Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Coping Related Abstracts

23 Spirituality and Coping with Breast Cancer among Omani Women

Authors: Huda Al-Awisi, Mohammed Al-Azri, Samira Al-Rasbi, Mansour Al-Moundhri

Abstract:

Cancer diagnosis is invariably a profound and catastrophic life-changing experience for individuals and their families. It has been found that cancer patients and survivors are distressed with the fragility of their life and their mortality. Based on the literature, cancer patients /survivors value their spiritual experience and connecting with unknown power either related to religious belief or not as an important coping mechanism. Health care professionals including nurses are expected to provide spiritual care for cancer patients as holistic care. Yet, nurses face many challenges in providing such care mainly due to lack of clear definition of spirituality. This study aims to explore coping mechanisms of Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer throughout their cancer journey including spirituality using a qualitative approach. A purposive sample of 19 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer at different stages of cancer treatment modalities were interviewed. Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The framework approach was used to analyze the data. One main theme related to spirituality was identified and called “The power of faith”. For the majority of participants, faith in God (the will of God) was most important in coping with all stages of their breast cancer experience. Some participants thought that the breast cancer is a test from God which they have to accept. Participants also expressed acceptance of death as the eventual end and reward from God. This belief gives them the strength to cope with cancer and seek medical treatment. In conclusion, women participated in this study believed faith in God imposed spiritual power for them to cope with cancer. They connected spirituality with religious beliefs. Therefore, regardless of nurses’ faith in spirituality, the spiritual care needs to be tailored and provided according to each patient individual need.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Women, Breast Cancer, Religion, Coping, spiritual, oman

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22 A Full-Scale Test of Coping-Girder Integrated Bridge

Authors: Heeyoung Lee, Woosung Bin, Kangseog Seo, Hyojeong Yun, Zuog An

Abstract:

Recently, a new continuous bridge system has been proposed to increase the space under the bridge and to improve aesthetic aspect of the urban area. The main feature of the proposed bridge is to connect steel I-girders and coping by means of prestressed high-strength steel bars and steel plate. The proposed bridge is able to lower the height of the bridge to ensure the workability and efficiency through a reduction of the cost of road construction. This study presents the experimental result of the full-scale connection between steel I-girders and coping under the negative bending moment. The composite behavior is thoroughly examined and discussed under the specific load levels such as service load, factored load and crack load. Structural response showed full composite action until the final load level because no relative displacement between coping and girder was observed. It was also found prestressing force into high-strength bars was able to control tensile stresses of deck slab. This indicated that cracks in deck slab can be controlled by above-mentioned prestressing force.

Keywords: Coping, crack, integrated bridge, full-scale test

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21 The Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Omani Women

Authors: H. Al-Awaisi, M. H. Al-Azri, S. Al-Rasbi, M. Al-Moundhri

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Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. It is also the most common cancer among females in Oman with 100 new breast cancer cases diagnosed every year. It has been found that breast cancer have a devastating effect on women’s life. Women diagnosed with breast cancer might develop negative attitudes towards the illness and their bodies. They might also suffer from psychological ailments such as depression. Despite the evidence on the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on women, there was no study found to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis among women in Oman. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on Omani women. Data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 11 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were analyzed thematically. From the data, there are four main themes identified in relation to the impact of cancer diagnosis on Omani women. These are 'shock and disbelieve', 'a death sentence', “uncertain future” and “social stigma”. At the time of interviews, all participants had advanced breast cancer with some participants having metastatic disease. The impact of the word “cancer” had a profound and catastrophic effect on the women and their close relatives. In conclusion, breast cancer diagnosis was shocking and mainly perceived as a death sentence by Omani women with uncertain future and social stigma. Regardless of age, maternal status and education level, it is evident that Omani women participated in this study lacked awareness about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Women, Breast Cancer, Coping, oman

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20 A Co-Relational Descriptive Study to Assess the Impact of Cancer Event on Self, Family, Coping Level of Cancer Clients and Quality of Life among Them

