Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Copper Related Abstracts

63 Removal of Copper from Wastewaters by Nano-Micro Bubble Ion Flotation

Authors: R. Ahmadi, A. Khodadadi, M. Abdollahi


The removal of copper from a dilute synthetic wastewater (10 mg/L) was studied by ion flotation at laboratory scale. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a collector and ethanol as a frother. Different parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations, foam height and bubble size distribution (multi bubble ion flotation) were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions in a Denver type flotation machine. To see into the effect of bubbles size distribution in this paper, a nano-micro bubble generator was designed. The nano and microbubbles that are generated in this way were combined with normal size bubbles generated mechanically. Under the optimum conditions (concentration of SDS: 192mg/l, ethanol: 0.5%v/v, pH value: 4 and froth height=12.5 cm) the best removal obtained for the system Cu/SDS with a dry foam (water recovery: 15.5%) was 85.6%. Coalescence of nano-microbubbles with bubbles of normal size belonging to mechanical flotation cell improved the removal of Cu to a maximum floatability of 92.8% and reduced the water recovery to a 13.1%.The flotation time decreased considerably at 37.5% when the multi bubble ion flotation was used.

Keywords: Optimization, Recycling, Water Treatment, Copper, froth flotation

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62 Relation between Copper, Lipid Profile, and Cognition in Elderly Jordanians

Authors: Eman Al-khateeba, Ebaa Al-Zayadneha, Osama Al-Dalahmahb, Zeinab Alawadib, Faisal Khatiba, Randa Naffaa, Yanal Shafagoj


The purpose of the current study was to examine the association of plasma copper and lipid concentrations with changes in cognitive function in elderly Jordanian individuals. The study population consisted of two groups; 52 subjects with dementia, and 50 controls. All individuals were screened with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock drawing test (CDT).Serum copper and lipid profile were assessed in all subjects, and the results were statistically evaluated at P < 0.05 level of significance. Dementia group had 10.1 % higher copper levels than controls however the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences could be found between the two groups in lipid profile levels. There was no significant correlation between serum copper, lipid profile and cognitive decline in elderly Jordanians. Demographic variables indicate that educational level less than 12 years and illiterate demonstrated a 3.29 fold (p=0.026) and 6.29 fold (p=0.002) increase in risk of developing dementia, respectively. While coffee intake showed a protective effect against cognitive decline with 6.25 fold lower risk with increased coffee intake.

Keywords: Dementia, alzheimer's disease, Copper, lipid profile, cholesterol, coffee

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61 Copper Content in Daily Food Rations Planned and Served to Students from Selected Military Academies and Soldiers Doing Compulsory Military Service in the Polish Army

Authors: J. Bertrandt, A. Kłos, R. Waszkowski, T. Nowicki, R. Pytlak, E. Stęzycka, A. Gazdzinska


The aim of the work was estimation of copper intake with the daily food rations used for alimentation of students of military high schools and soldiers doing compulsory military service in the Polish Army. An average planned copper content in daily food rations used for alimentation of students and soldiers amounted to 2.49±0.35 mg, and 2.44±0.25 mg respectively. The copper content in the daily food ration given for consumption to students amounted from 1.81±0.14 mg to 2.58±0.44 mg while daily food rations served to soldiers delivered from 2.06±0.45 mg to 2.13±0.33 mg. The copper content in the rations planned for students and soldiers’ alimentation was within the limits of the norms obligatory in Poland. Daily food rations given for consumption, except rations served for students, were within the limits of the recommended norms, but food rations really eaten by examined men didn’t cover the requirements for copper.

Keywords: Food Security, Nutrition, Copper, daily food ration, military service

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60 Determination of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Cadmium and Lead in Different Cigarette Brands in Yemen by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Authors: Ali A. Mutair


The concentration levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in different cigarette brands commonly produced and sold in Yemen were determined. Convenient sample treatment for cigarette tobacco of freshly opened packs was achieved by a sample preparation method based on dry digestion, and the concentrations of the analysed metals were measured by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). The mean values obtained for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in different Yemeni cigarette tobacco were 311, 52.2, 10.11, 1.71 and 4.06 µg/g dry weight, respectively. There is no more significant difference among cigarette brands tested. It was found that Fe was at the highest concentration, followed by Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The average relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1.77% to 19.34%. The accuracy and precision of the results were checked by blank and recovery tests. The results show that Yemeni cigarettes contain heavy metal concentration levels that are similar to those in foreign cigarette brands reported by other studies in the worldwide.

