Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Convergence Related Abstracts

24 Divergence of Innovation Capabilities within the EU

Authors: Vishal Jaunky, Jonas Grafström


The development of the European Union’s (EU) single economic market and rapid technological change has resulted in major structural changes in EU’s member states economies. The general liberalization process that the countries has undergone together has convinced the governments of the member states of need to upgrade their economic and training systems in order to be able to face the economic globalization. Several signs of economic convergence have been found but less is known about the knowledge production. This paper addresses the convergence pattern of technological innovation in 13 European Union (EU) states over the time period 1990-2011 by means of parametric and non-parametric techniques. Parametric approaches revolve around the neoclassical convergence theories. This paper reveals divergence of both the β and σ types. Further, we found evidence of stochastic divergence and non-parametric convergence approach such as distribution dynamics shows a tendency towards divergence. This result is supported with the occurrence of γ-divergence. The policies of the EU to reduce technological gap among its member states seem to be missing its target, something that can have negative long run consequences for the market.

Keywords: Convergence, Patents, European Union, panel data

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23 On Algebraic Structure of Improved Gauss-Seide Iteration

Authors: O. M. Bamigbola, A. A. Ibrahim


Analysis of real life problems often results in linear systems of equations for which solutions are sought. The method to employ depends, to some extent, on the properties of the coefficient matrix. It is not always feasible to solve linear systems of equations by direct methods, as such the need to use an iterative method becomes imperative. Before an iterative method can be employed to solve a linear system of equations there must be a guaranty that the process of solution will converge. This guaranty, which must be determined a priori, involve the use of some criterion expressible in terms of the entries of the coefficient matrix. It is, therefore, logical that the convergence criterion should depend implicitly on the algebraic structure of such a method. However, in deference to this view is the practice of conducting convergence analysis for Gauss-Seidel iteration on a criterion formulated based on the algebraic structure of Jacobi iteration. To remedy this anomaly, the Gauss-Seidel iteration was studied for its algebraic structure and contrary to the usual assumption, it was discovered that some property of the iteration matrix of Gauss-Seidel method is only diagonally dominant in its first row while the other rows do not satisfy diagonal dominance. With the aid of this structure we herein fashion out an improved version of Gauss-Seidel iteration with the prospect of enhancing convergence and robustness of the method. A numerical section is included to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results obtained for the improved Gauss-Seidel method.

Keywords: Convergence, linear algebraic system, Gauss-Seidel iteration, algebraic structure

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22 An Implicit High Order Difference Scheme for the Solution of 1D Pennes Bio-Heat Transfer Model

Authors: Swarn Singh, Suruchi Singh


In this paper, we present a fourth order two level implicit finite difference scheme for 1D Pennes bio-heat equation. Unconditional stability and convergence of the proposed scheme is discussed. Numerical results are obtained to demonstrate the efficiency of the scheme. In this paper we present a fourth order two level implicit finite difference scheme for 1D Pennes bio-heat equation. Unconditional stability and convergence of the proposed scheme is discussed. Numerical results are obtained to demonstrate the efficiency of the scheme.

Keywords: Stability, Convergence, finite difference scheme, Pennes bio-heat equation

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21 Convergence or Divergence of Economic Growth within the ASEAN Community: Challenges for the AEC

Authors: Philippe Gugler


This contribution reflects some important questions regarding inter alia the economic development occurring in the light of the ASEAN’s goal of creating the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. We observe a continuing economic growth of GDP per capita over recent years despite the negative effects of the world economic crisis. IMF forecasts indicate that this trend will continue. The paper focuses on the analysis and comparison of economic growth trends of ASEAN countries.

Keywords: Convergence, Integration, Globalization, Economic growth, ASEAN, divergence

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20 Facial Expression Recognition Using Sparse Gaussian Conditional Random Field

Authors: Mohammadamin Abbasnejad


The analysis of expression and facial Action Units (AUs) detection are very important tasks in fields of computer vision and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) due to the wide range of applications in human life. Many works have been done during the past few years which has their own advantages and disadvantages. In this work, we present a new model based on Gaussian Conditional Random Field. We solve our objective problem using ADMM and we show how well the proposed model works. We train and test our work on two facial expression datasets, CK+, and RU-FACS. Experimental evaluation shows that our proposed approach outperform state of the art expression recognition.