Authors: Padma Sree Potru

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Abstract: A co-relational descriptive study was conducted to assess the impact of cancer event on self, on family, coping strategies of cancer clients and quality of life among them in G.G.H., Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of cancer events on self, on family, coping of clients and quality of life among cancer patients. Methods: 50 cancer patients were selected through random sampling technique. The data were obtained by using impact of events scale, impact on family scale, coping health inventory and WHOQOL-BREF scale. Results: The results revealed that majority (32%) of them were in the age group of 36-45 years, 72% were females, 44% were having the income of Rs. 5001-10000/- per month, 40% were working for daily wage, and 15% were newly diagnosed of cancer. Among 50 cancer patients, 65% had extreme impact of events, 61% shows extreme impact on family, 46% possess minimal coping strategies and 68% had poor quality of life. This study focuses on that there is a strong positive correlation between quality of life and coping behavior r=0.603 and also between impact of event and impact on family r=0.610, but a negative correlation existed between quality of life and impact of events r= -0.201. ANOVA test reveals that there is a significant difference between subscales of impact on family and coping behavior with f values = 3.893, 3.957 respectively. Chi-square highlights that there is a significant association between impact of events with age, occupation and impact on family with duration of illness. Conclusion: Even though cancer is a dreadful disease still there are many emerging treatment modalities and innovative procedures which are focusing on improving the standards of life among cancer clients. But all this can happen only when the clients accepts the reality, increase their willpower and confidence, desire to live, focusing on coping mechanisms and good ongoing support from the family members.

Keywords: Coping, impact of event, impact on family, quality of event

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19 Stress and Coping among Adolescents in Selected Schools in the Capital City of India

Authors: N. Mathew, A. Qureshi, D. C. Khakha, R. Sagar

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Adolescents in India, account for one-fifth of the total population and are a significant human resource. Present study was conducted to find out various life stressors of adolescents, coping strategies adopted by them and the impact of stress on adolescent mental health. A descriptive, cross sectional study conducted on schools in the south zone of Delhi, capital city of the country. Data was collected on 360 adolescents between the age group of 13-17 years on socio-demographic profile, Adolescent life event stress scale, brief cope and youth self report for ages 11-18. Adolescents had significantly higher stress on uncontrollable events such as family events, relocation events, accident events and ambiguous events as compared to controllable events such as sexual events, deviance events and autonomy events (p<0.01).Adolescent stress was significantly correlated with various demographic variables in the study. The most frequently used coping strategies by the adolescents were positive reframing, planning, active coping, and instrumental support. It has also been found that the stress has a significant impact on adolescent mental health in the form of either internalizing problems such as anxious, withdrawn and somatic problems or externalizing problems such as rule breaking and aggressive behaviors. Out of the total sample of 360 adolescents 150 were identified as having psycho-social morbidity, including 59 borderline cases and 91 high-risk cases Study pointed out the need for mental health screening among the adolescents and also indicated the need for mental health inputs in educational institutions.

Keywords: Mental Health, stress, Coping, adolecents

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18 Aggression Related Trauma and Coping among University Students, Exploring Emotional Intelligence Applications on Coping with Aggression Related Trauma

Authors: Asanka Bulathwatta

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This Study tries to figure out the role of emotional Intelligence for developing coping strategies among adolescents who face traumatic events. Late adolescence students who have enrolled into the University education (Bachelor students/first-year students) would be selected as the sample. University education is an important stage of students’ academic life. Therefore, all students need to develop their competencies to attain the goal of passing examinations and also to developing their wisdom related to the scientific knowledge they gathered through their academic life. Study to be conducted in a cross-cultural manner and it will be taking place in Germany and Sri Lanka. The sample will be consisting of 200 students from each country. Late adolescence is a critical period of the human being as it is foot step in their life which acquiring the emotional and social qualities in their social life. There are many adolescents who have affected by aggression related traumatic events during their lifespan but have not been identified or treated. More specifically, there are numerous burning issues within the first year of the university students namely, ragging done by seniors to juniors, bulling, invalidation and issues raise based on attitudes changes and orientation issues. Those factors can be traumatic for both their academic and day to day lifestyle. Identifying the students who are with emotional damages and their resiliency afterward the aggression related traumas and effective rehabilitation from the traumatic events is immensely needed in order to facilitate university students for their academic achievements and social life within the University education. Research findings in Germany show that students shows more interpersonal traumas, life-threatening illnesses and death of someone related are common in German sample.

Keywords: Trauma, Coping, Emotional Intelligence, agression

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17 Comparative Analysis of the Psychosocial Impact of Skin Diseases in India

Authors: Priyanka Jain, Sushila Pareek

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Skin disease is often considered to be ‘only cosmetic’ by many medical professionals and lay-people alike but unlike most internal illnesses, skin disease is often immediately visible to others and therefore people suffering from dermatological conditions may suffer serious social and emotional consequences. The purpose of this research was to compare patients suffering from acne, alopecia areata (AA) and melanosis on perceived stress, social appearance anxiety and coping. The study included 120 patients (acne = 40 AA = 40 melanosis = 40) ages ranged from 15 to 25 years. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS), and The Brief COPE were administered to the patients. Analytical evaluation was done by Kruskal Wallis and ANOVA-tests. The results of the present study clearly revealed that perceived stress and social appearance anxiety were highest in patients with AA followed by acne patients and found least in patients with melanosis. With regard to coping, self-distraction as a coping technique was found highest in patients suffering from AA followed by acne and then melanosis. Denial was highest in acne patients followed by AA and experienced least by patients with melanosis. Behavioural disengagement was almost equal in patients with melanosis and acne and a little less in patients suffering from AA Acceptance was highest in patients with melanosis, followed by AA and least in acne patients. Self-blame was found highest in patients with acne, followed by AA patients further followed by patients suffering from melanosis. This study is an attempt to stimulate professionals working in the field of dermatology and mental health to explore their supportive communication and increase awareness regarding the difficulties that patients with skin disease can face.

