Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

controlled release Related Abstracts

16 Preparation and Characterization of Water-in-Oil Nanoemulsion of 5-Fluorouracil to Enhance Skin Permeation for Treatment of Skin Diseases.

Authors: P. S. Rajinikanth, Shobana Mariappan, Jestin Chellian


The objective of the study was to prepare and characterize a water-in-oil nano emulsion of 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) to enhance the skin penetration. The present study describes a nano emulsion of 5FU using Capyrol PGMC, Transcutol HP and PEG 400 as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. The optimized formulations were further evaluated for heating cooling cycle, centrifugation studies, freeze thaw cycling, particle size distribution and zeta potential in order to confirm the stability of the optimized nano emulsions. The in-vitro characterization results showed that the droplets of prepared formulation were ~100 nm with ± 15 zeta potential. In vitro skin permeation studies was conducted in albino mice skin. Significant increase in permeability parameters was also observed in nano emulsion formulations (P<0.05). The steady-state flux (Jss), enhancement ration and permeability coefficient (Kp) for optimized nano emulsion formulation (FU2, FU1, 1:1 S mix were found to be 24.21 ±2.45 μg/cm2/h, 3.28±0.87 & 19.52±1.87 cm/h, respectively), which were significant compared with conventional gel. The in vitro and in vivo skin deposition studies in rat indicated that the amount of drug deposited from the nano emulsion (292.45 µg/cm2) in skin was significant (P<0.05) an increased as compared to a conventional 5FU gel (121.42 µg/cm2). The skin irritation study using rat skin showed that the mean irritation index of the nano emulsion reduced significantly (P<0.05) as compared with conventional gel contain 1% 5FU. The results from this study suggest that a water-in-oil nano emulsion could be safely used to promote skin penetration of 5FU following topical application.

Keywords: controlled release, nano emulsion, skin penetration, skin irritation

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15 Anticancer Effect of Resveratrol-Loaded Gelatin Nanoparticles in NCI-H460 Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines

Authors: N. Rajendra Prasad


Resveratrol (RSV), a grape phytochemical, has drawn greater attention because of its beneficial ef-fects against cancer. However, RSV has some draw-backs such as unstabilization, poor water solubility and short biological half time, which limit the utili-zation of RSV in medicine, food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we have encapsulated RSV in gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) and studied its anti-cancer efficacy in NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. SEM and DLS studies have revealed that the prepared RSV-GNPs possess spherical shape with a mean diameter of 294 nm. The successful encapsulation of RSV in GNPs has been achieved by the cross-linker glutaraldehyde probably through Schiff base reaction and hydrogen bond interaction. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the max-imum of 93.6% of RSV has been entrapped in GNPs. In vitro drug release kinetics indicated that there was an initial burst release followed by a slow and sustained release of RSV from GNPs. The prepared RSV-GNPs exhibited very rapid and more efficient cellular uptake than free RSV. Further, RSV-GNPs treatment showed greater antiproliferative efficacy than free RSV treatment in NCI-H460 cells. It has been found that greater ROS generation, DNA damage and apoptotic incidence in RSV-GNPs treated cells than free RSV treatment. Erythrocyte aggregation assay showed that the prepared RSV-GNPs formulation elicit no toxic response. HPLC analysis revealed that RSV-GNPs was more bioavailable and had a longer half-life than free RSV. Hence, GNPs carrier system might be a promising mode for controlled delivery and for improved therapeutic index of poorly water soluble RSV.

Keywords: Lung cancer, controlled release, Resveratrol, coacervation, anticancer gelatin nanoparticles

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14 Response Surface Methodology to Obtain Disopyramide Phosphate Loaded Controlled Release Ethyl Cellulose Microspheres

Authors: Anil Solanki, Krutika K. Sawant


The present study deals with the preparation and optimization of ethyl cellulose-containing disopyramide phosphate loaded microspheres using solvent evaporation technique. A central composite design consisting of a two-level full factorial design superimposed on a star design was employed for optimizing the preparation microspheres. The drug:polymer ratio (X1) and speed of the stirrer (X2) were chosen as the independent variables. The cumulative release of the drug at a different time (2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 hr) was selected as the dependent variable. An optimum polynomial equation was generated for the prediction of the response variable at time 10 hr. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis and F statistics, it was concluded that sustained action can be obtained when X1 and X2 are kept at high levels. The X1X2 interaction was found to be statistically significant. The drug release pattern fitted the Higuchi model well. The data of a selected batch were subjected to an optimization study using Box-Behnken design, and an optimal formulation was fabricated. Good agreement was observed between the predicted and the observed dissolution profiles of the optimal formulation.

