Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Control System Related Abstracts

19 The Control System Architecture of Space Environment Simulator

Authors: Zhan Haiyang, Gu Miao


This article mainly introduces the control system architecture of space environment simulator, simultaneously also briefly introduce the automation control technology of industrial process and the measurement technology of vacuum and cold black environment. According to the volume of chamber, the space environment simulator is divided into three types of small, medium and large. According to the classification and application of space environment simulator, the control system is divided into the control system of small, medium, large space environment simulator and the centralized control system of multiple space environment simulators.

Keywords: Architecture, Control System, space environment simulator, automation control technology

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18 Stability and Performance Improvement of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Robot under Interaction Using the Impedance Control

Authors: Seyed Reza Mirdehghan, Mohammad Reza Haeri Yazdi


In this paper, the stability and the performance of a two-degree-of-freedom robot under an interaction with a unknown environment has been investigated. The time when the robot returns to its initial position after an interaction and the primary resistance of the robot against the impact must be reduced. Thus, the applied torque on the motor will be reduced. The impedance control is an appropriate method for robot control in these conditions. The stability of the robot at interaction moment was transformed to be a robust stability problem. The dynamic of the unknown environment was modeled as a weight function and the stability of the robot under an interaction with the environment has been investigated using the robust control concept. To improve the performance of the system, a force controller has been designed which the normalized impedance after interaction has been reduced. The resistance of the robot has been considered as a normalized cost function and its value was 0.593. The results has showed reduction of resistance of the robot against impact and the reduction of convergence time by lower than one second.

Keywords: Robots, Control System, Interaction, Impedance Control

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17 Algorithms of ABS-Plastic Extrusion

Authors: Dmitrii Starikov, Evgeny Rybakov, Denis Zhuravlev


Plastic for 3D printing is very necessary material part for printers. But plastic production is technological process, which implies application of different control algorithms. Possible algorithms of providing set diameter of plastic fiber are proposed and described in the article. Results of research were proved by existing unit of filament production.

Keywords: Automation, Control System, ABS-plastic, extruder, filament, PID-algorithm

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16 Implementing Digital Control System in Robotics

Authors: Safiullah Abdullahi


This paper describes the design of a digital control system which controls the speed and direction of a robot. The robot is expected to follow a black thick line with the highest possible speed and lowest error around the line. The control system of the robot will correct for the angle error that is made between the frame axis of the robot and the line. The cause for error is the difference in speed of the two driving wheels of the robot which are driven by two separate DC motors, whereas the speed difference in wheels is due to the un-modeled fraction that is available in the wheels with different magnitudes in each. The control scheme is that a number of photo sensors are mounted in the front of the robot and report their position in reference to the black line to the digital controller. The controller then, evaluates the position error and generates the needed duty cycle for the related wheel motor to drive it faster or slower.

Keywords: Control System, Digital control, Robot, controller

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15 Research of Control System for Space Intelligent Robot Based on Vision Servo

Authors: Changchun Liang, Xiaodong Zhang, Xin Liu, Pengfei Sun


Space intelligent robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in the future. The robotic on-orbital service, whose key is the tracking and capturing technology, becomes research hot in recent years. In this paper, the authors propose a vision servo control system for target capturing. Robotic manipulator will be an intelligent robotic system with large-scale movement, functional agility, and autonomous ability, and it can be operated by astronauts in the space station or be controlled by the ground operator in the remote operation mode. To realize the autonomous movement and capture mission of SRM, a kind of autonomous programming strategy based on multi-camera vision fusion is designed and the selection principle of object visual position and orientation measurement information is defined for the better precision. Distributed control system hierarchy is designed and reliability is considering to guarantee the abilities of control system. At last, a ground experiment system is set up based on the concept of robotic control system. With that, the autonomous target capturing experiments are conducted. The experiment results validate the proposed algorithm, and demonstrates that the control system can fulfill the needs of function, real-time and reliability.

Keywords: Control System, on-orbital service, space robot, vision servo

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14 The Development and Testing of Greenhouse Comprehensive Environment Control System

Authors: Mohammed Alrefaie, Yaser Miaji


Greenhouses provide a convenient means to grow plants in the best environment. They achieve this by trapping heat from the sunlight and using artificial means to enhance the environment of the greenhouse. This includes controlling factors such as air flow, light intensity and amount of water among others that can have a big impact on plant growth. The aim of the greenhouse is to give maximum yield from plants possible. This report details the development and testing of greenhouse environment control system that can regulate light intensity, airflow and power supply inside the greenhouse. The details of the module development to control these three factors along with results of testing are presented.