Keywords: Dermatology, Coping, perceived stress, psychosocial impact, social appearance anxiety

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16 Readiness of Military Professionals for Challenging Situations

Authors: Petra Hurbisova, Monika Davidová

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The article deals with the readiness of military professionals for challenging situations. It discusses higher requirements on the psychical endurance of military professionals arising from the specific nature of the military occupation, which is typical for being very difficult to maintain regularity, which is in accordance with the hygiene of work alternated by relaxation. The soldier must be able to serve in the long term and constantly intense performance that goes beyond human tolerance to stress situations. A challenging situation is always associated with overcoming difficulties, obstacles and complicated circumstances or using unusual methods, ways and means to achieve the desired (expected) objectives, performing a given task or satisfying an important need. This paper describes the categories of challenging situations, their classification and characteristics. Attention is also paid to the formation of personality in challenging situations, coping with stress in challenging situations, Phases of solutions of stressful situations, resistance to challenging life situations and its factors. Finally, the article is focused on increasing the readiness of military professionals for challenging situations.

Keywords: Resilience, stress, Coping, challenging situations, stressful situations, military professionals

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15 Mental Vulnerability and Coping Strategies as a Factor for Academic Success for Pupils with Special Education Needs

Authors: T. Dubayova

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Slovak, as well as foreign authors, believe that the influence of non-cognitive factors on a student's academic success or failure is unquestionable. The aim of this paper is to establish a link between the mental vulnerability and coping strategies used by 4th grade elementary school students in dealing with stressful situations and their academic performance, which was used as a simple quantitative indicator of academic success. The research sample consists of 320 students representing the standard population and 60 students with special education needs (SEN), who were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) by their teachers and the Children’s Coping Strategies Checklist (CCSC-R1) filled in by themselves. Students with SEN recorded an extraordinarily high frequency of mental vulnerability (34.5 %) than students representing the standard population (7 %). The poorest academic performance of students with SEN was associated with the avoidance behavior displayed during stressful situations. Students of the standard population did not demonstrate this association. Students with SEN are more likely to display mental health problems than students of the standard population. This may be caused by the accumulation of and frequent exposure to situations that they perceive as stressful.

Keywords: Coping, School Performance, mental vulnerability, pupil with special education needs, school success

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14 Malpractice Makes Perfect: A Thematic Analysis on How Doctors Handle Medical Errors

Authors: Kathleen Joy Hingan, Jessiraye Luienne Catubigan, Carlo Mercado, Janisse RañEses

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In this research, the researchers wanted to explore how specialists and resident doctors in the fields of surgery, and obstetrics and gynecology handle their medical errors. They are interested in understanding the factors that contributed to the disclosure of medical error, the feelings after the occurrence of an error, and the way they coped with it given the power relations in place. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews, transcribed the recordings, and analyzed the transcripts using thematic analysis. They found that doctors disclosed to their superiors and co-residents to cope with and to learn from the errors. In terms of disclosure to patients, the participants told them about the adverse event, but not about the error because of fear for themselves, their colleagues, their institution, and their patient. Doctors also performed compensatory actions to make up for the error and the nondisclosure of its occurrence. These actions functioned as a form of damage control too. Resident doctors and specialists receive different sanctions because of the power structures in the system.

Keywords: disclosure, interviews, Coping, thematic analysis, doctors, medical errors

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13 Composite Behavior of Precast Concrete Coping with Internal Connector and Precast Girder

Authors: Heeyoung Lee, Junki Min, Wonseok Chung

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Traditional marine concrete structures are difficult to construct and may cause environmental pollution. This study presents new concrete bridge system in the marine. The main feature of the proposed bridge is that precast girders and precast coping are applied to facilitate assembly and to improve constructability. In addition, the moment of the girder is reduced by continuation the joint. In this study, a full-scale joint specimen with a span of 7.0 m was fabricated and tested to evaluate the composite behavior of the joint. A finite element model was also developed and compared against the experimental results. All members of the test specimen behaved stably up to the design load. It was found that the precast joint of the proposed bridge showed the composite behavior efficiently before the failure.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Coping, full-scale test, precast, marine structure, joint performance

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12 Parenting a Child with Profound Disabilities in Developing Countries: Experiences from Bangladesh