Keywords: controlled release, Microspheres, factorial design, ethyl cellulose, Box-Behnken design, disopyramide phosphate

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13 Upconversion Nanoparticles for Imaging and Controlled Photothermal Release of Anticancer Drug in Breast Cancer

Authors: Yong ZHANG, Rishav Shrestha


The Anti-Stoke upconversion process has been used extensively for bioimaging and is recently being used for photoactivated therapy in cancer utilizing upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs). The UCNs have an excitation band at 980nm; 980nm laser excitation used to produce UV/Visible emissions also produce a heating effect. Light-to-heat conversion has been observed in nanoparticles(NPs) doped with neodymium(Nd) or ytterbium(Yb)/erbium(Er) ions. Despite laser-induced heating in Rare-earth doped NPs being proven to be a relatively efficient process, only few attempts to use them as photothermal agents in biosystems have been made up to now. Gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes are the most researched and developed for photothermal applications. Both have large heating efficiency and outstanding biocompatibility. However, they show weak fluorescence which makes them harder to track in vivo. In that regard, UCNs are attractive due to their excellent optical features in addition to their light-to-heat conversion and excitation by NIR, for imaging and spatiotemporally releasing drugs. In this work, we have utilized a simple method to coat Nd doped UCNs with thermoresponsive polymer PNIPAM on which 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OH-T) is loaded. Such UCNs demonstrate a high loading efficiency and low leakage of 4-OH-T. Encouragingly, the release of 4-OH-T can be modulated by varying the power and duration of the NIR. Such UCNs were then used to demonstrate imaging and controlled photothermal release of 4-OH-T in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Keywords: controlled release, Cancer Therapy, Upconversion Nanoparticles, photothermal release

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12 Development of Nanostructrued Hydrogel for Spatial and Temporal Controlled Release of Active Compounds

Authors: Shaker Alsharif, Xavier Banquy


Controlled drug delivery technology represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of science in which chemists and chemical engineers are contributing to human health care. Such delivery systems provide numerous advantages compared to conventional dosage forms including improved efficacy, and improved patient compliance and convenience. Such systems often use synthetic polymers as carriers for the drugs. As a result, treatments that would not otherwise be possible are now in conventional use. The role of bilayered vesicles as efficient carriers for drugs, vaccines, diagnostic agents and other bioactive agents have led to a rapid advancement in the liposomal drug delivery system. Moreover, the site avoidance and site-specific drug targeting therapy could be achieved by formulating a liposomal product, so as to reduce the cytotoxicity of many potent therapeutic agents. Our project focuses on developing and building hydrogel with nanoinclusion of liposomes loaded with active compounds such as proteins and growth factors able to release them in a controlled fashion. In order to achieve that, we synthesize several liposomes of two different phospholipids concentrations encapsulating model drug. Then, formulating hydrogel with specific mechanical properties embedding the liposomes to manage the release of active compound.

Keywords: Liposomes, controlled release, active compounds, Hydrogel

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11 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini


Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.

Keywords: controlled release, non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability

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10 Controlling the Release of Cyt C and L- Dopa from pNIPAM-AAc Nanogel Based Systems

Authors: Sulalit Bandyopadhyay, Muhammad Awais Ashfaq Alvi, Anuvansh Sharma, Wilhelm R. Glomm


