Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

COP Related Abstracts

7 Thermodynamic Analysis of Cascade Refrigeration System Using R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-23

Authors: A. D. Parekh, P. R. Tailor

Abstract:

The Montreal protocol and Kyoto protocol underlined the need of substitution of CFC’s and HCFC’s due to their adverse impact on atmospheric ozone layer which protects earth from U.V rays. The CFCs have been entirely ruled out since 1995 and a long-term basis HCFCs must be replaced by 2020. All this events motivated HFC refrigerants which are harmless to ozone layer. In this paper thermodynamic analysis of cascade refrigeration system has been done using three different refrigerant pairs R13-R12, R290-R23, and R404A-R23. Effect of various operating parameters i.e evaporator temperature, condenser temperature, temperature difference in cascade condenser and low temperature cycle condenser temperature on performance parameters viz. COP, exergetic efficiency and refrigerant mass flow ratio have been studied. Thermodynamic analysis shows that out of three refrigerant pairs R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-R23 the COP of R290-R23 refrigerant pair is highest.

Keywords: Thermodynamic Analysis, cascade refrigeration system, COP, exergetic efficiency

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6 Experimental Investigation of Counter-Flow Ranque–Hilsch Vortex Tube Using Humid Air

Authors: Hussein M. Maghrabie, M. Attalla, Hany. A. Mohamed, M. Salem, E. Specht

Abstract:

An experimental investigation is carried out on counter-flow Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube (RHVT). The present work is carried out to study the effect of nozzle aspect ratio, tube length and the inlet pressure (P_i) on the coefficient of performance and energy separation of a RHVT. Further, the effect of moist air with different relative humidity (RH) 40, 60, 80 % is also achieved. The air relative humidity is adjusted using air humidification/dehumidification unit. The experimental study accomplished for number of nozzle N=6, with inner diameter D=7.5 mm., and length of the vortex tube (L) 75, 97.5, and 112.5 mm. The results show that the relative humidity has a significant effect on coefficient of performance and energy separation of a RHVT.

Keywords: humid air, COP, energy separation, counter-flow Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube

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5 Design Optimisation of a Novel Cross Vane Expander-Compressor Unit for Refrigeration System

Authors: Y. D. Lim, K. S. Yap, K. T. Ooi

Abstract:

In recent years, environmental issue has been a hot topic in the world, especially the global warming effect caused by conventional non-environmentally friendly refrigerants has increased. Several studies of a more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigeration system have been conducted in order to tackle the issue. In search of a better refrigeration system, CO2 refrigeration system has been proposed as a better option. However, the high throttling loss involved during the expansion process of the refrigeration cycle leads to a relatively low efficiency and thus the system is impractical. In order to improve the efficiency of the refrigeration system, it is suggested by replacing the conventional expansion valve in the refrigeration system with an expander. Based on this issue, a new type of expander-compressor combined unit, named Cross Vane Expander-Compressor (CVEC) was introduced to replace the compressor and the expansion valve of a conventional refrigeration system. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the performance of CVEC, and it was found that the machine is capable of saving the energy consumption of a refrigeration system by as much as 18%. Apart from energy saving, CVEC is also geometrically simpler and more compact. To further improve its efficiency, optimization study of the device is carried out. In this report, several design parameters of CVEC were chosen to be the variables of optimization study. This optimization study was done in a simulation program by using complex optimization method, which is a direct search, multi-variables and constrained optimization method. It was found that the main design parameters, which was shaft radius was reduced around 8% while the inner cylinder radius was remained unchanged at its lower limit after optimization. Furthermore, the port sizes were increased to their upper limit after optimization. The changes of these design parameters have resulted in reduction of around 12% in the total frictional loss and reduction of 4% in power consumption. Eventually, the optimization study has resulted in an improvement in the mechanical efficiency CVEC by 4% and improvement in COP by 6%.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Design optimization, Improvement, direct search, COP, complex optimization method, cross vane expander-compressor, CVEC, mechanical efficiency, multi variables

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4 Coefficient of Performance (COP) Optimization of an R134a Cross Vane Expander Compressor Refrigeration System

Authors: Y. D. Lim, K. S. Yap, K. T. Ooi

Abstract:

Cross Vane Expander Compressor (CVEC) is a newly invented expander-compressor combined unit, where it is introduced to replace the compressor and the expansion valve in traditional refrigeration system. The mathematical model of CVEC has been developed to examine its performance, and it was found that the energy consumption of a conventional refrigeration system was reduced by as much as 18%. It is believed that energy consumption can be further reduced by optimizing the device. In this study, the coefficient of performance (COP) of CVEC has been optimized under predetermined operational parameters and constrained main design parameters. Several main design parameters of CVEC were selected to be the variables, and the optimization was done with theoretical model in a simulation program. The theoretical model consists of geometrical model, dynamic model, heat transfer model and valve dynamics model. Complex optimization method, which is a constrained, direct search and multi-variables method was used in the study. As a result, the optimization study suggested that with an appropriate combination of design parameters, a 58% COP improvement in CVEC R134a refrigeration system is possible.