Authors: M. Abdul Jalil

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Parents caring for a child with a profound disability encounter different experiences compared to the parents caring for a child without a disability. The aim of this paper is to develop a greater understanding of parenting of a child with profound disabilities in the context of developing countries with reference to Bangladesh. The paper reveals that parents caring for a child with a profound disability are experiencing increased financial burden, affiliate and courtesy stigma and negative impact on mothers in terms of additional caregiving role, instability of conjugal relations, giving up of involvement in economic activities, and shrinking kinship and social relationships. In addition, government and non-government services for children with disabilities are very limited. Moreover, the information about the services is also not available to the parents. Therefore, parents find it difficult to cope with the challenges that lead to the alienation of the parents. The paper recommended the strategies to address the issues in the context of Bangladesh, which in turn might be applicable to the developing countries as well.

Keywords: Parenting, Coping, caregiving, profound disability

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11 Personality, Coping, Quality of Life, and Distress in Persons with Hearing Loss: A Cross-Sectional Study of Patients Referred to an Audiological Service

Authors: Oyvind Nordvik, Jonas Brannstrom, Flemming Vassbotn, Anne Kari Aarstad, Hans Jorgen Aarstad, Peder O. L. Heggdal

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Background: Hearing Loss (HL) is a condition that may affect people in all stages of life, but the prevalence increases with age, mostly because of age-related HL, generally referred to as presbyacusis. As human speech is related to relatively high frequencies, even a limited hearing loss at high frequencies may cause impaired speech intelligibility. Being diagnosed with, treated for and living with a chronic condition such as HL, must for many be a disabling and stressful condition that put ones coping resources to test. Stress is a natural part of life and most people will experience stressful events or periods. Chronic diseases, such as HL, are risk factor for distress in individuals, causing anxiety and lowered mood. How an individual cope with HL may be closely connected to the level of distress he or she is experiencing and to personality, which can be defined as those characteristics of a person that account for consistent patterns of feelings, thinking, and behavior. Thus, as to distress in life, such as illness or disease, available coping strategies may be more important than the challenge itself. The same line of arguments applies to level of experienced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between distress, HRQoL, reported hearing loss, personality and coping in patients with HL. Method: 158 adult (aged 18-78 years) patients with HL, referred for hearing aid (HA) fitting at Haukeland University Hospital in western Norway, participated in the study. Both first-time users, as well as patients referred for HA renewals were included. First-time users had been pre-examined by an ENT-specialist. The questionnaires were answered before the actual HA fitting procedure. The pure-tone average (PTA; frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) was determined for each ear. The Eysenck personality inventory, neuroticism and lie scales, the Theoretically Originated Measure of the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (TOMCATS) measuring active coping, hopelessness and helplessness, as well as distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) - 12 items) and the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire general part were answered. In addition, we used a revised and shortened version of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) as a measure of patient-reported hearing loss. Results: Significant correlations were determined between APHAB (weak), HRQoL scores (strong), distress scores (strong) on the one side and personality and choice of coping scores on the other side. As measured by stepwise regression analyses, the distress and HRQoL scores were scored secondary to the obtained personality and coping scores. The APHAB scores were as determined by regression analyses scored secondary to PTA (best ear), level of neuroticism and lie score. Conclusion: We found that reported employed coping style, distress/HRQoL and personality are closely connected to each other in this patient group. Patient-reported HL was associated to hearing level and personality. There is need for further investigations on these questions, and how these associations may influence the clinical context.

Keywords: Personality, Coping, Hearing loss, Distress

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10 The Effects of Cultural Self-Efficacy and Perceived Social Support on Acculturative Stress of International Postgraduate Students in the United Kingdom

Authors: Rhea Mathews

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The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of perceived social support and cultural self-efficacy on the acculturative stress of international postgraduate students in the United Kingdom. The study adopted Berry, Kim, Minde & Mok’s (1987) acculturative framework on acculturative stress and examined the relationship between the variables. The study hypothesized that perceived social support and cultural self-efficacy would predict lower levels of acculturative stress among students. Postgraduate students in the United Kingdom (N = 76) completed three surveys measuring the variables; Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Cultural Self-efficacy for Adolescents. To evaluate the role of the perceived social support and cultural self-efficacy in determining the acculturative stress level of international students, multiple linear regression was employed. Both independent variables exhibited a significant, negative relationship with acculturative stress (p < 0.001; p < 0.01). Results described that cultural self-efficacy and perceived social support significantly predicted acculturative stress (p < 0.01). Together, the variables accounted for 22% of the variance in acculturative stress scores (adjusted R² = 0.22), with cultural self-efficacy playing a larger role in predicting the dependent variable. Limitations and implications of the study are noted. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to enhancing international students’ acculturative experience when relocating to a new environment.