Release of drugs from nanogels and nanogel-based systems can occur under the influence of external stimuli like temperature, pH, magnetic fields and so on. pNIPAm-AAc nanogels respond to the combined action of both temperature and pH, the former being mostly determined by hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transitions above the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT), while the latter is controlled by the degree of protonation of the carboxylic acid groups. These nanogels based systems are promising candidates in the field of drug delivery. Combining nanogels with magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) introduce imaging and targeting modalities along with stimuli-response in one hybrid system, thereby incorporating multifunctionality. [email protected] core-shell NPs possess optical signature in the visible spectrum owing to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the Au shell, and superparamagnetic properties stemming from the Fe core. Although there exist several synthesis methods to control the size and physico-chemical properties of pNIPAm-AAc nanogels, yet, there is no comprehensive study that highlights the dependence of incorporation of one or more layers of NPs to these nanogels. In addition, effective determination of volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the nanogels is a challenge which complicates their uses in biological applications. Here, we have modified the swelling-collapse properties of pNIPAm-AAc nanogels, by combining with [email protected] NPs using different solution based methods. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition of the nanogels above the VPTT has been confirmed to be reversible. Further, an analytical method has been developed to deduce the average VPTT which is found to be 37.3°C for the nanogels and 39.3°C for nanogel coated [email protected] NPs. An opposite swelling –collapse behaviour is observed for the latter where the [email protected] NPs act as bridge molecules pulling together the gelling units. Thereafter, Cyt C, a model protein drug and L-Dopa, a drug used in the clinical treatment of Parkinson’s disease were loaded separately into the nanogels and nanogel coated [email protected] NPs, using a modified breathing-in mechanism. This gave high loading and encapsulation efficiencies (L Dopa: ~9% and 70µg/mg of nanogels, Cyt C: ~30% and 10µg/mg of nanogels respectively for both the drugs. The release kinetics of L-Dopa, monitored using UV-vis spectrophotometry was observed to be rather slow (over several hours) with highest release happening under a combination of high temperature (above VPTT) and acidic conditions. However, the release of L-Dopa from nanogel coated [email protected] NPs was the fastest, accounting for release of almost 87% of the initially loaded drug in ~30 hours. The chemical structure of the drug, drug incorporation method, location of the drug and presence of [email protected] NPs largely alter the drug release mechanism and the kinetics of these nanogels and [email protected] NPs coated with nanogels.

Keywords: controlled release, l-dopa, nanogels, volume phase transition temperature

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9 Development and Characterization of Controlled Release Photo Cross-Linked Implants for Ocular Delivery of Triamcinolone Acetonide

Authors: Ravi Sheshala, Annie Lee, Ai Lin Ong, Ling Ling Cheu, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Thankur R. R. Singh


The objectives of the present research work were to develop and characterize biodegradable controlled release photo cross-linked implants of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA) for the treatment of chronic ocular diseases. The photo cross-linked implants were prepared using film casting technique by mixing TA (2.5%) polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA 700), pore formers (mannitol, maltose, and gelatin) and the photoinitiator (Irgacure 2959). The resulting mixture was injected into moulds using 21 G and subjected to photocrosslinking at 365 nm. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that more pores were formed in the films with the increase in the concentration of pore formers from 2%-10%. The maximum force required to break the films containing 2-10% of pore formers were determined in both dry and wet conditions using texture analyzer and found that films in a dry condition required a higher force to break compared to wet condition and blank films. In vitro drug release from photo cross-linked films were determined by incubating samples in 50 ml PBS pH 7.4 at 37 C and the samples were analyzed for drug release by HPLC. The films demonstrated a biphasic release profile i.e. an initial burst release (<20%) on the first day followed by a constant and continuous drug release in a controlled manner for 42 days. The drug release from all formulations followed the first-order release pattern and the combination of diffusion and erosion release mechanism. In conclusion, the developed formulations were able to provide controlled drug delivery to treat the chronic ocular diseases.

Keywords: controlled release, photocrosslinking, ophthalmic, PEGDA, pore formers

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8 Optimization of Microencapsulation of β-Carotene by Complex Coacervation Technique Using Casein and Gum Tragacanth

Authors: Gargi Ghoshal, Ashay Jain


Microencapsulation of β-carotene was optimized by complex coacervation technique using casein/gum tragacanth (CAS/GT) coating as a function of pH, initial protein to polysaccharide mixing ratio (Pr:Ps), total biopolymer concentration, core material load, zeta potential, and ionic strength. This study was aimed to understand the influence of experimental parameters on the coacervation kinetics, the coacervate yield, and entrapment efficiency. At a Pr:Ps = 2:1, an optimum pH of complex coacervation was found 4.35, at which the intensity of electrostatic interaction was maximum. At these ratios of coating, the phase separation occurred the fastest and the final coacervate yield and entrapment efficiency was the highest. Varying the Pr: Ps shifted the value of optimum pH. This incident was due to the level of charge compensation of the CAS/GT complexes. Finally, electrostatic interaction and formation of coacervates between CAS and GT were confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra. The size and surface properties of coacervates were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resultant formulation (β-carotene loaded microcapsules) was evaluated for in vitro release study and antioxidant activity. Stability of encapsulated β-carotene was also evaluated under three levels of temperature (5, 25 and 40 °C) for 3 months. Encapsulation strongly increased the stability of micronutrients. Our results advocate potential of microcapsules as a novel carrier for the safeguard and sustained release of micronutrient.