Keywords: Tobacco, Iron, Copper, cadmium, zinc, lead, Yemeni cigarette brands, atomic absorption spectrometry

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59 Polyacrylate Modified Copper Nanoparticles with Controlled Size

Authors: Robert Prucek, Aleš Panáček, Jan Filip, Libor Kvítek, Radek Zbořil


The preparation of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) through the reduction of copper ions by sodium borohydride in the presence of sodium polyacrylate with a molecular weight of 1200 is reported. Cu NPs were synthesized at a concentration of copper salt equal to 2.5, 5, and 10 mM, and at a molar ratio of copper ions and monomeric unit of polyacrylate equal to 1:2. The as-prepared Cu NPs have diameters of about 2.5–3 nm for copper concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mM, and 6 nm for copper concentration of 10 mM. Depending on the copper salt concentration and concentration of additionally added polyacrylate to Cu particle dispersion, primarily formed NPs grow through the process of aggregation and/or coalescence into clusters and/or particles with a diameter between 20–100 nm. The amount of additionally added sodium polyacrylate influences the stability of Cu particles against air oxidation. The catalytic efficiency of the prepared Cu particles for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol is discussed.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Catalyst, Copper, sodium polyacrylate

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58 Effect of Copper Addition at a Rate of 4% Weight on the Microstructure, Mechanical Characteristics, and Surface Roughness on the Hot Extrusion of Aluminum

Authors: S. M. A. Al Qawabah, A. I. O. Zaid


Al-4%Cu alloys are now widely used in many engineering applications especially in robotic, aerospace and vibration control area. The main problem arises from the weakness of their mechanical characteristics. Therefore, this study is directed towards enhancing the mechanical properties through severe plastic deformation. In this work, the hot direct extrusion process was chosen to provide the required hot work for this purpose. A direct extrusion die was designed and manufactured to be used in this investigation. The general microstructure, microhardness, surface roughness, and compression tests were performed on specimens from the produced Al-4%Cu alloy both in the as cast and after extrusion conditions. It was found that a pronounced enhancement in the mechanical characteristics of the produced Al-4%Cu after extrusion was achieved. The microhardness increased by 89.3%, the flow stress was decreased by 10% at 0.2 strain and finally the surface roughness was reduced by 81.6%.

Keywords: Aluminum, Copper, surface roughness, hot extrusion

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57 Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Nanocomposite Reinforced with Copper Coated MWCNTs

Authors: M. Nazem Salimi, C. Abrinia, M. Baniassadi, M. Ehsani


Mechanical properties of epoxy based nanocomposites containing copper coated MWCNTs were investigated and a comparative study between nanocomposites containing functionalized MWCNTs and copper coated MWCNTs which are already functionalized was conducted. The MWCNTs was deposited with copper nanoparticles through electroless deposition process after accomplishment of "two-step" method as sensitization and activation procedures on oxidized MWCNTs. In addition, functionalization of MWCNTs was carried out through combination of two covalent and non-covalent funcionalization methods using HNO3 for acid solution of covalent treatment and Triton X100 as non-ionic surfactant of non-covalent treatment. The presence of functional groups and removal of impurities of MWCNTs were confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The layer of copper nanoparticles on the MWCNTs wall increasing its diameter was observed by SEM. Utilizing solution blending process, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.5% wt loading of both copper coated MWCNTs and non-coated MWCNTs were used to prepare epoxy-based nanocomposites. The tensile, flexural and impact properties of nanocomposites were investigated. The results of tensile test demonstrated that nanocomposites containing copper coated MWCNTs exhibited brittle behavior compared to those reinforced with functionalized MWCNTs, whereas former one exhibited higher values of modulus than latter one for concentrations more than 0.4% wt. Presence of copper particles on MWCNTs surface decreased the tensile strength of nanocomposites. In comparison to pure epoxy, nanocomposites with treated-MWCNTs and Cu-MWCNTs loading of 0.1% wt showed an increase of 35% and 51.6% for flexural strength beside 20% and 30% increase in flexural modulus, respectively, whereas flexural properties of both naocomposites decreased with increasing of CNTs concentration. The results of impact strength of nanocomposites with Cu-CNTs demonstrated that impact properties decreased with increasing of filler content with a optimum value at 0.1% wt while in high concentrations impact properties of Cu-nanocomposites exhibited lower values than f-MWCNT nanocomposites.

Keywords: nanocomposite, functionalization, Mechanical Properties, Copper, epoxyresin, electroless deposition process

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56 Fusarium Wilt of Tomato: Plant Growth, Physiology and Biological Disease Management