Keywords: Migration, International Education, Coping, international students, perceived social support, acculturative stress, cultural adjustment, cultural self-efficacy

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9 Academic Achievement in Argentinean College Students: Major Findings in Psychological Assessment

Authors: F. Uriel, M. M. Fernandez Liporace

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In the last decade, academic achievement in higher education has become a topic of agenda in Argentina, regarding the high figures of adjustment problems, academic failure and dropout, and the low graduation rates in the context of massive classes and traditional teaching methods. Psychological variables, such as perceived social support, academic motivation and learning styles and strategies have much to offer since their measurement by tests allows a proper diagnose of their influence on academic achievement. Framed in a major research, several studies analysed multiple samples, totalizing 5135 students attending Argentinean public universities. The first goal was aimed at the identification of statistically significant differences in psychological variables -perceived social support, learning styles, learning strategies, and academic motivation- by age, gender, and degree of academic advance (freshmen versus sophomores). Thus, an inferential group differences study for each psychological dependent variable was developed by means of student’s T tests, given the features of data distribution. The second goal, aimed at examining associations between the four psychological variables on the one hand, and academic achievement on the other, was responded by correlational studies, calculating Pearson’s coefficients, employing grades as the quantitative indicator of academic achievement. The positive and significant results that were obtained led to the formulation of different predictive models of academic achievement which had to be tested in terms of adjustment and predictive power. These models took the four psychological variables above mentioned as predictors, using regression equations, examining predictors individually, in groups of two, and together, analysing indirect effects as well, and adding the degree of academic advance and gender, which had shown their importance within the first goal’s findings. The most relevant results were: first, gender showed no influence on any dependent variable. Second, only good achievers perceived high social support from teachers, and male students were prone to perceive less social support. Third, freshmen exhibited a pragmatic learning style, preferring unstructured environments, the use of examples and simultaneous-visual processing in learning, whereas sophomores manifest an assimilative learning style, choosing sequential and analytic processing modes. Despite these features, freshmen have to deal with abstract contents and sophomores, with practical learning situations due to study programs in force. Fifth, no differences in academic motivation were found between freshmen and sophomores. However, the latter employ a higher number of more efficient learning strategies. Sixth, freshmen low achievers lack intrinsic motivation. Seventh, models testing showed that social support, learning styles and academic motivation influence learning strategies, which affect academic achievement in freshmen, particularly males; only learning styles influence achievement in sophomores of both genders with direct effects. These findings led to conclude that educational psychologists, education specialists, teachers, and universities must plan urgent and major changes. These must be applied in renewed and better study programs, syllabi and classes, as well as tutoring and training systems. Such developments should be targeted to the support and empowerment of students in their academic pathways, and therefore to the upgrade of learning quality, especially in the case of freshmen, male freshmen, and low achievers.

Keywords: learning strategies, Academic Achievement, Learning styles, Coping, academic motivation, perceived social support

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8 Perception of the End of a Same Sex Relationship and Preparation towards It: A Qualitative Research about Anticipation, Coping and Conflict Management against the Backdrop of Partial Legal Recognition

Authors: Merav Meiron-Goren, Orna Braun-Lewensohn, Tal Litvak-Hirsh

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In recent years, there has been an increasing tendency towards separation and divorce in relationships. Nevertheless, many couples in a first marriage do not anticipate this as a probable possibility and do not make any preparation for it. Same sex couples establishing a family encounter a much more complicated situation than do heterosexual couples. Although there is a trend towards legal recognition of same sex marriage, many countries, including Israel, do not recognize it. The absence of legal recognition or the existence of partial recognition creates complexity for these couples. They have to fight for their right to establish a family, like the recognition of the biological child of a woman, as a child of her woman spouse too, or the option of surrogacy for a male couple who want children, and more. The lack of legal recognition is burden on the lives of these couples. In the absence of clear norms regarding the conduct of the family unit, the couples must define for themselves the family structure, and deal with everyday dilemmas that lack institutional solutions. This may increase the friction between the two couple members, and it is one of the factors that make it difficult for them to maintain the relationship. This complexity exists, perhaps even more so, in separation. The end of relationship is often accompanied by a deep crisis, causing pain and stress. In most cases, there are also other conflicts that must be settled. These are more complicated when rights are in doubt or do not exist at all. Complex issues for separating same sex couples may include matters of property, recognition of parenthood, and care and support for the children. The significance of the study is based on the fact that same sex relationships are becoming more and more widespread, and are an integral part of the society. Even so, there is still an absence of research focusing on such relationships and their ending. The objective of the study is to research the perceptions of same sex couples regarding the possibility of separation, preparing for it, conflict management and resolving disputes through the separation process. It is also important to understand the point of view of couples that have gone through separation, how they coped with the emotional and practical difficulties involved in the separation process. The doctoral research will use a qualitative research method in a phenomenological approach, based on semi-structured in-depth interviews. The interviewees will be divided into three groups- at the beginning of a relationship, during the separation crisis and after separation, with a time perspective, with about 10 couples from each group. The main theoretical model serving as the basis of the study will be the Lazarus and Folkman theory of coping with stress. This model deals with the coping process, including cognitive appraisal of an experience as stressful, appraisal of the coping resources, and using strategies of coping. The strategies are divided into two main groups, emotion-focused forms of coping and problem-focused forms of coping.