Keywords: controlled release, Microcapsules, casein, complex coacervation, β-carotene, gum tragacanth

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7 Ceramide-PLGA Nanoparticle Formation to Apply to Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Hwa Sung Shin, Sang-Myung Jung, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hoo Chul Lee


Ceramide, a component of stratum corneum at epidermis, helps to construct a rigid and dense skin barrier to prevent pathogens that cause atopic dermatitis. However, ceramide was too hydrophobic to be directly absorbed into stratum corneum and has risks of side effects by excessive treatment. To overcome the obstacles, ceramide was embedded into PLGA nanoparticles coated with chitosan. PLGA and chitosan have been known as biocompatible materials. PLGA was squeezed when faced with water and pumped ceramide out of PLGA nanoparticle. In addition, the chitosan coating layer helped initial adherence of nanoparticles to skin and regulate ceramide release until removed. This coating was degraded at weakly acid state like skin surface, finally ceramide release could be controlled. Finally, the nanoparticle was demonstrated to be non-cytotoxic and regenerate stratum corneum of atopic dermatitis model. Overall the nanoparticle is suggested as a novel and effective nanodrug to apply atopic dermatitis.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Atopic dermatitis, controlled release, chitosan coating, ceramide

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6 Controlled Release of Glucosamine from Pluronic-Based Hydrogels for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Authors: Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat, Papon Thamvasupong


Osteoarthritis affects a lot of people worldwide. Local injection of glucosamine is one of the alternative treatment methods to replenish the natural lubrication of cartilage. However, multiple injections can potentially lead to possible bacterial infection. Therefore, a drug delivery system is desired to reduce the frequencies of injections. A hydrogel is one of the delivery systems that can control the release of drugs. Thermo-reversible hydrogels can be beneficial to the drug delivery system especially in the local injection route because this formulation can change from liquid to gel after getting into human body. Once the gel is in the body, it will slowly release the drug in a controlled manner. In this study, various formulations of Pluronic-based hydrogels were synthesized for the controlled release of glucosamine. One of the challenges of the Pluronic controlled release system is its fast dissolution rate. To overcome this problem, alginate and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) were added to the polymer solution. The characteristics of the hydrogels were investigated including the gelation temperature, gelation time, hydrogel dissolution and glucosamine release mechanism. Finally, a mathematical model of glucosamine release from Pluronic-alginate-hyaluronic acid hydrogel was developed. Our results have shown that crosslinking Pluronic gel with alginate did not significantly extend the dissolution rate of the gel. Moreover, the gel dissolution profiles and the glucosamine release mechanisms were best described using the zeroth-order kinetic model, indicating that the release of glucosamine was primarily governed by the gel dissolution.

Keywords: controlled release, Drug Delivery System, glucosamine, pluronic, thermoreversible hydrogel

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5 Polymersomes in Drug Delivery: A Comparative Review with Liposomes and Micelles

Authors: Salma E. Ahmed


Since the mid 50’s, enormous attention has been paid towards nanocarriers and their applications in drug and gene delivery. Among these vesicles, liposomes and micelles have been heavily investigated due to their many advantages over other types. Liposomes, for instance, are mostly distinguished by their ability to encapsulate hydrophobic, hydrophilic and amphiphilic drugs. Micelles, on the other hand, are self-assembled shells of lipids, amphiphilic or oppositely charged block copolymers that, once exposed to aqueous media, can entrap hydrophobic agents, and possess prolonged circulation in the bloodstream. Both carriers are considered compatible and biodegradable. Nevertheless, they have limited stabilities, chemical versatilities, and drug encapsulation efficiencies. In order to overcome these downsides, strategies for optimizing a novel drug delivery system that has the architecture of liposomes and polymeric characteristics of micelles have been evolved. Polymersomes are vehicles with fluidic cores and hydrophobic shells that are protected and isolated from the aqueous media by the hydrated hydrophilic brushes which give the carrier its distinctive polymeric bilayer shape. Similar to liposomes, this merit enables the carrier to encapsulate a wide range of agents, despite their affinities and solubilities in water. Adding to this, the high molecular weight of the amphiphiles that build the body of the polymersomes increases their colloidal and chemical stabilities and reduces the permeability of the polymeric membranes, which makes the vesicles more protective to the encapsulated drug. These carriers can also be modified in ways that make them responsive when targeted or triggered, by manipulating their composition and attaching moieties and conjugates to the body of the carriers. These appealing characteristics, in addition to the ease of synthesis, gave the polymersomes greater potentials in the area of drug delivery. Thus, their design and characterization, in comparison with liposomes and micelles, are briefly reviewed in this work.