Keywords: Control System, Greenhouse, Light intensity, comprehensive environment

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13 Highly Accurate Tennis Ball Throwing Machine with Intelligent Control

Authors: Ferenc Kovács, Gábor Hosszú


The paper presents an advanced control system for tennis ball throwing machines to improve their accuracy according to the ball impact points. A further advantage of the system is the much easier calibration process involving the intelligent solution of the automatic adjustment of the stroking parameters according to the ball elasticity, the self-calibration, the use of the safety margin at very flat strokes and the possibility to placing the machine to any position of the half court. The system applies mathematical methods to determine the exact ball trajectories and special approximating processes to access all points on the aimed half court.

Keywords: Control System, Robot Control, robot programming, Sports Equipment, throwing machine

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12 Automatic Approach for Estimating the Protection Elements of Electric Power Plants

Authors: Mahmoud Mohammad Salem Al-Suod, Ushkarenko O. Alexander, Dorogan I. Olga


New algorithms using microprocessor systems have been proposed for protection the diesel-generator unit in autonomous power systems. The software structure is designed to enhance the control automata of the system, in which every protection module of diesel-generator encapsulates the finite state machine.

Keywords: Algorithm, Control System, Protection, Software Components, diesel-generator unit, state diagram

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11 Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Estimated Power for PV Energy Conversion System

Authors: Zainab Almukhtar, Adel Merabet


In this paper, a method for maximum power point tracking of a photovoltaic energy conversion system is presented. This method is based on using the difference between the power from the solar panel and an estimated power value to control the DC-DC converter of the photovoltaic system. The difference is continuously compared with a preset error permitted value. If the power difference is more than the error, the estimated power is multiplied by a factor and the operation is repeated until the difference is less or equal to the threshold error. The difference in power will be used to trigger a DC-DC boost converter in order to raise the voltage to where the maximum power point is achieved. The proposed method was experimentally verified through a PV energy conversion system driven by the OPAL-RT real time controller. The method was tested on varying radiation conditions and load requirements, and the Photovoltaic Panel was operated at its maximum power in different conditions of irradiation.

Keywords: Control System, solar panel, error, MPPT tracking

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10 Control Strategy of Solar Thermal Cooling System under the Indonesia Climate

Authors: Budihardjo Sarwo Sastrosudiro, Arnas Lubis, Muhammad Idrus Alhamid, Nasruddin Jusuf


Solar thermal cooling system was installed on Mechanical Research Center (MRC) Building that is located in Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia. It is the first cooling system in Indonesia that utilizes solar energy as energy input combined with natural gas; therefore, the control system must be appropriated with the climates. In order to stabilize the cooling capacity and also to maximize the use of solar energy, the system applies some controllers. Constant flow rate and on/off controller are applied for the hot water, chilled water and cooling water pumps. The hot water circulated by pump when the solar radiation is over than 400W/m2, and the chilled water is continually circulated by pump and its temperature is kept constant 7 °C by absorption chiller. The cooling water is also continually circulated until the outlet temperature of cooling tower below than 27 oC. Furthermore, the three-way valve is used to control the hot water for generate vapor on absorption chiller. The system performance using that control system is shown in this study results.

Keywords: Solar energy, Control System, Solar Cooling, absorption chiller

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9 Comparison of the Dynamic Characteristics of Active and Passive Hybrid Bearings

Authors: Denis V. Shutin, Alexander Yu. Babin, Leonid A. Savin


One of the ways of reducing vibroactivity of rotor systems is to apply active hybrid bearings. Their design allows correction of the rotor’s location by means of separately controlling the supply pressure of the lubricant into the friction area. In a most simple case, the control system is based on a P-regulator. Increase of the gain coefficient allows decreasing the amplitude of rotor’s vibrations. The same effect can be achieved by means of increasing the pressure in the collector of a traditional passive hybrid bearing. However, these approaches affect the dynamic characteristics of the bearing differently. Theoretical studies show that the increase of the gain coefficient of an active bearing increases the stiffness of the bearing, as well as the increase of the pressure in the collector. Nevertheless, in case of a passive bearing, the damping properties deteriorate, whereas the active hybrid bearings obtain higher damping properties, which allow effectively providing the energy dissipation of the rotor vibrations and reducing the load on the constructional elements of a machine.