Keywords: Convergence, Gaussian Conditional Random Field, ADMM, gradient descent

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19 Steepest Descent Method with New Step Sizes

Authors: Bib Paruhum Silalahi, Djihad Wungguli, Sugi Guritman


Steepest descent method is a simple gradient method for optimization. This method has a slow convergence in heading to the optimal solution, which occurs because of the zigzag form of the steps. Barzilai and Borwein modified this algorithm so that it performs well for problems with large dimensions. Barzilai and Borwein method results have sparked a lot of research on the method of steepest descent, including alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method. Inspired by previous works, we modified the step size of the steepest descent method. We then compare the modification results against the Barzilai and Borwein method, alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method for quadratic function cases in terms of the iterations number and the running time. The average results indicate that the steepest descent method with the new step sizes provide good results for small dimensions and able to compete with the results of Barzilai and Borwein method and the alternate minimization gradient method for large dimensions. The new step sizes have faster convergence compared to the other methods, especially for cases with large dimensions.

Keywords: Convergence, Unconstrained Optimization, iteration, steepest descent, line search, running time

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18 On the convergence of the Mixed Integer Randomized Pattern Search Algorithm

Authors: Ebert Brea


We propose a novel direct search algorithm for identifying at least a local minimum of mixed integer nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems. The Mixed Integer Randomized Pattern Search Algorithm (MIRPSA), so-called by the author, is based on a randomized pattern search, which is modified by the MIRPSA for finding at least a local minimum of our problem. The MIRPSA has two main operations over the randomized pattern search: moving operation and shrinking operation. Each operation is carried out by the algorithm when a set of conditions is held. The convergence properties of the MIRPSA is analyzed using a Markov chain approach, which is represented by an infinite countable set of state space λ, where each state d(q) is defined by a measure of the qth randomized pattern search Hq, for all q in N. According to the algorithm, when a moving operation is carried out on the qth randomized pattern search Hq, the MIRPSA holds its state. Meanwhile, if the MIRPSA carries out a shrinking operation over the qth randomized pattern search Hq, the algorithm will visit the next state, this is, a shrinking operation at the qth state causes a changing of the qth state into (q+1)th state. It is worthwhile pointing out that the MIRPSA never goes back to any visited states because the MIRPSA only visits any qth by shrinking operations. In this article, we describe the MIRPSA for mixed integer nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems for doing a deep study of its convergence properties using Markov chain viewpoint. We herein include a low dimension case for showing more details of the MIRPSA, when the algorithm is used for identifying the minimum of a mixed integer quadratic function. Besides, numerical examples are also shown in order to measure the performance of the MIRPSA.

Keywords: Convergence, Markov Chain, direct search, random search, mixed integer optimization

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17 A Contrastive Analysis of English and Ukwuani Front Vowels

Authors: Omenogor, Happy Dumbi


This paper examines the areas of convergence and divergence between English and Ųkwųanį (a language in Nigeria) vowel systems with particular emphasis on the front vowels. It specifies areas of difficulty for the average Ųkwųanį users of English and Ųkwųanį L1 users of English as a second language. The paper explains the nature of contrastive analysis, the geographical locations where Ųkwųanį is spoken as mother tongue as well as English and Ųkwųanį front vowels. The principles of establishing phonemes, minimal pairs in Ųkwųanį as well as the vowel charts in both languages are among the issues highlighted in this paper.

Keywords: Convergence, English, divergence, Ukwųanį

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16 The World in the 21st Century and Beyound: Convergence or Invariance

Authors: Saleh Maina


There is an on-going debate among intellectuals and scholars of international relations and world politics over the direction which the world is heading particularly in the current era of globalization. On the one hand are adherents to the convergence thesis which is premised on the assumption that global social order is tending toward universalism which could translate into the possible end of the classical state system and the unification of world societies under a single and common ideological dispensation. The convergence thesis is hinged on the globalization process which is gradually reducing world societies into a 'global village'. On the other hand are intellectuals who hold the view that despite advances made in communication technology which appear to threaten the survival of the classical state system. Invariance, as expressed in the survival of the existing state system and the diverse social traditions in world societies, remain a realistic possibility contrary to the conclusions of the convergence thesis. The invariance thesis has been advanced by scholars like Samuel P. Huntington whose work on clash of civilizations suggests that world peace can only be sustained through the co-habitation of diverse civilizations across the world. The purpose of this paper is to examine both sides of the debate with the aim of making a realistic assessment on where world societies are headed, between convergence and invariance. Using the realist theory of international relations as our theoretical premise the paper argues that while there is sufficient ground to predict the future direction of world societies as headed towards some form of convergence, invariance as expressed in the co-existence of diverse civilizations will for a long time remain a major feature of the international system.