Keywords: separation, Conflict Management, Coping, legal recognition, same-sex relationship

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7 Stress and Coping Strategies: A Correlational Analysis to Profiling Maladaptive Behaviors at Work

Authors: Silvia Riva, Ezekiel Chinyio

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Introduction: Workers in different sectors are prone to stress at varying levels. They also respond to stress in different ways. An inspiration was to study stress development amongst workers in a work dangerous setting (Construction Industry) as well as how they cope with specific stress incidences. Objective: The overarching objective of the study was to study and correlate between stress and coping strategies. The research was conducted in an organizational industrial setting, and its findings on the coping actions of construction workers are reported in this article. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted with 80 participants aged 18-62. These were working for three different construction organizations in the West Midland region of the UK. Their coping actions were assessed using the COPE Inventory (Carver, 2013) instrument while the level of stress was assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, 1994). Results: Out of 80 workers (20 female, 25%, mean age 40.66), positive reinterpretation (M=4.15, SD=2.60) and active coping (M=4.18, SD=2.55) were the two most adaptive strategies reported by the workers while the most frequent maladaptive behavior was mental disengagement (M=3.62, SD=2.25). Among the maladaptive tactics, alcohol and drug abuse was a significant moderator in stress reactions (t=6.12, p=.000). Conclusion: Some maladaptive strategies are adopted by construction workers to cope with stress. So, it could be argued that programs of stress prevention and control in the construction industry have a basis to develop solutions that can improve and strengthen effective interventions when workers are stressed or getting stressed.

Keywords: Organization, Strategies, stress, Coping

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6 Exploring Coping Strategies among Caregivers of Children Who Have Survived Cancer

Authors: Noor Ismael, Somaya Malkawi, Sherin Al Awady, Taleb Ismael

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Background/Significance: Cancer is a serious health condition that affects individuals’ quality of life during and after the course of this condition. Children who have survived cancer and their caregivers may deal with residual physical, cognitive or social disabilities. There is little research on caregivers’ health and wellbeing after cancer. To the authors’ best knowledge; there is no specific research about how caregivers cope with everyday stressors after cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the coping strategies that caregivers of children who have survived cancer utilize to overcome everyday stressors. Methods: This study utilized a descriptive survey design. The sample consisted of 103 caregivers, who visited the health and wellness clinic at a national cancer center (additional demographics are presented in the results). The sample included caregivers of children who were off cancer treatments for at least two years from the beginning of data collection. The institution’s internal review board approved this study. Caregivers who agreed to participate completed the survey. The survey collected caregiver reported demographic information and the Brief COPE which measures caregivers' frequency of engaging in certain coping strategies. The Brief COPE consisted of 14 coping sub-scales, which are self-distraction, active coping, denial, substance use, use of emotional support, use of instrumental support, behavioral disengagement, venting, positive reframing, planning, humor, acceptance, religion, and self-blame. Data analyses included calculating sub-scales’ scores for the fourteen coping strategies and analysis of frequencies of demographics and coping strategies. Results: The 103 caregivers who participated in this study were 62% mothers, 80% married, 45% finished high school, 50% do not work outside the house, and 60% have low family income. Result showed that religious coping (66%) and acceptance (60%) were the most utilized coping strategies, followed by positive reframing (45%), active coping (44%) and planning (43%). The least utilized coping strategies in our sample were humor (5%), behavioral disengagement (8%), and substance-use (10%). Conclusions: Caregivers of children who have survived cancer mostly utilize religious coping and acceptance in dealing with everyday stressors. Because these coping strategies do not directly solve stressors like active coping and planning coping strategies, it is important to support caregivers in choosing and implementing effective coping strategies. Knowing from our results that some caregivers may utilize substance use as a coping strategy, which has negative health effects on caregivers and their children, there must be direct interventions that target these caregivers and their families.

