Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Conversation Analysis Related Abstracts

5 Investigating Breakdowns in Human Robot Interaction: A Conversation Analysis Guided Single Case Study of a Human-Robot Communication in a Museum Environment

Authors: B. Arend, P. Sunnen, P. Caire

Abstract:

In a single case study, we show how a conversation analysis (CA) approach can shed light onto the sequential unfolding of human-robot interaction. Relying on video data, we are able to show that CA allows us to investigate the respective turn-taking systems of humans and a NAO robot in their dialogical dynamics, thus pointing out relevant differences. Our fine grained video analysis points out occurring breakdowns and their overcoming, when humans and a NAO-robot engage in a multimodally uttered multi-party communication during a sports guessing game. Our findings suggest that interdisciplinary work opens up the opportunity to gain new insights into the challenging issues of human robot communication in order to provide resources for developing mechanisms that enable complex human-robot interaction (HRI).

Keywords: Human Robot Interaction, Conversation Analysis, museum, breakdown, dialogism

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4 Malaysian Students' Identity in Seminars by Observing, Interviewing and Conducting Focus Group Discussion

Authors: Zurina Khairuddin

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to explore the identities constructed and negotiated by Malaysian students in the UK and Malaysia when they interact in seminars. The study utilised classroom observation, interview and focus group discussion to collect the data. The participants of this study are the first year Malaysian students studying in the UK and Malaysia. The data collected was analysed utilising a combination of Conversation Analysis and framework. This study postulates that Malaysian students in the UK construct and negotiate flexible and different identities depending on the contexts they were in. It also shows that most Malaysian students in the UK and Malaysia are similar in the identities they construct and negotiate. This study suggests implications and recommendations for Malaysian students in the UK and Malaysia, and other stakeholders such as UK and Malaysian academic community.

Keywords: Conversation Analysis, Interaction Patterns, Malaysian students, students' identity

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3 Pedagogical Practices of a Teacher in Students' Experience Tellings: A Conversation Analytic Study

Authors: Derya Duran, Christine Jacknick

Abstract:

This study explores post-task reflections in an English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) setting, and it specifically focuses on how a teacher performs pedagogical practices such as reformulating, extending and evaluating following students’ spontaneous experience tellings in EMI classrooms. The data consist of 30 hours of video recordings from two EMI content classes, which were recorded for an academic term at a university in Turkey. The course, Guidance, is offered to fourth year undergraduate students as a compulsory course in the Department of Educational Sciences. The participants (n=78) study at the Faculty of Education, majoring in different educational departments (i.e., Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Elementary Education, Foreign Language Education). Using conversation analysis, we demonstrate that the teacher employs a variety of interactional resources to elicit (i.e., asking specific questions) and also provides (i.e., giving scientific information) as much content as possible, which also sheds light on the institutional fingerprints of the current research context. The study contributes to the existing research by unpacking articulation of personal experiences and cultivation of collaborativeness in classroom interaction. Moreover, describing the dialogic nature of these specific occasions, the study demonstrates how teacher and students address learning tasks together (collectivity), how they orient to each other turns interactionally (reciprocity), and how they keep the pedagogical focus in mind (purposefulness).

Keywords: Higher Education, Conversation Analysis, English as a medium of instruction, post-task reflections

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2 'I Mean' in Teacher Questioning Sequences in Post-Task Discussions: A Conversation Analytic Study

Authors: Derya Duran, Christine Jacknick

Abstract:

Despite a growing body of research on classroom, especially language classroom interactions, much more is yet to be discovered on how interaction is organized in higher education settings. This study investigates how the discourse marker 'I mean' in teacher questioning turns functions as a resource to promote student participation as well as to enhance collective understanding in whole-class discussions. This paper takes a conversation analytic perspective, drawing on 30-hour video recordings of classroom interaction in an English as a medium of instruction university in Turkey. Two content classrooms (i.e., Guidance) were observed during an academic term. The course was offered to 4th year students (n=78) in the Faculty of Education; students were majoring in different subjects (i.e., Early Childhood Education, Foreign Language Education, Mathematics Education). Results of the study demonstrate the multi-functionality of discourse marker 'I mean' in teacher questioning turns. In the context of English as a medium of instruction classrooms where possible sources of confusion may occur, we found that 'I mean' is primarily used to indicate upcoming adjustments. More specifically, it is employed for a variety of interactional purposes such as elaboration, clarification, specification, reformulation, and reference to the instructional activity. The study sheds light on the multiplicity of functions of the discourse marker in academic interactions and it uncovers how certain linguistic resources serve functions to the organization of repair such as the maintenance of understanding in classroom interaction. In doing so, it also shows the ways in which participation is routinely enacted in shared interactional events through linguistic resources.

Keywords: Conversation Analysis, repair, English as a medium of instruction, discourse marker

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1 How Did a Blind Child Begin Understanding Her “Blind Self”?: A Longitudinal Analysis Of Conversation between Her and Adults

Authors: Masahiro Nochi

Abstract:

This study explores the process in which a Japanese child with congenital blindness deepens understanding of the condition of being “unable to see” and develops the idea of “blind self,” despite having no direct experience of vision. The rehabilitation activities of a child with a congenital visual impairment that were video-recorded from 1 to 6 years old were analyzed qualitatively. The duration of the video was about 80 hours. The recordings were transcribed verbatim, and the episodes in which the child used the words related to the act of “looking” were extracted. Detailed transcripts were constructed referencing the notations of conversation analysis. Characteristics of interactions in those episodes were identified and compared longitudinally. Results showed that the child used the expression "look" under certain interaction patterns and her body expressions and interaction with adults developed in conjunction with the development of language use. Four stages were identified. At the age of 1, interactions involving “look” began to occur. The child said "Look" in the sequence: the child’s “Look,” an adult’s “I’m looking,” certain performances by the child, and the adult’s words of praise. At the age of 3, the child began to behave in accordance with the spatial attributes of the act of "looking," such as turning her face to the adult’s voice before saying, “Look.” She also began to use the expression “Keep looking,” which seemed to reflect her understanding of the temporality of the act of “looking.” At the age of 4, the use of “Look” or “Keep looking” became three times more frequent. She also started to refer to the act of looking in the future, such as “Come and look at my puppy someday.” At the age of 5, she moved her hands toward the adults when she was holding something she wanted to show them. She seemed to understand that people could see the object more clearly when it was in close priximity. About that time, she began to say “I cannot see” to her mother, which suggested a heightened understanding of her own blindness. The findings indicate that as she grew up, the child came to utilize nonverbal behavior before and after the order "Look" to make the progress of the interaction with adults even more certain. As a result, actions that reflect the characteristics of the sighted person's visual experience were incorporated into the interaction chain. The purpose of "Look," with which she intended to attract the adult's attention at first, changed and became something that requests a confirmation she was unable to make herself. It is considered that such a change in the use of the word as well as interaction with sighted adults reflected her heightened self-awareness as someone who could not do what sighted people could do easily. A blind child can gradually deepen their understanding of their own characteristics of blindness among sighted people around them. The child can also develop “blind self” by learning how to interact with others even without direct visual experiences.

Keywords: Child Development, Conversation Analysis, self-concept, blindness

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