Authors: Amna Shoaib, Sidrah Hanif, Rashid Mehmood


Current research work was carried out to check influence of farmyard manure (FYM) in Lycopersicon esculentum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FO) in copper polluted soil. Silt-loam soil naturally enriched with 70 ppm of Cu was inoculated with 1 x 106 spore suspensions of FO and incorporated with 0%, 1%, 1.5% or 2% FYM. The multilateral interaction of host-pathogen-metal-organic amendment was assessed in terms of morphology, growth, yield, physiology, biochemistry and metal uptake in tomato plant after 30 and 60 days of sowing. When soil was inoculated with FO, plant growth and biomass were significantly increased during vegetative stage, while declining during flowering stage with substantial increase in productivity over control. Infected plants exhibited late wilting and disease severity was found on 26-50% of plant during reproductive stage. Incorporation of up to 1% FYM suppressed disease severity, improved plant growth and biomass, while it decreased yield. Rest of manure doses was found ineffective in suppressing disease. Content of total chlorophyll, sugar and protein were significantly declined in FO inoculated plants and incorporation of FYM caused significant reduction or no influence on sugar and chlorophyll content, and no pronounced difference among different FYM doses were observed. On the other hand, proline, peroxidase, catalase and nitrate reductase activity were found to be increased in infected plants and incorporation of 1-2% FYM further enhanced the activity of these enzymes. Tomato plant uptake of 30-40% of copper naturally present in the soil and incorporation of 1-2% FYM markedly decreased plant uptake of metal by 15-30%, while increased Cu retention in soil. Present study concludes that lower dose (1%) of FYM could be used to manage disease, increase growth and biomass, while being ineffective for yield and productivity in Cu-polluted soil. Altered physiology/biochemistry of plant in response to any treatment could be served as basis for resistant against pathogen and metal homeostasis in plants.

Keywords: Copper, Lycopersicon esculentum, Fusarium wilt, farm yard manure

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55 The Effects of Copper and Cadmium on Germination and Seedling Growth of Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Seeds

Authors: Handan Ucun Özel, Halil Barış Özel


The toxic effects of copper and cadmium on seed germination, seedling, root, shoot length, and seedling dry biomass of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) was evaluated under laboratory conditions compared to control values. Copper and cadmium treatments at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l affect seed germination and seedling growth of oriental beech as compared to control. Copper treatments at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l concentrations produced significant (p < 0.01) effects on seed germination and seedling length of oriental beech while copper treatment at 150 mg/l significantly affected root growth and seedling dry biomass as compared to control. Similarly, cadmium treatments from 50 to 200 mg/l affected the seed germination, root, shoot length, and seedling dry biomass of oriental beech as compared to control. Cadmium treatments showed an adverse effect on seedlings of oriental beech as compared to copper, copper and cadmium treatments at 200mg/l exhibited the lowest percentage of tolerance in seedlings of oriental beech as compared to control.

Keywords: Toxicity, Copper, cadmium, oriental beech

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54 The Application of New Ligands including Different Atoms and Evaluation of Their Nucleophile Effects against Various Metals

Authors: Saman Hajmohamadi, Sohrab Hajmohamadi


The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the application of new ligands including different atoms and evaluation of their nucleophile effects against various metals. Chemistry researchers are really interested in this field. From among various ligands, there are some ligands with different coordinating ligands as well. There are great number of intermediate complexes and major elements of organic compositions with various atoms. There is a regular adding of new compositions. Complexes are the most important chemical combinations with various catalysts and biological, medicinal and other applications. Those complexes with ligands including different atom givers are really important and their synthesis could solve most of chemical problems. Supplying of new ligands is an important and key part of coordination chemistry which may cause some varieties and different properties in complexes with equal central nucleus. As a result, this research has evaluated new ligands including different coordination atoms, such as oxygen, nitrogen etc. along with their behavior against various metals like copper, nickel, iron etc.

Keywords: ligands, Iron, Copper, nucleophile, cobalt

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53 Hydrometallurgical Processing of a Nigerian Chalcopyrite Ore

Authors: Alafara A. Baba, Kuranga I. Ayinla, Folahan A. Adekola, Rafiu B. Bale


Due to increasing demands and diverse applications of copper oxide as pigment in ceramics, cuprammonium hydroxide solution for rayon, p-type semi-conductor, dry cell batteries production and as safety disposal of hazardous materials, a study on the hydrometallurgical operations involving leaching, solvent extraction and precipitation for the recovery of copper for producing high grade copper oxide from a Nigerian chalcopyrite ore in chloride media has been examined. At a particular set of experimental parameter with respect to acid concentration, reaction temperature and particle size, the leaching investigation showed that the ore dissolution increases with increasing acid concentration, temperature and decreasing particle diameter at a moderate stirring. The kinetics data has been analyzed and was found to follow diffusion control mechanism. At optimal conditions, the extent of ore dissolution reached 94.3%. The recovery of the total copper from the hydrochloric acid-leached chalcopyrite ore was undertaken by solvent extraction and precipitation techniques, prior to the beneficiation of the purified solution as copper oxide. The purification of the leach liquor was firstly done by precipitation of total iron and manganese using Ca(OH)2 and H2O2 as oxidizer at pH 3.5 and 4.25, respectively. An extraction efficiency of 97.3% total copper was obtained by 0.2 mol/L Dithizone in kerosene at 25±2ºC within 40 minutes, from which ≈98% Cu from loaded organic phase was successfully stripped by 0.1 mol/L HCl solution. The beneficiation of the recovered pure copper solution was carried out by crystallization through alkali addition followed by calcination at 600ºC to obtain high grade copper oxide (Tenorite, CuO: 05-0661). Finally, a simple hydrometallurgical scheme for the operational extraction procedure amenable for industrial utilization and economic sustainability was provided.