Keywords: Convergence, invariance, clash of civilization, classical state system, universalism

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15 A Continuous Boundary Value Method of Order 8 for Solving the General Second Order Multipoint Boundary Value Problems

Authors: T. A. Biala


This paper deals with the numerical integration of the general second order multipoint boundary value problems. This has been achieved by the development of a continuous linear multistep method (LMM). The continuous LMM is used to construct a main discrete method to be used with some initial and final methods (also obtained from the continuous LMM) so that they form a discrete analogue of the continuous second order boundary value problems. These methods are used as boundary value methods and adapted to cope with the integration of the general second order multipoint boundary value problems. The convergence, the use and the region of absolute stability of the methods are discussed. Several numerical examples are implemented to elucidate our solution process.

Keywords: Convergence, linear multistep methods, boundary value methods, second order multipoint boundary value problems

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14 Basins of Attraction for Quartic-Order Methods

Authors: Young Hee Geum


We compare optimal quartic order method for the multiple zeros of nonlinear equations illustrating the basins of attraction. To construct basins of attraction effectively, we take a 600×600 uniform grid points at the origin of the complex plane and paint the initial values on the basins of attraction with different colors according to the iteration number required for convergence.

Keywords: Convergence, nonlinear equation, basins of attraction, multiple-root

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13 Effect of Structural Change on Productivity Convergence: A Panel Unit Root Analysis

Authors: Amjad Naveed


This study analysed the role of structural change in the process of labour productivity convergence at country and regional levels. Many forms of structural changes occurred within the European Union (EU) countries i.e. variation in sectoral employment share, changes in demand for products, variations in trade patterns and advancement in technology which may have an influence on the process of convergence. Earlier studies on convergence have neglected the role of structural changes which can have resulted in different conclusion on the nature of convergence. The contribution of this study is to examine the role of structural change in testing labour productivity convergence at various levels. For the empirical purpose, the data of 19 EU countries, 259 regions and 6 industries is used for the period of 1991-2009. The results indicate that convergence varies across regional and country levels for different industries when considered the role of structural change.

Keywords: Convergence, Structural Change, labor produvitivty, panel unit root

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12 Relaxing Convergence Constraints in Local Priority Hysteresis Switching Logic

Authors: Mubarak Alhajri


This paper addresses certain inherent limitations of local priority hysteresis switching logic. Our main result establishes that under persistent excitation assumption, it is possible to relax constraints requiring strict positivity of local priority and hysteresis switching constants. Relaxing these constraints allows the adaptive system to reach optimality which implies the performance improvement. The unconstrained local priority hysteresis switching logic is examined and conditions for global convergence are derived.

Keywords: Adaptive Control, Convergence, hysteresis constant, hysteresis switching

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11 Application of the Finite Window Method to a Time-Dependent Convection-Diffusion Equation

Authors: Raoul Ouambo Tobou, Alexis Kuitche, Marcel Edoun


The FWM (Finite Window Method) is a new numerical meshfree technique for solving problems defined either in terms of PDEs (Partial Differential Equation) or by a set of conservation/equilibrium laws. The principle behind the FWM is that in such problem each element of the concerned domain is interacting with its neighbors and will always try to adapt to keep in equilibrium with respect to those neighbors. This leads to a very simple and robust problem solving scheme, well suited for transfer problems. In this work, we have applied the FWM to an unsteady scalar convection-diffusion equation. Despite its simplicity, it is well known that convection-diffusion problems can be challenging to be solved numerically, especially when convection is highly dominant. This has led researchers to set the scalar convection-diffusion equation as a benchmark one used to analyze and derive the required conditions or artifacts needed to numerically solve problems where convection and diffusion occur simultaneously. We have shown here that the standard FWM can be used to solve convection-diffusion equations in a robust manner as no adjustments (Upwinding or Artificial Diffusion addition) were required to obtain good results even for high Peclet numbers and coarse space and time steps. A comparison was performed between the FWM scheme and both a first order implicit Finite Volume Scheme (Upwind scheme) and a third order implicit Finite Volume Scheme (QUICK Scheme). The results of the comparison was that for equal space and time grid spacing, the FWM yields a much better precision than the used Finite Volume schemes, all having similar computational cost and conditioning number.