Keywords: Control System, Damping, Stiffness, active bearings, hybrid bearings

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8 Tracked Robot with Blade Arms to Enhance Crawling Capability

Authors: Jhu-Wei Ji, Fa-Shian Chang, Lih-Tyng Hwang, Chih-Feng Liu, Jeng-Nan Lee, Shun-Min Wang, Kai-Yi Cho


This paper presents a tracked robot with blade arms powered to assist movement in difficult environments. As a result, the tracked robot is able to pass a ramp or climb stairs. The main feature is a pair of blade arms on both sides of the vehicle body working in collaboration with previously validated transformable track system. When the robot encounters an obstacle in a terrain, it enlists the blade arms with power to overcome the obstacle. In disaster areas, there usually will be terrains that are full of broken and complicated slopes, broken walls, rubbles, and ditches. Thereupon, a robot, which is instructed to pass through such disaster areas, needs to have a good off-road capability for such complicated terrains. The robot with crawling-assisting blade arms would overcome the obstacles along the terrains, and possibly become to be a rescue robot. A prototype has been developed and built; experiments were carried out to validate the enhanced crawling capability of the robot.

Keywords: Control System, tracked robot, rescue robot, blade arm, crawling ability

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7 Simulation of a Control System for an Adaptive Suspension System for Passenger Vehicles

Authors: S. Gokul Prassad, S. Aakash, K. Malar Mohan


In the process to cope with the challenges faced by the automobile industry in providing ride comfort, the electronics and control systems play a vital role. The control systems in an automobile monitor various parameters, controls the performances of the systems, thereby providing better handling characteristics. The automobile suspension system is one of the main systems that ensure the safety, stability and comfort of the passengers. The system is solely responsible for the isolation of the entire automobile from harmful road vibrations. Thus, integration of the control systems in the automobile suspension system would enhance its performance. The diverse road conditions of India demand the need of an efficient suspension system which can provide optimum ride comfort in all road conditions. For any passenger vehicle, the design of the suspension system plays a very important role in assuring the ride comfort and handling characteristics. In recent years, the air suspension system is preferred over the conventional suspension systems to ensure ride comfort. In this article, the ride comfort of the adaptive suspension system is compared with that of the passive suspension system. The schema is created in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The system is controlled by a proportional integral differential controller. Tuning of the controller was done with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, since it suited the problem best. Ziegler-Nichols and Modified Ziegler-Nichols tuning methods were also tried and compared. Both the static responses and dynamic responses of the systems were calculated. Various random road profiles as per ISO 8608 standard are modelled in the MATLAB environment and their responses plotted. Open-loop and closed loop responses of the random roads, various bumps and pot holes are also plotted. The simulation results of the proposed design are compared with the available passive suspension system. The obtained results show that the proposed adaptive suspension system is efficient in controlling the maximum over shoot and the settling time of the system is reduced enormously.

Keywords: Control System, MATLAB, PID, PSO, automobile suspension

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6 Drugstore Control System Design and Realization Based on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

Authors: Muhammad Faheem Khakhi, Jian Yu Wang, Salman Muhammad, Muhammad Faisal Shabir


Population growth and Chinese two-child policy will boost pharmaceutical market, and it will continue to maintain the growth for a period of time in the future, the traditional pharmacy dispensary has been unable to meet the growing medical needs of the peoples. Under the strong support of the national policy, the automatic transformation of traditional pharmacies is the inclination of the Times, the new type of intelligent pharmacy system will continue to promote the development of the pharmaceutical industry. Under this background, based on PLC control, the paper proposed an intelligent storage and automatic drug delivery system; complete design of the lower computer's control system and the host computer's software system has been present. The system can be applied to dispensing work for Chinese herbal medicinal and Western medicines. Firstly, the essential of intelligent control system for pharmacy is discussed. After the analysis of the requirements, the overall scheme of the system design is presented. Secondly, introduces the software and hardware design of the lower computer's control system, including the selection of PLC and the selection of motion control system, the problem of the human-computer interaction module and the communication between PC and PLC solves, the program design and development of the PLC control system is completed. The design of the upper computer software management system is described in detail. By analyzing of E-R diagram, built the establish data, the communication protocol between systems is customize, C++ Builder is adopted to realize interface module, supply module, main control module, etc. The paper also gives the implementations of the multi-threaded system and communication method. Lastly, each module of the lower computer control system is tested. Then, after building a test environment, the function test of the upper computer software management system is completed. On this basis, the entire control system accepts the overall test.

Keywords: Communication, Control System, Management System, PLC, automatic pharmacy

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5 Transmission Line Inspection Using Drones

Authors: Jae Kyung Lee, Joon Young Park


Maintenance on power transmission lines requires a lot of works. Sometimes they should be maintained on live-line environment with high altitude. Therefore, there always exist risks of falling from height and electric shock. To decline those risks, drones are recently applying on the electric power industry. This paper presents new operational technology while inspecting power transmission line. This paper also describes a technique for creating a flight path of a drone for transmission line inspection and a technique for controlling the drones of different types. Its technical and economical feasibilities have confirmed through experiments.