Keywords: Copper, Nigeria, chalcopyrite ore, copper oxide, solvent extraction

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52 Wear and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Iron Modified with Copper

Authors: J. Ramos, V. Gil, A. F. Torres


The nodular iron is a material that has shown great advantages respect to other materials (steel and gray iron) in the production of machine elements. The engineering industry, especially automobile, are potential users of this material. As it is known, the alloying elements modify the properties of steels and castings. Copper has been investigated as a structural modifier of nodular iron, but studies of its mechanical and tribological implications still need to be addressed for industrial use. With the aim of improving the mechanical properties of nodular iron, alloying elements (Mn, Si, and Cu) are added in order to increase their pearlite (or ferrite) structure according to the percentage of the alloying element. In this research (using induction furnace process) nodular iron with three different percentages of copper (residual, 0,5% and 1,2%) was obtained. Chemical analysis was performed by optical emission spectrometry and microstructures were characterized by Optical Microscopy (ASTM E3) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The study of mechanical behavior was carried out in a mechanical test machine (ASTM E8) and a Pin on disk tribometer (ASTM G99) was used to assess wear resistance. It is observed that copper increases the pearlite structure improving the wear behavior; tension behavior. This improvement is observed in higher proportion with 0,5% due to the fact that too much increase of pearlite leads to ductility loss.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Wear, Copper, nodular iron, pearlite structure

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51 EDTA Enhanced Plant Growth, Antioxidant Defense System, and Phytoextraction of Copper by Brassica napus L.

Authors: Ume Habiba, Shafaqat Ali, Mujahid Farid, Muhammad Bilal Shakoor


Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth and development, but in excess, it is also toxic to plants. The present study investigated the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing Cu uptake and tolerance as well as the morphological and physiological responses of Brassica napus L. seedlings under Cu stress. Four-week-old seedlings were transferred to hydroponics containing Hoagland’s nutrient solution. After 2 weeks of transplanting, three levels (0, 50, and 100 μM) of Cu were applied with or without application of 2.5 mM EDTA and plants were further grown for 8 weeks in culture media. Results showed that Cu alone significantly decreased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange characteristics. Cu stress also reduced the activities of antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) along with protein contents. Cu toxicity increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by the increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in both leaves and roots. The application of EDTA significantly alleviated Cu-induced toxic effects in B. napus, showing remarkable improvement in all these parameters. EDTA amendment increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes by decreasing the concentrations of MDA and H2O2 both in leaves and roots of B. napus. Although, EDTA amendment with Cu significantly increased Cu uptake in roots, stems, and leaves in decreasing order of concentration but increased the growth, photosynthetic parameters, and antioxidant enzymes. These results showed that the application of EDTA can be a useful strategy for phytoextraction of Cu by B. napus from contaminated soils.

Keywords: biomass, Tolerance, Antioxidants, Copper, EDTA, phytoextraction

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50 Study of the Behavior of Copper Immersed in Sea Water of the Bay of Large Agadir by Electrochemical Methods

Authors: Aicha Chaouay, Lahsen Bazzi, Mustapha Hilali


Seawater has chemical and biological characteristics making it particularly aggressive in relation to the corrosion of many materials including copper and steels low or moderate allies. Note that these materials are widely used in the manufacture of port infrastructure in the marine environment. These structures are exposed to two types of corrosion including: general corrosion and localized corrosion caused by the presence of sulfite-reducing micro-organisms. This work contributes to the study of the problematic related to bacterial contamination of the marine environment of large Agadir and evaluating the impact of this pollution on the corrosion resistance of copper. For the realization of this work, we conducted monthly periodic draws between (October 2012 February 2013) of seawater from the Anza area of the Bay of Agadir. Thus, after each sampling, a study of the electro chemical corrosion behavior of copper was carried out. Electro chemical corrosion parameters such as the corrosion potential, the corrosion current density, the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacity were evaluated. The electro chemical techniques used in this work are: the route potentiodynamic polarization curves and electro chemical impedance.