Keywords: Design, Simulation, Air-Conditioning, COP, R134a, cross vane expander-compressor, CVEC, multi variables, refrigeration system

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3 Thermodynamic Analysis of an Ejector-Absorption Refrigeration Cycle with Using NH3-H2O

Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi, Sayed Sina Rezaei, Abbas Aghagoli

Abstract:

In this paper, the ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle is presented. This article deals with the thermodynamic simulation and the first and second law analysis of an ammonia-water. The effects of parameters such as condenser, absorber, generator, and evaporator temperatures have been investigated. The influence of the various operating parameters on the performance coefficient and exergy efficiency of this cycle has been studied. The results show that when the temperature of different parts increases, the performance coefficient and the exergy efficiency of the cycle decrease, except for evaporator and generator, that causes an increase in coefficient of performance (COP). According to the results, absorber and ejector have the highest exergy losses in the studied conditions.

Keywords: COP, ejector, exergy efficiency, absorption refrigeration

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2 Numerical Study of the Influence of the Primary Stream Pressure on the Performance of the Ejector Refrigeration System Based on Heat Exchanger Modeling

Authors: Elhameh Narimani, Mikhail Sorin, Philippe Micheau, Hakim Nesreddine

Abstract:

Numerical models of the heat exchangers in ejector refrigeration system (ERS) were developed and validated with the experimental data. The models were based on the switched heat exchangers model using the moving boundary method, which were capable of estimating the zones’ lengths, the outlet temperatures of both sides and the heat loads at various experimental points. The developed models were utilized to investigate the influence of the primary flow pressure on the performance of an R245fa ERS based on its coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency. It was illustrated numerically and proved experimentally that increasing the primary flow pressure slightly reduces the COP while the exergy efficiency goes through a maximum before decreasing.

Keywords: COP, coefficient of performance, Ejector Refrigeration System, ERS, exergy efficiency (ηII), heat exchangers modeling, moving boundary method

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1 Application of Thermoplastic Microbioreactor to the Single Cell Study of Budding Yeast to Decipher the Effect of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural on Growth

Authors: Elif Gencturk, Ekin Yurdakul, Ahmet Y. Celik, Senol Mutlu, Kutlu O. Ulgen

Abstract:

Yeast cells are generally used as a model system of eukaryotes due to their complex genetic structure, rapid growth ability in optimum conditions, easy replication and well-defined genetic system properties. Thus, yeast cells increased the knowledge of the principal pathways in humans. During fermentation, carbohydrates (hexoses and pentoses) degrade into some toxic by-products such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF or HMF) and furfural. HMF influences the ethanol yield, and ethanol productivity; it interferes with microbial growth and is considered as a potent inhibitor of bioethanol production. In this study, yeast single cell behavior under HMF application was monitored by using a continuous flow single phase microfluidic platform. Microfluidic device in operation is fabricated by hot embossing and thermo-compression techniques from cyclo-olefin polymer (COP). COP is biocompatible, transparent and rigid material and it is suitable for observing fluorescence of cells considering its low auto-fluorescence characteristic. The response of yeast cells was recorded through Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) tagged Nop56 gene product, which is an essential evolutionary-conserved nucleolar protein, and also a member of the box C/D snoRNP complexes. With the application of HMF, yeast cell proliferation continued but HMF slowed down the cell growth, and after HMF treatment the cell proliferation stopped. By the addition of fresh nutrient medium, the yeast cells recovered after 6 hours of HMF exposure. Thus, HMF application suppresses normal functioning of cell cycle but it does not cause cells to die. The monitoring of Nop56 expression phases of the individual cells shed light on the protein and ribosome synthesis cycles along with their link to growth. Further computational study revealed that the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory or inductive effects of HMF on growth are enriched in functional categories of protein degradation, protein processing, DNA repair and multidrug resistance. The present microfluidic device can successfully be used for studying the effects of inhibitory agents on growth by single cell tracking, thus capturing cell to cell variations. By metabolic engineering techniques, engineered strains can be developed, and the metabolic network of the microorganism can thus be manipulated such that chemical overproduction of target metabolite is achieved along with the maximum growth/biomass yield.  

Keywords: Yeast, HMF, COP, ribosome biogenesis, thermoplastic microbioreactor

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