Keywords: Liposomes, controlled release, Micelles, targeting, polymersomes

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4 Biopolymer Nanoparticles Loaded with Calcium as a Source of Fertilizer

Authors: Erwin San Juan Martinez, Miguel Angel Aguilar Mendez, Manuel Sandoval Villa, Libia Iris Trejo Tellez


Some nanomaterials may improve the vegetal growth in certain concentration intervals, and could be used as nanofertilizers in order to increase crops yield, and decreasing the environmental pollution due to non-controlled use of conventional fertilizers, therefore the present investigation’s objective was to synthetize and characterize gelatin nanoparticles loaded with calcium generated through pulverization technique and be used as nanofertilizers. To obtain these materials, a fractional factorial design 27-4 was used in order to evaluate the largest number of factors (concentration of Ca2+, temperature and agitation time of the solution and calcium concentration, drying temperature, and % spray) with a possible effect on the size, distribution and morphology of nanoparticles. For the formation of nanoparticles, a Nano Spray-Dryer B - 90® (Buchi, Flawil, Switzerland), equipped with a spray cap of 4 µm was used. Size and morphology of the obtained nanoparticles were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (JOEL JSM-6390LV model; Tokyo, Japan) equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray X (EDS) detector. The total quantification of Ca2+ as well as its release by the nanoparticles was carried out in an equipment of induction atomic emission spectroscopy coupled plasma (ICP-ES 725, Agilent, Mulgrave, Australia). Of the seven factors evaluated, only the concentration of fertilizer, % spray and concentration of polymer presented a statistically significant effect on particle size. Micrographs of SEM from six of the eight conditions evaluated in this research showed particles separated and with a good degree of sphericity, while in the other two particles had amorphous morphology and aggregation. In all treatments, most of the particles showed smooth surfaces. The average size of smallest particle obtained was 492 nm, while EDS results showed an even distribution of Ca2+ in the polymer matrix. The largest concentration of Ca2+ in ICP was 10.5%, which agrees with the theoretical value calculated, while the release kinetics showed an upward trend within 24 h. Using the technique employed in this research, it was possible to obtain nanoparticles loaded with calcium, of good size, sphericity and with release controlled properties. The characteristics of nanoparticles resulted from manipulation of the conditions of synthesis which allow control of the size and shape of the particles, and provides the means to adapt the properties of the materials to an specific application.

Keywords: controlled release, Calcium, Gelatin, nano spraydryer, nanofertilizer

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3 The Role of Long-Chain Ionic Surfactants on Extending Drug Delivery from Contact Lenses

Authors: Cesar Torres, Robert Briber, Nam Sun Wang


Eye drops are the most commonly used treatment for short-term and long-term ophthalmic diseases. However, eye drops could deliver only about 5% of the functional ingredients contained in a burst dosage. To address the limitations of eye drops, the use of therapeutic contact lenses has been introduced. Drug-loaded contact lenses provide drugs a longer residence time in the tear film and hence, decrease the potential risk of side effects. Nevertheless, a major limitation of contact lenses as drug delivery devices is that most of the drug absorbed is released within the first few hours. This fact limits their use for extended release. The present study demonstrates the application of long-alkyl chain ionic surfactants on extending drug release kinetics from commercially available silicone hydrogel contact lenses. In vitro release experiments were carried by immersing drug-containing contact lenses in phosphate buffer saline at physiological pH. The drug concentration as a function of time was monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results of the study demonstrate that release kinetics is dependent on the ionic surfactant weight percent in the contact lenses, and on the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain of the ionic surfactants. The use of ionic surfactants in contact lenses can extend the delivery of drugs from a few hours to a few weeks, depending on the physicochemical properties of the drugs. Contact lenses embedded with ionic surfactants could be potential biomaterials to be used for extended drug delivery and in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. However, ocular irritation and toxicity studies would be needed to evaluate the safety of the approach.