Keywords: Control System, Inspection, Drones, transmission line

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4 An Algorithm of Regulation of Glucose-Insulin Concentration in the Blood

Authors: B. Selma, S. Chouraqui


The pancreas is an elongated organ that extends across the abdomen, below the stomach. In addition, it secretes certain enzymes that aid in food digestion. The pancreas also manufactures hormones responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. In the present paper, we propose a mathematical model to study the homeostasis of glucose and insulin in healthy human, and a simulation of this model, which depicts the physiological events after a meal, will be represented in ordinary humans. The aim of this paper is to design an algorithm which regulates the level of glucose in the blood. The algorithm applied the concept of expert system for performing an algorithm control in the form of an "active" used to prescribe the rate of insulin infusion. By decomposing the system into subsystems, we have developed parametric models of each subsystem by using a forcing function strategy. The results showed a performance of the control system.

Keywords: Modeling, Algorithm, Control System, Regulation, Blood, glucose-insulin

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3 Design and Implementation of Control System in Underwater Glider of Ganeshblue

Authors: Imam Taufiqurrahman, Anugrah Adiwilaga, Egi Hidayat, Bambang Riyanto Trilaksono


Autonomous Underwater Vehicle glider is one of the renewal of underwater vehicles. This vehicle is one of the autonomous underwater vehicles that are being developed in Indonesia. Glide ability is obtained by controlling the buoyancy and attitude of the vehicle using the movers within the vehicle. The glider motion mechanism is expected to provide energy resistance from autonomous underwater vehicles so as to increase the cruising range of rides while performing missions. The control system on the vehicle consists of three parts: controlling the attitude of the pitch, the buoyancy engine controller and the yaw controller. The buoyancy and pitch controls on the vehicle are sequentially referring to the finite state machine with pitch angle and depth of diving inputs to obtain a gliding cycle. While the yaw control is done through the rudder for the needs of the guide system. This research is focused on design and implementation of control system of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle glider based on PID anti-windup. The control system is implemented on an ARM TS-7250-V2 device along with a mathematical model of the vehicle in MATLAB using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) method. The TS-7250-V2 is chosen because it complies industry standards, has high computing capability, minimal power consumption. The results show that the control system in HILS process can form glide cycle with depth and angle of operation as desired. In the implementation using half control and full control mode, from the experiment can be concluded in full control mode more precision when tracking the reference. While half control mode is considered more efficient in carrying out the mission.

Keywords: Control System, Marine Robotics, PID, underwater glider

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2 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of the Economical, Ecological and Self-Consumption Impact of the Energy Production of a Single Building

Authors: Ludovic Favre, Thibaut M. Schafer, Jean-Luc Robyr, Elena-Lavinia Niederhäuser


This paper presents an optimization method based on genetic algorithm for the energy management inside buildings developed in the frame of the project Smart Living Lab (SLL) in Fribourg (Switzerland). This algorithm optimizes the interaction between renewable energy production, storage systems and energy consumers. In comparison with standard algorithms, the innovative aspect of this project is the extension of the smart regulation over three simultaneous criteria: the energy self-consumption, the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and operating costs. The genetic algorithm approach was chosen due to the large quantity of optimization variables and the non-linearity of the optimization function. The optimization process includes also real time data of the building as well as weather forecast and users habits. This information is used by a physical model of the building energy resources to predict the future energy production and needs, to select the best energetic strategy, to combine production or storage of energy in order to guarantee the demand of electrical and thermal energy. The principle of operation of the algorithm as well as typical output example of the algorithm is presented.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Modelling, energy storage, Energy Management, Control System, Greenhouse gases, building's energy, genetic optimization algorithm

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1 Basavaraj Kabade, K. T. Nagaraja, Swathi Ramanathan, A. Veeraragavan, P. S. Reashma

Authors: Dechrit Maneetham


Pick and place task is one among the most important tasks in industrial field handled by 'Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm' (SCARA). Repeatability with high-speed movement in a horizontal plane is a remarkable feature of this type of manipulator. The challenge of design SCARA is the difficulty of achieving stability of high-speed movement with the long length of links. Shorter links arm can move more stable. This condition made the links should be considered restrict then followed by restriction of operation area (workspace). In this research, authors demonstrated on expanding SCARA robot’s workspace in horizontal area via linear sliding actuator that embedded to base link of the robot arm. With one additional prismatic joint, the previous robot manipulator with 3 degree of freedom (3-DOF), 2 revolute joints and 1 prismatic joint becomes 4-DOF PRRP manipulator. This designation increased workspace of robot from 0.5698m² performed by the previous arm (without linear actuator) to 1.1281m² by the proposed arm (with linear actuator). The increasing rate was about 97.97% of workspace with the same links' lengths. The result of experimentation also indicated that the operation time spent to reach object position was also reduced.

Keywords: Control System, Kinematics, manipulator, linear sliding actuator

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