Keywords: Convergence, Finite Window Method, Convection-Diffusion, Numerical Technique

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10 Formation of Convergence Culture in the Framework of Conventional Media and New Media

Authors: Aytekin İsman, Berkay Bulus, Kübra Yüzüncüyıl


Developments in media and communication technologies have changed the way we use media. The importance of convergence culture has been increasing day by day within the framework of these developments. With new media, it is possible to say that social networks are the most powerful platforms that are integrated to this digitalization process. Although social networks seem like the place that people can socialize, they can also be utilized as places of production. On the other hand, audience has become users within the framework of transformation from national to global broadcasting. User generated contents make conventional media and new media collide. In this study, these communication platforms will be examined not as platforms that replace one another but mediums that unify each other. In the light of this information, information that is produced by users regarding new media platforms and all new media use practices are called convergence culture. In other words, convergence culture means intersections of conventional and new media. In this study, examples of convergence culture will be analyzed in detail.

Keywords: New Media, Convergence, convergence culture, use of new media, user generated content

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9 An Iterative Family for Solution of System of Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Sonia Sonia


This paper presents a family of iterative scheme for solving nonlinear systems of equations which have wide application in sciences and engineering. The proposed iterative family is based upon some parameters which generates many different iterative schemes. This family is completely derivative free and uses first of divided difference operator. Moreover some numerical experiments are performed and compared with existing methods. Analysis of convergence shows that the presented family has fourth-order of convergence. The dynamical behaviour of proposed family and local convergence have also been discussed. The numerical performance and convergence region comparison demonstrates that proposed family is efficient.

Keywords: Convergence, Nonlinear System, Newton's method, divided difference operator

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8 An Exponential Field Path Planning Method for Mobile Robots Integrated with Visual Perception

Authors: Magdy Roman, Mostafa Shoeib, Mostafa Rostom


Global vision, whether provided by overhead fixed cameras, on-board aerial vehicle cameras, or satellite images can always provide detailed information on the environment around mobile robots. In this paper, an intelligent vision-based method of path planning and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots is presented. The method integrates visual perception with a new proposed field-based path-planning method to overcome common path-planning problems such as local minima, unreachable destination and unnecessary lengthy paths around obstacles. The method proposes an exponential angle deviation field around each obstacle that affects the orientation of a close robot. As the robot directs toward, the goal point obstacles are classified into right and left groups, and a deviation angle is exponentially added or subtracted to the orientation of the robot. Exponential field parameters are chosen based on Lyapunov stability criterion to guarantee robot convergence to the destination. The proposed method uses obstacles' shape and location, extracted from global vision system, through a collision prediction mechanism to decide whether to activate or deactivate obstacles field. In addition, a search mechanism is developed in case of robot or goal point is trapped among obstacles to find suitable exit or entrance. The proposed algorithm is validated both in simulation and through experiments. The algorithm shows effectiveness in obstacles' avoidance and destination convergence, overcoming common path planning problems found in classical methods.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Convergence, Mobile Robots, Path Planning, Collision Avoidance

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7 Convergence Analysis of a Gibbs Sampling Based Mix Design Optimization Approach for High Compressive Strength Pervious Concrete

Authors: Jiaqi Huang, Lu Jin


Pervious concrete features with high water permeability rate. However, due to the lack of fine aggregates, the compressive strength is usually lower than other conventional concrete products. Optimization of pervious concrete mix design has long been recognized as an effective mechanism to achieve high compressive strength while maintaining desired permeability rate. In this paper, a Gibbs Sampling based algorithm is proposed to approximate the optimal mix design to achieve a high compressive strength of pervious concrete. We prove that the proposed algorithm efficiently converges to the set of global optimal solutions. The convergence rate and accuracy depend on a control parameter employed in the proposed algorithm. The simulation results show that, by using the proposed approach, the system converges to the optimal solution quickly and the derived optimal mix design achieves the maximum compressive strength while maintaining the desired permeability rate.