Keywords: Corrosion, Microbial Contamination, Copper, Bay of Agadir, seawater (Morocco)

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49 Carbon Supported Cu and TiO2 Catalysts Applied for Ozone Decomposition

Authors: Katya Milenova, Penko Nikolov, Irina Stambolova, Plamen Nikolov, Vladimir Blaskov


In the recent article, a comparison was made between Cu and TiO2 supported catalysts on activated carbon for ozone decomposition reaction. The activated carbon support in the case of TiO2/AC sample was prepared by physicochemical pyrolysis and for Cu/AC samples the supports are chemically modified carbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The samples were annealed in two different regimes-in air and under vacuum. To examine adsorption efficiency of the samples BET method was used. All investigated catalysts supported on chemically modified carbons have higher specific surface area compared to the specific surface area of TiO2 supported catalysts, varying in the range 590÷620 m2/g. The method of synthesis of the precursors had influenced catalytic activity.

Keywords: Adsorption, Copper, TiO2, activated carbon, ozone decomposition

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48 Effect of Chemical Modification of Functional Groups on Copper(II) Biosorption by Brown Marine Macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum

Authors: Luciana P. Mazur, Tatiana A. Pozdniakova, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar


The principal mechanism of metal ions sequestration by brown algae involves the formation of complexes between the metal ion and functional groups present on the cell wall of the biological material. To understand the role of functional groups on copper(II) uptake by Ascophyllum nodosum, some functional groups were chemically modified. The esterification of carboxylic groups was carried out by suspending the biomass in a methanol/HCl solution under stirring for 48 h and the blocking of the sulfonic groups was performed by repeating the same procedure for 4 cycles of 48 h. The methylation of amines was conducted by suspending the biomass in a formaldehyde/formic acid solution under shaking for 6 h and the chemical modification of sulfhydryl groups on the biomass surface was achieved using dithiodipyridine for 1 h. Equilibrium sorption studies for Cu2+ using the raw and esterified algae were performed at pH 2.0 and 4.0. The experiments were performed using an initial copper concentration of 300 mg/L and algae dose of 1.0 g/L. After reaching the equilibrium, the metal in solution was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry. The biological material was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Potentiometric Titration techniques for functional groups identification and quantification, respectively. The results using unmodified algae showed that the maximum copper uptake capacity at pH 4.0 and 2.0 was 1.17 and 0.52 mmol/g, respectively. At acidic pH values most carboxyl groups are protonated and copper sorption suffered a significant reduction of 56%. Blocking the carboxylic, sulfonic, amines and sulfhydryl functional groups, copper uptake decreased by 24/26%, 69/81%, 1/23% and 40/27% at pH 2.0/4.0, respectively, when compared to the unmodified biomass. It was possible to conclude that the carboxylic and sulfonic groups are the main functional groups responsible for copper binding (>80%). This result is supported by the fact that the adsorption capacity is directly related to the presence of carboxylic groups of the alginate polymer, and the second most abundant acidic functional group in brown algae is the sulfonic acid of fucoidan that contributes, to a lower extent, to heavy metal binding, particularly at low pH.

Keywords: Copper, biosorption, ion-exchange, brown marine macroalgae

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47 Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

Authors: Travis J. Meyer, Jasodra Ramlall, Phyo Thu, Nidhi Gadura


For centuries humans have used the antimicrobial properties of copper to their advantage. Yet, after all these years the underlying mechanisms of copper mediated cell death in various microbes remain unclear. We had explored the hypothesis that copper mediated increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the membrane fatty acids is responsible for increased killing inEscherichia coli. In this study we show that in both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria there is a strong correlation between copper mediated cell death and increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, the non-spore forming gram positive bacteria as well as gram negative bacteria show similar patterns of cell death, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as genomic DNA degradation, however there is some difference inloss in membrane integrity upon exposure to copper alloy surface.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Copper, gram positive, gram negative

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46 Leaching of Copper from Copper Ore Using Sulphuric Acid in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidizing Agent: An Optimized Process

Authors: Hilary Rutto


Leaching with acids are the most commonly reagents used to remove copper ions from its copper ores. It is important that the process conditions are optimized to improve the leaching efficiency. In the present study the effects of pH, oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide), stirring speed, solid to liquid ratio and acid concentration on the leaching of copper ions from it ore were investigated using a pH Stat apparatus. Copper ions were analyzed at the end of each experiment using Atomic Absorption (AAS) machine. Results showed that leaching efficiency improved with an increase in acid concentration, stirring speed, oxidizing agent, pH and decreased with an increase in the solid to liquid ratio.

Keywords: Leaching, Copper, pH stat apparatus, oxidizing agent

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45 Effect of Lime Stabilization on E. coli Destruction and Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Utilization

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, A. Pera, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa


The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation to heavy metal bioavailability. The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to the food chain.