Keywords: Cancer, stress, Coping, caregivers

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5 Self-Care Behavior and Performance Level Associated with Algerian Chronically Ill Patients

Authors: S. Aberkane, N. Djabali, S. Fafi, A. Baghezza

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Chronic illnesses affect many Algerians. It is possible to investigate the impact of illness representations and coping on quality of life and whether illness representations are indirectly associated with quality of life through their influence on coping. This study aims at investigating the relationship between illness perception, coping strategies and quality of life with chronic illness. Illness perceptions are indirectly associated with the quality of life through their influence on coping mediation. A sample of 316 participants with chronic illness living in the region of Batna, Algeria, has been adopted in this study. A correlation statistical analysis is used to determine the relationship between illness perception, coping strategies, and quality of life. Multiple regression analysis was employed to highlight the predictive ability of the dimensions of illness perception and coping strategies on the dependent variables of quality of life, where mediation analysis is considered in the exploration of the indirect effect significance of the mediator. This study provides insights about the relationship between illness perception, coping strategies and quality of life in the considered sample (r = 0.39, p < 0.01). Therefore, it proves that there is an effect of illness identity perception, external and medical attributions related to emotional role, physical functioning, and mental health perceived, and these were fully mediated by the asking for assistance (c’= 0.04, p < 0.05), the guarding (c’= 0.00, p < 0.05), and the task persistence strategy (c’= 0.05, p < 0.05). The findings imply partial support for the common-sense model of illness representations in a chronic illness population. Directions for future research are highlighted, as well as implications for psychotherapeutic interventions which target unhelpful beliefs and maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy).

Keywords: Quality of Life, Coping, Chronic Illness, illness perception, self- regulation model

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4 The Relationship between Coping Styles and Internet Addiction among High School Students

Authors: Digdem Muge Siyez, Adil Kaval

Abstract:

With the negative effects of internet use in a person's life, the use of the Internet has become an issue. This subject was mostly considered as internet addiction, and it was investigated. In literature, it is noteworthy that some theoretical models have been proposed to explain the reasons for internet addiction. In addition to these theoretical models, it may be thought that the coping style for stressing events can be a predictor of internet addiction. It was aimed to test with logistic regression the effect of high school students' coping styles on internet addiction levels. Sample of the study consisted of 770 Turkish adolescents (471 girls, 299 boys) selected from high schools in the 2017-2018 academic year in İzmir province. Internet Addiction Test, Coping Scale for Child and Adolescents and a demographic information form were used in this study. The results of the logistic regression analysis indicated that the model of coping styles predicted internet addiction provides a statistically significant prediction of internet addiction. Gender does not predict whether or not to be addicted to the internet. The active coping style is not effective on internet addiction levels, while the avoiding and negative coping style are effective on internet addiction levels. With this model, % 79.1 of internet addiction in high school is estimated. The Negelkerke pseudo R2 indicated that the model accounted for %35 of the total variance. The results of this study on Turkish adolescents are similar to the results of other studies in the literature. It can be argued that avoiding and negative coping styles are important risk factors in the development of internet addiction.

Keywords: Adolescents, Regression analysis, Coping, Internet Addiction

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3 Staying When Everybody Else Is Leaving: Coping with High Out-Migration in Rural Areas of Serbia

Authors: Anne Allmrodt

Abstract:

Regions of South-East Europe are characterised by high out-migration for decades. The reasons for leaving range from the hope of a better work situation to a better health care system and beyond. In Serbia, this high out-migration hits the rural areas in particular so that the population number is in the red repeatedly. It might not be hard to guess that this negative population growth has the potential to create different challenges for those who stay in rural areas. So how are they coping with the – statistically proven – high out-migration? Having this in mind, the study is investigating the people‘s individual awareness of the social phenomenon high out-migration and their daily life strategies in rural areas. Furthermore, the study seeks to find out the people’s resilient skills in that context. Is the condition of high out-migration conducive for resilience? The methodology combines a quantitative and a qualitative approach (mixed methods). For the quantitative part, a standardised questionnaire has been developed, including a multiple choice section and a choice experiment. The questionnaire was handed out to people living in rural areas of Serbia only (n = 100). The sheet included questions about people’s awareness of high out-migration, their own daily life strategies or challenges and their social network situation (data about the social network was necessary here since it is supposed to be an influencing variable for resilience). Furthermore, test persons were asked to make different choices of coping with high out-migration in a self-designed choice experiment. Additionally, the study included qualitative interviews asking citizens from rural areas of Serbia. The topics asked during the interview focused on their awareness of high out-migration, their daily life strategies, and challenges as well as their social network situation. Results have shown the following major findings. The awareness of high out-migration is not the same with all test persons. Some declare it as something positive for their own life, others as negative or not effecting at all. The way of coping generally depended – maybe not surprising – on the people’s social network. However – and this might be the most important finding - not everybody with a certain number of contacts had better coping strategies and was, therefore, more resilient. Here the results show that especially people with high affiliation and proximity inside their network were able to cope better and shew higher resilience skills. The study took one step forward in terms of knowledge about societal resilience as well as coping strategies of societies in rural areas. It has shown part of the other side of nowadays migration‘s coin and gives a hint for a more sustainable rural development and community empowerment.

