Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

COPD Related Abstracts

6 The out of Proportion - Pulmonary Hypertension in Indians with Chronic Lung Disease

Authors: S. P. Chintan, A. M. Khoja, M. Modi, R. K. Chopra, S. Garde, D. Jain, O. Kajale


Pulmonary Hypertension is a rare but debilitating disease that affects individuals of all ages and walks of life. As recent as 15 years ago, a patient diagnosed with PH was given an average survival rate of 2.8 years. Recent advances in treatment options have allowed patients to improve quality o and quantity of life. Initial screening for PH is through echocardiography with final diagnosis confirmed through right heart catheterization. PH is now considered to have five major classifications with subgroups among each. The mild to moderate PH is common in chronic lung diseases like Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and Interstitial lung disease. But very severe PH is noted in few cases. In COPD patients, PH is associated with an increased risk of severe exacerbations and a reduced life expectancy. Similarly, in patients with ILD, the presence of PH correlates with a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis is essential to slow disease progression. We report here five cases of severe PH (Out of Proportion) of which four cases were of COPD and another one of IPF (UIP pattern). There echocardiography showed gross RA/RV dilatation, interventricular septum bulging to the left and mPAP of more than 100 mmHg in all the five cases. These patients were put on LTOT, pulmonary rehabilitation, combination pharmacotherapy of vasodilators and diuretics in continuation to the treatment of underlying disease. As these patients have grave prognosis close monitoring and follow up is required. Physicians associated with respiratory care and treating chronic lung disease should have knowledge in the diagnosis and management of patients with PH.

Keywords: COPD, Pulmonary Hypertension, India, Chronic lung disease

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5 Excessive Recruitment of Neutrophils and Elastase Release in Emphysema and COPD; Effect of Natural Protease Inhibitors

Authors: Rachid Kacem


Excessive recruitment of Neutrophils into the lungs is a hallmark of several chronic inflammatory disorders such as emphysema and COPD. The resulting of this recruitment is the pathogenesis of lungs which is characterized by an imbalance between leukocyte serine proteinases mainly neutrophil elastase and the physiological inhibitors. The development of emphysema and remodeling of airway tissue occurred when neutrophil migrate into the lungs with more release of elastase and other proteolytic enzymes. Many reports have demonstrated that the extracts from medicinal plants such as Nigella sativa (L.) seeds extracts have anti-elastase activity; this is mainly due to the enrichment of the extracts with many bioactive molecules mainly phenolic compounds. Neutrophil serine proteases including human neutrophil elastase are involved in many inflammatory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. Since the current therapies for these diseases are inadequate and have numerous adverse effects, there is an acute need of potential alternative therapies. The natural protease inhibitors have received increasing attention as useful tools for potential utilization in pharmacology. This work is elucidating the most important natural phenolic substances that have been reported recently for their effectiveness as natural anti-elastase molecules, and hence, to the possibility of their use in the field of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, COPD, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Phenols, elastase, anti-elastase, emphysema

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4 Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Feelings of Uncertainty

Authors: Kyngäs Helvi, Patala-Pudas, Kaakinen Pirjo


It has been reported that COPD -patients may experience much emotional distress, which can compromise positive health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore disease-related uncertainty as reported by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients. Uncertainty was defined as a lack of confidence; negative feelings; a sense of confidence; and awareness of the sources of uncertainty. Research design was a non-experimental cross-sectional survey. The data (n=141) was collected by validated questionnaire during COPD -patients’ visits or admissions to a tertiary hospital. The response rate was 62%. The data was analyzed by statistical methods. Around 70% of the participants were male with COPD diagnosed many years ago. Fifty-four percent were under 65 years and used an electronic respiratory aid apparatus (52%) (oxygen concentrator, ventilator or electronic inhalation device). Forty-one percent of the participants smoked. Disease-related uncertainty was widely reported. Seventy-three percent of the participants had uncertainty about their knowledge of the disease, the pulmonary medication and nutrition. One-quarter (25%) did not feel sure about managing COPD exacerbation. About forty percent (43%) reported that they did not have a written exacerbation decision aid indicating how to act in relation to COPD symptoms. Over half of the respondents were uncertain about self-management behavior related to health habits such as exercise and nutrition. Over a third of the participants (37%) felt uncertain about self-management skills related to giving up smoking. Support from the care providers was correlated significantly with the patients’ sense of confidence. COPD -patients who felt no confidence stated that they received significantly less support in care. Disease-related uncertainty should be considered more closely and broadly in the patient care context, and those strategies within patient education that enhance adherence should be strengthened and incorporated into standard practice.