Keywords: Pathogens, Sanitation, Copper, zinc, biological sludge, Ca(OH)2

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44 Preparation, Characterisation and Electrical Properties of Metal/polymer-DNA Nanohybrids

Authors: Mahdi Almaky


Conducting polymer of N-(3-pyrrol-1-yl-propyl)-2,2`-bipyridinium hexafluoro-phosphate (PPBH) was prepared via chemical and electrochemical polymerization methods. The bulk polymer showed conductivity in the order of 10-12 S cm-1. DNA-templated polymer nano wires of PPBH (PolyPPBH-DNA) have been chemically prepared then used as templates to direct the formation of metal nanowires (Cu) in order to enhance the electrical properties of the polymer/DNA wires. The chemical structures, morphology and the electrical characterisation of the as obtained structures have been characterized through spectroscopic (FTIR, UV-vis and XPS), single-crystal X-ray diffraction and microscopic (AFM, EFM and c-AFM) techniques. The morphology of the nanomaterials has been observed by AFM; showing the nanowires are uniform and continuous. The polymer conductivity was slightly improved after metallization. The conductivity of Cu-PolyPPBH-DNA nanowires was estimated to be 7.1x10-2 S cm-1. This conductivity is slightly higher than the conductivity of PolyPPBH-DNA nano wires (2.0 x 10-2 S cm-1), but it is lower than the measurements for PPy/DNA nano wires (2.1 x 10-1 S cm-1) prepared and measured by using c-AFM probe. These results reflect the large effect of the chemical structure (N-substitution) on the electrical properties of these polymers by reducing the extended conjugation.

Keywords: Dna, Copper, template, nano wires, N-Alkylatedpyrrole

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43 Investigation on Corrosion Behavior of Copper Brazed Joints

Authors: A. M. Aminazad, A. M. Hadian, F. Ghasimakbari


DHP (Deoxidized High Phosphorus )copper is widely used in various heat transfer units such as, air conditioners refrigerators, evaporators and condensers. Copper sheets and tubes (ISODHP) were brazed with four different brazing alloys. Corrosion resistances of the joints were examined by polarization and salt spray tests. The selected fillers consisted of three silver-based brazing alloys (hard solder); AWS-BCu5 BAg8, DINLAg30, and a copper-based filler AWS BCuP2. All the joints were brazed utilizing four different brazing processes including furnace brazing under argon, vacuum, air atmosphere and torch brazing. All of the fillers were used with and without flux. The microstructure of the brazed sheets was examined using both optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hardness and leak tests were carried out on all the brazed tubes. In all three silver brazing alloys selective and galvanic corrosion were observed in filler metals, but in copper phosphor alloys the copper adjacent to the joints were noticeably corroded by pitting method. Microstructure of damaged area showed selective attack of copper lamellae as well. Interfacial attack was observed along boundaries as well as copper attack within the filler metal itself. It was found that the samples brazed with BAg5 filler metal using vacuum furnace show a higher resistance to corrosion. They also have a good ductility in the brazed zone.

Keywords: Corrosion, Copper, brazing, filler metal

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42 Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Leaching for Extraction of Copper from Chalcopyrite Concentrate

Authors: Ayfer Kilicarslan, Kubra Onol, Sercan Basit, Muhlis Nezihi Saridede


Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the most common primary mineral used for the commercial production of copper. The low dissolution efficiency of chalcopyrite in sulfate media has prevented an efficient industrial leaching of this mineral in sulfate media. Ferric ions, bacteria, oxygen and other oxidants have been used as oxidizing agents in the leaching of chalcopyrite in sulfate and chloride media under atmospheric or pressure leaching conditions. Two leaching methods were studied to evaluate chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) dissolution in acid media. First, the conventional oxidative acid leaching method was carried out using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as oxidant at atmospheric pressure. Second, microwave-assisted acid leaching was performed using the microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) for same reaction media. Parameters affecting the copper extraction such as leaching time, leaching temperature, concentration of H2SO4 and concentration of K2Cr2O7 were investigated. The results of conventional acid leaching experiments were compared to the microwave leaching method. It was found that the copper extraction obtained under high temperature and high concentrations of oxidant with microwave leaching is higher than those obtained conventionally. 81% copper extraction was obtained by the conventional oxidative acid leaching method in 180 min, with the concentration of 0.3 mol/L K2Cr2O7 in 0.5M H2SO4 at 50 ºC, while 93.5% copper extraction was obtained in 60 min with microwave leaching method under same conditions.

Keywords: Extraction, Copper, microwave-assisted leaching, chalcopyrite, potassium dichromate

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41 Detection of Selected Heavy Metals in Raw Milk: Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Huma Naeem, Saif-Ur-Rehman Kashif, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry


Milk plays a significant role in the dietary requirements of human beings as it is a single source that provides various essential nutrients. A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal concentration in the raw milk marketed in Data Gunj Baksh Town of Lahore. A total of 180 samples of raw milk were collected in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season from five colonies of Data Gunj Baksh Town, Lahore. The milk samples were subjected to heavy metal analysis (Cr, Cu) by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results indicated high levels of Cr and Cu in post-monsoon seasons. Heavy metals were detected in milk in all samples under study and exceeded the standards given by FAO.