Keywords: Social Networks, Resilience, Rural development, Coping, out-migration, south-east Europe

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2 Adapting to College: Exploration of Psychological Well-Being, Coping, and Identity as Markers of Readiness

Authors: Marit D. Murry, Amy K. Marks

Abstract:

The transition to college is a critical period that affords abundant opportunities for growth in conjunction with novel challenges for emerging adults. During this time, emerging adults are garnering experiences and acquiring hosts of new information that they are required to synthesize and use to inform life-shaping decisions. This stage is characterized by instability and exploration, which necessitates a diverse set of coping skills to successfully navigate and positively adapt to their evolving environment. However, important sociocultural factors result in differences that occur developmentally for minority emerging adults (i.e., emerging adults with an identity that has been or is marginalized). While the transition to college holds vast potential, not all are afforded the same chances, and many individuals enter into this stage at varying degrees of readiness. Understanding the nuance and diversity of student preparedness for college and contextualizing these factors will better equip systems to support incoming students. Emerging adulthood for ethnic, racial minority students presents itself as an opportunity for growth and resiliency in the face of systemic adversity. Ethnic, racial identity (ERI) is defined as an identity that develops as a function of one’s ethnic-racial group membership. Research continues to demonstrate ERI as a resilience factor that promotes positive adjustment in young adulthood. Adaptive coping responses (e.g., engaging in help-seeking behavior, drawing on personal and community resources) have been identified as possible mechanisms through which ERI buffers youth against stressful life events, including discrimination. Additionally, trait mindfulness has been identified as a significant predictor of general psychological health, and mindfulness practice has been shown to be a self-regulatory strategy that promotes healthy stress responses and adaptive coping strategy selection. The current study employed a person-centered approach to explore emerging patterns across ethnic identity development and psychological well-being criterion variables among college freshmen. Data from 283 incoming college freshmen at Northeastern University were analyzed. The Brief COPE Acceptance and Emotional Support scales, the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, and MIEM Exploration and Affirmation measures were used to inform the cluster profiles. The TwoStep auto-clustering algorithm revealed an optimal three-cluster solution (BIC = 848.49), which classified 92.6% (n = 262) of participants in the sample into one of the three clusters. The clusters were characterized as ‘Mixed Adjustment’, ‘Lowest Adjustment’, and ‘Moderate Adjustment.’ Cluster composition varied significantly by ethnicity X² (2, N = 262) = 7.74 (p = .021) and gender X² (2, N = 259) = 10.40 (p = .034). The ‘Lowest Adjustment’ cluster contained the highest proportion of students of color, 41% (n = 32), and male-identifying students, 44.2% (n = 34). Follow-up analyses showed higher ERI exploration in ‘Moderate Adjustment’ cluster members, also reported higher levels of psychological distress, with significantly elevated depression scores (p = .011), psychological diagnoses of depression (p = .013), anxiety (p = .005) and psychiatric disorders (p = .025). Supporting prior research, students engaging with identity exploration processes often endure more psychological distress. These results indicate that students undergoing identity development may require more socialization and different services beyond normal strategies.

Keywords: Resilience, Coping, psychological well-being, adjustment, emerging adulthood, college, ethnic-racial identity

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1 Coping in Your Profession: An Exploratory Analysis of Healthcare Students’ Perceptions of Burnout

Authors: Heather Clark, Jon Kelly

Abstract:

Burnout among healthcare professionals has been elevated to a high level of concern. The descriptions of the healthcare workplace often include language such as, stressful, long hours, rotating shifts, weekends and holidays, and exhausting. New graduate healthcare professionals are being sent into the workplace with little to no coping skills, knowledge of signs and symptoms of burnout, or resources that are available. The authors of this study created a university course entitled 'coping in your profession' that enrolled registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, EMTs, nurse assistants, and medical assistants. The course addresses burnout, self-analysis, incivility, coping mechanisms, and organizational responsibilities for employee well-being. The students were surveyed using QualtricsXM that included a pre-course and post-course analysis. Pre-course results showed high levels of individual experiences with burnout and limited knowledge of resources to combat burnout. Post-course results included personal growth and that students’ perception of burnout can be prevented at both the individual and the organization levels. Students also indicated that few to no resources to combat burnout existed at their place of employment. Addressing burnout at the educational level helps prepare graduates with the knowledge and tools to combat burnout at the individual and organization level.

Keywords: Resilience, Burnout, Coping, healthcare workers, incivility

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