Keywords: drug delivery, controlled release, contact lenses, ionic surfactant

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2 Sequential Release of Dual Drugs Using Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel for Tumor Vascular Inhibition and to Enhance the Efficacy of Chemotherapy

Authors: Haile F. Darge, Hsieh C. Tsai


The tumor microenvironment affects the therapeutic outcomes of cancer disease. In a malignant tumor, overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) provokes the production of pathologic vascular networks. This results in a hostile tumor environment that hinders anti-cancer drug activities and profoundly fuels tumor progression. In this study, we develop a strategy of sequential sustain release of the anti-angiogenic drug: Bevacizumab(BVZ), and anti-cancer drug: Doxorubicin(DOX) which had a synergistic effect on cancer treatment. Poly (D, L-Lactide)- Poly (ethylene glycol) –Poly (D, L-Lactide) (PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA) thermo-sensitive hydrogel was used as a vehicle for local delivery of drugs in a single platform. The in vitro release profiles of the drugs were investigated and confirmed a relatively rapid release of BVZ (73.56 ± 1.39%) followed by Dox (61.21 ± 0.62%) for a prolonged period. The cytotoxicity test revealed that the copolymer exhibited negligible cytotoxicity up to 2.5 mg ml-1 concentration on HaCaT and HeLa cells. The in vivo study on Hela xenograft nude mice verified that hydrogel co-loaded with BVZ and DOX displayed the highest tumor suppression efficacy for up to 36 days with pronounce anti-angiogenic effect of BVZ and with no noticeable damage on vital organs. Therefore, localized co-delivery of anti-angiogenic drug and anti-cancer drugs by the hydrogel system may be a promising approach for enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy in cancer treatment.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, controlled release, anti-angiogenesis, Thermo-sensitive hydrogel

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1 Formulation of Lipid-Based Tableted Spray-Congealed Microparticles for Zero Order Release of Vildagliptin

Authors: Husam Younes, Hend Ben Tkhayat, Khaled Al Zahabi


Introduction: Vildagliptin (VG), a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4), was proven to be an active agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. VG works by enhancing and prolonging the activity of incretins which improves insulin secretion and decreases glucagon release, therefore lowering blood glucose level. It is usually used with various classes, such as insulin sensitizers or metformin. VG is currently only marketed as an immediate-release tablet that is administered twice daily. In this project, we aim to formulate an extended-release with a zero-order profile tableted lipid microparticles of VG that could be administered once daily ensuring the patient’s convenience. Method: The spray-congealing technique was used to prepare VG microparticles. Compritol® was heated at 10 oC above its melting point and VG was dispersed in the molten carrier using a homogenizer (IKA T25- USA) set at 13000 rpm. VG dispersed in the molten Compritol® was added dropwise to the molten Gelucire® 50/13 and PEG® (400, 6000, and 35000) in different ratios under manual stirring. The molten mixture was homogenized and Carbomer® amount was added. The melt was pumped through the two-fluid nozzle of the Buchi® Spray-Congealer (Buchi B-290, Switzerland) using a Pump drive (Master flex, USA) connected to a silicone tubing wrapped with silicone heating tape heated at the same temperature of the pumped mix. The physicochemical properties of the produced VG-loaded microparticles were characterized using Mastersizer, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and X‐Ray Diffractometer (XRD). VG microparticles were then pressed into tablets using a single punch tablet machine (YDP-12, Minhua pharmaceutical Co. China) and in vitro dissolution study was investigated using Agilent Dissolution Tester (Agilent, USA). The dissolution test was carried out at 37±0.5 °C for 24 hours in three different dissolution media and time phases. The quantitative analysis of VG in samples was realized using a validated High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-UV) method. Results: The microparticles were spherical in shape with narrow distribution and smooth surface. DSC and XRD analyses confirmed the crystallinity of VG that was lost after being incorporated into the amorphous polymers. The total yields of the different formulas were between 70% and 80%. The VG content in the microparticles was found to be between 99% and 106%. The in vitro dissolution study showed that VG was released from the tableted particles in a controlled fashion. The adjustment of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio of excipients, their concentration and the molecular weight of the used carriers resulted in tablets with zero-order kinetics. The Gelucire 50/13®, a hydrophilic polymer was characterized by a time-dependent profile with an important burst effect that was decreased by adding Compritol® as a lipophilic carrier to retard the release of VG which is highly soluble in water. PEG® (400,6000 and 35 000) were used for their gelling effect that led to a constant rate delivery and achieving a zero-order profile. Conclusion: Tableted spray-congealed lipid microparticles for extended-release of VG were successfully prepared and a zero-order profile was achieved.

Keywords: controlled release, Microparticles, vildagliptin, spray congealing

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