Keywords: Convergence, pervious concrete, Gibbs Sampling, high compressive strength, optimal mix design

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6 Consequences to Financial Reporting by Implementing Sri Lanka Financial Reporting Standard 13 on Measuring the Fair Value of Financial Instruments: Evidence from Three Sri Lankan Organizations

Authors: Nayoma Ranawaka


The demand for the high quality internationally comparable financial information has been increased than ever with the expansion of economic activities beyond its national boundaries. Thus, the necessity of converging accounting practices across the world is now continuously discussed with greater emphasis. The global convergence to International Financial Reporting Standards has been one of the main objectives of the International Accounting Standards Setting Board (IASB) since its establishment in 2001. Accordingly, Sri Lanka has adopted IFRSs in 2012. Among the other standards as a newly introduced standard by the IASB, IFRS 13 plays a pivotal role as it deals with the Fair Value Accounting (FVA). Therefore, it is valuable to obtain knowledge about the consequences of implementing IFRS 13 in Sri Lanka and compare results across nations. According to the IFRS Jurisdictional provision of Sri Lanka, Institute of Chartered Accountants of Sri Lanka has taken official steps to adopt IFRS 13 by introducing SLFRS 13 with de jure convergence. Then this study was identified the de facto convergence of the SLFRS 13 in measuring the Fair Value of Financial Instruments in the Sri Lankan context. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to explore the consequences to financial reporting by implementing SLFRS 13 on measuring the financial instruments. In order to achieve the objective of the study expert interview and in-depth interviews with the interviewees from the selected three case studies and their independent auditor were carried out using customized three different interview guides. These three cases were selected from three different industries; Banking, Manufacturing and Finance. NVivo version 10 was used to analyze the data collected through in-depth interviews. Then the content analysis was carried out and conclusions were derived based on the findings. Contribution to the knowledge by this study can be identified in different aspects. Findings of this study facilitate accounting practitioners to get an overall picture of application of fair value standard in measuring the financial instruments and to identify the challenges and barriers to the adoption process. Further, assist auditors in carrying out their audit procedures to check the level of compliance to the fair value standard in measuring the financial instruments. Moreover, this would enable foreign investors in assessing the reliability of the financial statements of their target investments as a result of SLFRS 13 in measuring the FVs of the FIs. The findings of the study could be used to open new avenues of thinking for policy formulators to provide the necessary infrastructure to eliminate disparities exists among different regulatory bodies to facilitate full convergence and thereby growth of the economy. Further, this provides insights to the dynamics of FVA implementation that are also relevant for other developing countries.

Keywords: Convergence, financial instruments, fair value, IFRS 13

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5 A Case Study on the Long-Term Stability Monitoring of Underground Powerhouse Complex Using Geotechnical Instrumentation

Authors: Sudhakar Kadiyala, Sripad R. Naik


Large cavern in Bhutan Himalayas is being monitored since the construction period. The behavior of the cavern is being monitored for last 16 years. Instrumentation includes measurement of convergence of high walls by geodetic monitoring, load on the support systems with load cells and instrumented bolts. Analysis of the results of instrumentation showed that during the construction period of the cavern, the convergence of the cavern varied from 181 - 233 mm in the unit bay area with maximum convergence rate of 2.80mm/day. Whereas during the operational period the total convergence observed was in the range of 21 to 45 mm during a period of 11.30 years with convergence rate of 0.005 to 0.011 mm/day. During the last five years, there were no instances of high tensile stress recorded by the instrumented bolts. Load on the rock bolts have shown stabilization trend at most of the locations. This paper discusses in detail the results of long-term monitoring using the geotechnical instruments and how the data is being used in 3D numerical model to confirm the stability of the cavern.

Keywords: Convergence, Geodetic Monitoring, displacements, long-term stability

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4 Convergence of Generalized Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and Successive Overrelaxation Methods for Various Classes of Matrices

Authors: Manideepa Saha, Jahnavi Chakrabarty


Generalized Jacobi (GJ) and Generalized Gauss-Seidel (GGS) methods are most effective than conventional Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods for solving linear system of equations. It is known that GJ and GGS methods converge for strictly diagonally dominant (SDD) and for M-matrices. In this paper, we study the convergence of GJ and GGS converge for symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices, L-matrices and H-matrices. We introduce a generalization of successive overrelaxation (SOR) method for solving linear systems and discuss its convergence for the classes of SDD matrices, SPD matrices, M-matrices, L-matrices and for H-matrices. Advantages of generalized SOR method are established through numerical experiments over GJ, GGS, and SOR methods.