Keywords: Adherence, Uncertainty, COPD, disease-management

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3 Clara Cell Secretory Protein 16 Serum Level Decreases in Patients with Non-Smoking-Related Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)

Authors: Lian Wu, Mervyn Merrilees


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a worldwide problem, characterized by irreversible and progressive airflow obstruction. In New Zealand, it is currently the 4th commonest cause of death and exacerbations of COPD are a frequent cause of admission to hospital. Serum levels of Clara cell secretory protein-16 (CC-16) are believed to represent Clara cell toxicity. More recently, CC-16 has been found to be associated with smoker COPD. It is produced almost exclusively by non-ciliated Clara cells in the airways, and its primary function is to protect the lungs against oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. After acute exposure to cigarette smoke, serum levels of CC-16 become elevated. CC16 is a potent natural immune-suppressor and anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro, CC16 inhibits both monocyte and polymorphonuclear neutrophils chemotaxis and phagocytosis. CC16 also inhibits fibroblast chemotaxis. However, the role of CC-16 in non-smoking related COPD is still not clear. In this study, we investigated serum CC-16 levels in non-smoking related COPD. Methods: We compared non-smoker patients with COPD (FEV1<60% of predicted, FEV1/FVC <0.7, n=100) and individuals with normal lung function FEV1≥ 80% of predicted and FEV1/FVC≥ 0.7, n=80). All subjects had no smoking history. CC-16 was measured by ELISA. Results and conclusion: Serum CC-16 levels are reduced in individuals with non-smoking related COPD, and there is a weak correlation with disease severity in non-smoking related COPD group compared to non-smoker controls.

Keywords: COPD, ELISA, CC-16, non-smoking-related COPD

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2 Study of Pulmonary Function Test of over the 40 Years Adults in Ulaanbaatar

Authors: D. Densenbal, Ts. Naidansuren, M. Oyunchimeg, Ts. Manaljav, D. Udval, L. Khosbayar, Kh. Solongo, D. Ichinnorov, B. Solongo


Background: The rapid economic growth and to the common use of smoky fuel such as coal in the small traditional houses (Ger) in Mongolia is worsening its air pollution problem. In addition, the smoking rate is considered to be high. Despite these conditions, few prevalence studies of COPD epidemiology and diagnose have been performed in Mongolia. The spirometric test is a widely used diagnose for COPD. Aims: Healthy and over the 40 aged adults were evaluated of Pulmonary function test in Ulaanbaatar. Methods: Healthy, over the 40 aged residences were admitted for this study from II sub-district, in Khan-Uul district of Ulaanbaatar city. In this cross-sectional study. Health information was collected 184 subjects between 01-03 July in 2013; spirometry device was named Hichest–105 Japan that was employed for this study. Studies were using the acceptability standards outlined, and data were compared with personal reference data generated on Asian subjects which were performed abnormally to evaluated by global initiative obstructive lung decreases (GOLD). Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software. Results: A total of 134 subjects (age 52.9±9.8, man 32.8%) were performed PFT which were interpreted normal 73.9% (sum of man 65.0% and woman 79.4% ), abnormal 26.1% which were typed obstruction 17.2% (23), restriction 6% (8), mixed 3% (4). Airflow obstruction were determined in all man 25% (11), woman 13.3% (12) which were classified mild 43.4% (man 54.5%, woman 33.3%), moderate 52.2% (36.3% vs. 66.7%) and severe 4.3% man 1 GOLD degree. Undetermined a very severe obstruction. Normal PFT subjects were compared a group of gender and age group which man was significantly higher than the women (p<0.05). Age group of PFT decrease was no difference in gender (p>0.05) also no difference in BMI (p>0.05). Normal PFT subjects were compared with predicted values were used to Asian population which was significantly lower than FEV1 (0.15±0.36 l), PEF (1.92±1.31 l) and same deference occurred man (FEV1 0.19±0.42 l, PEF 2.04±1.64), women (0.14±0.33 l vs. 1.86±1.15 l). The decrease of FEV1 was defined in over the 60 age group higher than other age groups. Conclusion: Not only observed an air flow limitation prevalence dominance in all case but also COPD prevalence diagnosed man were higher than women. Normal PFT subjects were compared with predicted values were used to Asian population which was significant air flow limitation started early.

Keywords: COPD, PFT, obstruction, FEV1

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1 Association of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

Authors: Kriti Upadhyay, Ashraf Ali, Puja Sohal, Randeep Guleria


Background: In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary diseases (COPD) pathogenesis oxidative stress plays an important role. Hypoxia-Inducible factor (HIF-1α) is a dimeric protein complex which Functions as a master transcriptional regulator of the adaptive response to hypoxiaand is a risk factor that increases when oxidative stress triggers. The role ofHIF-1αin COPD due to smoking is lacking. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the role of HIF-1α in smoker COPD patients comparing its association with diseases severity. Method: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 87 subjects, 57 were smokers with COPD,15 were smokers without COPD and other 15 were non-smoker healthy controls. The mean age was 54.6± 9.32 (cases 57.08±8.15; controls 50.0± 9.8). There were 62%smokers, 25% non-smokers,7% tobacco chewers and 6% ex-smokers. Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for analyzing serum samples wherein HIF-1α was analyzed by Sandwich-ELISA. Results: In smoker COPD patients, a significantly higher HIF-1α level showed positive association with hypoxia, smoking status and severity of disease (p=0.03). The mean value of HIF-1α was not significantly different in smokers without COPD and healthy controls. Conclusion: It is found that HIF-1α level was increased in smoker COPD, but not in smokers without COPD. This suggests that development of COPD drive the HIF-1α pathway and it correlates with the severity of diseases.

Keywords: COPD, smokers, hypoxia, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, nonsmokers

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