography proving information to their monomer conversions, molecular chain lengths, and low polydispersity indexes (1.28 and 1.35) as the results of the executed ATRP. The successful modifications were confirmed via Fourier transform infrared- and energy-dispersive spectroscopies while expected wavenumber outputs and element presences, respectively, of constituted PHEMATMS nano-grafts, were occurring in the spectra. The surface morphology of bare CI and their PHEMATMS-grafted analogues was further studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the thicknesses of grafted polymeric layers were directly observed by transmission electron microscopy. The contact angles as a measure of particle/matrix compatibility were investigated employing the static sessile drop method. The PHEMATMS nano-grafts enhanced compatibility of hydrophilic CI with low-surface-energy hydrophobic polymer matrix in terms of their wettability and dispersibility in an elastomeric matrix. Thus, the presence of possible defects at the particle/matrix interface is reduced, and higher performance of modified MREs is expected.

Keywords: Particle Modification, Wettability, core-shell, atom transfer radical polymerization

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2 Fibroblast Compatibility of Core-Shell Coaxially Electrospun Hybrid Poly(ε-Caprolactone)/Chitosan Scaffolds

Authors: Hilal Turkoglu Sasmazel, Ozan Ozkan, Seda Surucu

Abstract:

Tissue engineering is the field of treating defects caused by injuries, trauma or acute/chronic diseases by using artificial scaffolds that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM), the natural biological support for the tissues and cells within the body. The main aspects of a successful artificial scaffold are (i) large surface area in order to provide multiple anchorage points for cells to attach, (ii) suitable porosity in order to achieve 3 dimensional growth of the cells within the scaffold as well as proper transport of nutrition, biosignals and waste and (iii) physical, chemical and biological compatibility of the material in order to obtain viability throughout the healing process. By hybrid scaffolds where two or more different materials were combined with advanced fabrication techniques into complex structures, it is possible to combine the advantages of individual materials into one single structure while eliminating the disadvantages of each. Adding this to the complex structure provided by advanced fabrication techniques enables obtaining the desired aspects of a successful artificial tissue scaffold. In this study, fibroblast compatibility of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/chitosan core-shell electrospun hybrid scaffolds with proper mechanical, chemical and physical properties successfully developed in our previous study was investigated. Standard 7-day cell culture was carried out with L929 fibroblast cell line. The viability of the cells cultured with the scaffolds was monitored with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assay for every 48 h starting with 24 h after the initial seeding. In this assay, blank commercial tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) Petri dishes, single electrospun PCL and single electrospun chitosan mats were used as control in order to compare and contrast the performance of the hybrid scaffolds. The adhesion, proliferation, spread and growth of the cells on/within the scaffolds were observed visually on the 3rd and the 7th days of the culture period with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CSLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The viability assay showed that the hybrid scaffolds caused no toxicity for fibroblast cells and provided a steady increase in cell viability, effectively doubling the cell density for every 48 h for the course of 7 days, as compared to TCPS, single electrospun PCL or chitosan mats. The cell viability on the hybrid scaffold was ~2 fold better compared to TCPS because of its 3D ECM-like structure compared to 2D flat surface of commercially cell compatible TCPS, and the performance was ~2 fold and ~10 fold better compared to single PCL and single chitosan mats, respectively, even though both fabricated similarly with electrospinning as non-woven fibrous structures, because single PCL and chitosan mats were either too hydrophobic or too hydrophilic to maintain cell attachment points. The viability results were verified with visual images obtained with CSLM and SEM, in which cells found to achieve characteristic spindle-like fibroblast shape and spread on the surface as well within the pores successfully at high densities.

Keywords: Electrospinning, chitosan, PCL, core-shell, fibroblast

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1 Generation of Mesoporous Silica Shell onto SSZ-13 and Its Effects on Methanol to Olefins

Authors: Ying Weiyong

Abstract:

The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites compromising SSZ-13 cores and mesoporous silica shells were synthesized successfully with the soft template of cetytrimethylammonium. The shell thickness could be tuned from 25 nm to 100 nm by varying the TEOS/SSZ-13 ratio. The BET and SEM results show the core-shell composites possessing the tunable surface area (544.7-811.0 m2/g) with plenty of mesopores (2.7 nm). The acidity intensity of the strong acid sites on SSZ-13 was remarkably impaired with the decoration of the mesoporous silica shell, which leads to the suppression of the hydrogen transfer reaction in MTO reaction. The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites exhibit better methanol to olefins reaction performance with a prolonged lifetime and the improvement of light olefins selectivity.

Keywords: mesoporous silica, core-shell, SSZ-13, methanol to olefins

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