Keywords: Chromium, Copper, heavy metal, atomic absorption spectrophotometer

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40 Dissolution Kinetics of Chevreul’s Salt in Ammonium Cloride Solutions

Authors: Mustafa Sertçelik, Turan Çalban, Hacali Necefoğlu, Sabri Çolak


In this study, Chevreul’s salt solubility and its dissolution kinetics in ammonium chloride solutions were investigated. Chevreul’s salt that we used in the studies was obtained by using the optimum conditions (ammonium sulphide concentration; 0,4 M, copper sulphate concentration; 0,25 M, temperature; 60°C, stirring speed; 600 rev/min, pH; 4 and reaction time; 15 mins) determined by T. Çalban et al. Chevreul’s salt solubility in ammonium chloride solutions and the kinetics of dissolution were investigated. The selected parameters that affect solubility were reaction temperature, concentration of ammonium chloride, stirring speed, and solid/liquid ratio. Correlation of experimental results had been achieved using linear regression implemented in the statistical package program statistica. The effect of parameters on Chevreul’s salt solubility was examined and integrated rate expression of dissolution rate was found using kinetic models in solid-liquid heterogeneous reactions. The results revealed that the dissolution rate of Chevreul’s salt was decreasing while temperature, concentration of ammonium chloride and stirring speed were increasing. On the other hand, dissolution rate was found to be decreasing with the increase of solid/liquid ratio. Based on result of the applications of the obtained experimental results to the kinetic models, we can deduce that Chevreul’s salt dissolution rate is controlled by diffusion through the ash (or product layer). Activation energy of the reaction of dissolution was found as 74.83 kJ/mol. The integrated rate expression along with the effects of parameters on Chevreul's salt solubility was found to be as follows: 1-3(1-X)2/3+2(1-X)= [2,96.1013.(CA)3,08 .(S/L)-038.(W)1,23 e-9001,2/T].t

Keywords: Copper, dissolution kinetics, Chevreul's salt, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphide

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39 Potential Biosorption of Rhodococcus erythropolis, an Isolated Strain from Sossego Copper Mine, Brazil

Authors: Marcela dos P. G. Baltazar, Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Ingrid Avanzi, Elen A. Perpetuo


In this work, bacterial strains were isolated from environmental samples from a copper mine and three of them presented potential for bioremediation of copper. All the strains were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-Biotyper) and grown in three diferent media supplemented with 100 ppm of copper chloride in flasks of 500mL and it was incubated at 28 °C and 180 rpm. Periodically, samples were taken and monitored for cellular growth and copper biosorption by spectrophotometer UV-Vis (600 nm) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. At the end of exponential phase of cellular growth, the biomass was utilized to construct a correlation curve between absorbance and dry mass of the cells. Among the three isolates with potential for biorremediation, 1 strain exhibit capacity the most for bioremediation of effluents contaminated by copper being identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Bioprocess, Copper, biosorption

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38 Nanoarchitectures Cu2S Functions as Effective Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates for Molecular Detection Application

Authors: Yu-Kuei Hsu, Ying-Chu Chen, Yan-Gu Lin


The hierarchical Cu2S nano structural film is successfully fabricated via an electroplated ZnO nanorod array as a template and subsequently chemical solution process for the growth of Cu2S in the application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. The as-grown Cu2S nano structures were thermally treated at temperature of 150-300 oC under nitrogen atmosphere to improve the crystal quality and unexpectedly induce the Cu nano particles on surface of Cu2S. The structure and composition of thermally treated Cu2S nano structures were carefully analyzed by SEM, XRD, XPS, and XAS. Using 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) as probing molecules, the SERS experiments showed that the thermally treated Cu2S nano structures exhibit excellent detecting performance, which could be used as active and cost-effective SERS substrate for ultra sensitive detecting. Additionally, this novel hierarchical SERS substrates show good reproducibility and a linear dependence between analyte concentrations and intensities, revealing the advantage of this method for easily scale-up production.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Copper, cuprous sulfide, surface-enhanced raman scattering

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37 Relationship of Trace Minerals Nutritional Status of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) to Their Contents in Egyptian Feedstuff

Authors: Maha Mohamed Hady Ali, M. A. El-Sayed


Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is very important animal in many arid and semi-arid zones of tropical and subtropical regions as it serves as dual purpose providing meat and milk for human and as draft animal. Camel, like other animal must receive all essential nutrients despite the hostile environment. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of some micro-minerals of camel under Egyptian environmental condition. Forty five blood samples were collected from apparently healthy male camels with an average age between 2-6 years at the slaughter house in Cairo province, Egypt. The animals were fed mainly on berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) or concentrate with straw before slaughtering. The collected serum and feedstuff samples were subjected to copper, iron, selenium and zinc analysis using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data showed variation in the level of copper, iron, selenium and zinc in the serum of the dromedary camel as well as in the feedstuffs. Furthermore, the results indicated that the micro- minerals status of feeds may not always reflected as such in camel blood suggesting some role of bioavailability. The main reason for the lack of such reflection seems to be the wide diversity exists in the surrounding environment (forages and plants) as well as the bioavailability of such minerals. Since the requirement of micro-minerals have not been established for camel, more researches must be focused on this topic.