Keywords: Convergence, Iterative Method, Gauss-Seidel, Jacobi, SOR

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3 Convergence Analysis of Training Two-Hidden-Layer Partially Over-Parameterized ReLU Networks via Gradient Descent

Authors: Zhifeng Kong


Over-parameterized neural networks have attracted a great deal of attention in recent deep learning theory research, as they challenge the classic perspective of over-fitting when the model has excessive parameters and have gained empirical success in various settings. While a number of theoretical works have been presented to demystify properties of such models, the convergence properties of such models are still far from being thoroughly understood. In this work, we study the convergence properties of training two-hidden-layer partially over-parameterized fully connected networks with the Rectified Linear Unit activation via gradient descent. To our knowledge, this is the first theoretical work to understand convergence properties of deep over-parameterized networks without the equally-wide-hidden-layer assumption and other unrealistic assumptions. We provide a probabilistic lower bound of the widths of hidden layers and proved linear convergence rate of gradient descent. We also conducted experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets to validate our theory.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Convergence, gradient descent, over-parameterization, rectified linear units ReLU

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2 Transition Dynamic Analysis of the Urban Disparity in Iran “Case Study: Iran Provinces Center”

Authors: Marzieh Ahmadi, Ruhullah Alikhan Gorgani


The usual methods of measuring regional inequalities can not reflect the internal changes of the country in terms of their displacement in different development groups, and the indicators of inequalities are not effective in demonstrating the dynamics of the distribution of inequality. For this purpose, this paper examines the dynamics of the urban inertial transport in the country during the period of 2006-2016 using the CIRD multidimensional index and stochastic kernel density method. it firstly selects 25 indicators in five dimensions including macroeconomic conditions, science and innovation, environmental sustainability, human capital and public facilities, and two-stage Principal Component Analysis methodology are developed to create a composite index of inequality. Then, in the second stage, using a nonparametric analytical approach to internal distribution dynamics and a stochastic kernel density method, the convergence hypothesis of the CIRD index of the Iranian provinces center is tested, and then, based on the ergodic density, long-run equilibrium is shown. Also, at this stage, for the purpose of adopting accurate regional policies, the distribution dynamics and process of convergence or divergence of the Iranian provinces for each of the five. According to the results of the first Stage, in 2006 & 2016, the highest level of development is related to Tehran and zahedan is at the lowest level of development. The results show that the central cities of the country are at the highest level of development due to the effects of Tehran's knowledge spillover and the country's lower cities are at the lowest level of development. The main reason for this may be the lack of access to markets in the border provinces. Based on the results of the second stage, which examines the dynamics of regional inequality transmission in the country during 2006-2016, the first year (2006) is not multifaceted and according to the kernel density graph, the CIRD index of about 70% of the cities. The value is between -1.1 and -0.1. The rest of the sequence on the right is distributed at a level higher than -0.1. In the kernel distribution, a convergence process is observed and the graph points to a single peak. Tends to be a small peak at about 3 but the main peak at about-0.6. According to the chart in the final year (2016), the multidimensional pattern remains and there is no mobility in the lower level groups, but at the higher level, the CIRD index accounts for about 45% of the provinces at about -0.4 Take it. That this year clearly faces the twin density pattern, which indicates that the cities tend to be closely related to each other in terms of development, so that the cities are low in terms of development. Also, according to the distribution dynamics results, the provinces of Iran follow the single-density density pattern in 2006 and the double-peak density pattern in 2016 at low and moderate inequality index levels and also in the development index. The country diverges during the years 2006 to 2016.

Keywords: Convergence, Urban Disparity, CIRD Index, Distribution Dynamics, Random Kernel Density

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1 Practical Techniques of Improving State Estimator Solution

Authors: Kiamran Radjabli


State Estimator became an intrinsic part of Energy Management Systems (EMS). The SCADA measurements received from the field are processed by the State Estimator in order to accurately determine the actual operating state of the power systems and provide that information to other real-time network applications. All EMS vendors offer a State Estimator functionality in their baseline products. However, setting up and ensuring that State Estimator consistently produces a reliable solution often consumes a substantial engineering effort. This paper provides generic recommendations and describes a simple practical approach to efficient tuning of State Estimator, based on the working experience with major EMS software platforms and consulting projects in many electrical utilities of the USA.

Keywords: Power Systems, Convergence, Performance, monitoring, Troubleshooting, Tuning, State estimator

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