Keywords: Iron, Copper, Selenium, Egypt, camel, zinc, feed stuff

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36 Effects of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles on the Growth Performance, Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Gut Morphology of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Mohammad Nassiri, Farhad Ahmadi


This research was carried out to investigate the effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) on performance and gut morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 240 one-day-old male chickens (Ross-308) were randomly divided in a completely randomized design, the inclusion of 4 groups of 60 birds with 4 replicates and 15 birds in each. Experimental diets were as follow: T1 control (basal diets, without nano-CuO but contain 9.1 mg Cu/kg from CuO), T2, T3, and T4 basal diet supplementation with 30, 60, and 90 mg nano-CuO/kg, respectively. Feed intake (FI) and gain weight as weekly recorded and on d 21 feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Furthermore, at the end of the trial (21 d), four birds per treatment (one bird/replicate) randomly selected and after removed blood samples, they slaughtered and then to the analysis of gut morphological. A segment (10 cm) from the middle part of duodenum and jejunum was removed and put in the formalin 10% (pH = 7). The results revealed that nano-CuO had significantly increased body weight (P = 0.029, but feed intake (P = 0.017), and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.031) decreased in the birds that fed 90 mg nano-CuO when compared to control and the other groups. Total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.041), superoxide dismutase (P = 0.036), and glutathione peroxidase (P = 0.048) were more in the birds fed diet inclusion of 60 and 90 mg nano-CuO (T4) than other treatments. The lowest malonaldehyde (MDA) level was observed in T3 (P = 0.23) and T4 (P = 0.028) decreased (P = 0.17). The villi height and villi height to crypt depth (VH/CD ratio) numerically increased (P = 0.09) in the bird fed 90 mg nano-CuO in comparison with other treatments. According to present results, it could be concluded that dietary nano-CuO improved performance parameters and antioxidant status of broiler chickens during starter period. As well, the optimum improvement observed in the birds fed diet inclusion of 90 mg nano-CuO/kg.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Performance, Copper, antioxidant, broilers

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35 Batch Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Studies of Copper (II) Removal from Wastewater Using HDL as Adsorbent

Authors: Nadjet Taoualit, Zoubida Chemat, Djamel-Eddine Hadj-Boussaad


This study aims the removal of copper Cu (II) contained in wastewater by adsorption on a perfect synthesized mud. It is the materials Hydroxides Double Lamellar, HDL, prepared and synthesized by co-precipitation method at constant pH, which requires a simple titration assembly, with an inexpensive and available material in the laboratory, and also allows us better control of the composition of the reaction medium, and gives well crystallized products. A characterization of the adsorbent proved essential. Thus a range of physic-chemical analysis was performed including: FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction… The adsorption of copper ions was investigated in dispersed medium (batch). A systematic study of various parameters (amount of support, contact time, initial copper concentration, temperature, pH…) was performed. Adsorption kinetic data were tested using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Bangham's equation and intra-particle diffusion models. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and other isotherm models at different doses of HDL. The thermodynamics parameters were evaluated at different temperatures. The results have established good potentiality for the HDL to be used as a sorbent for the removal of Copper from wastewater.

Keywords: Copper, HDL, isotherm, adsoption

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34 Novel Self-Healing Eco-Friendly Coatings with Antifouling and Anticorrosion Properties for Maritime Applications

Authors: K. N. Kipreou, E. Efthmiadou, G. Kordas


Biofouling represents one of the most crucial problems in the present maritime industries when its control still challenges the researchers all over the world. The present work is referred to the synthesis and characterization CeMo and Cu2O nanocontainers by using a wide range of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for marine applications. The above nanosystems will be loaded with active monomers and corrosion rendering healing ability to marine paints. The objective of this project is their ability for self-healing, self-polishing and finally for anti-corrosion activity. One of the driving forces for the exploration of CeMo, is the unique anticorrosive behavior, which will be confirmed by the electrochemistry methodology. It has be highlighted that the nanocontainers of Cu2O with the appropriate antibacterial inhibitor will improve the hydrophobicity and the morphology of the coating surfaces reducing the water friction. In summary, both novel nanoc will increase the lifetime of the paints releasing the antifouling agent in a control manner.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Coating, Antifouling, Biofouling, Copper, SEM, copper oxide, anticorrosion, inhibitors, marinepaints, nanocontainer

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