Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

contrast agent Related Abstracts

3 Allopurinol Prophylactic Therapy in the Prevention of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in High Risk Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Mohammad Sadeghi, Mohsen Talebizadeh, Leili Iranirad, Seyed Fakhreddin Hejazi


Background: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains to be a potentially serious complication of radiographic procedures. We performed this clinical trial to assess the preventive effect of allopurinol against CIN in high-risk patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 140 patients with at least two risk factors for CIN undergoing coronary angiography were randomly assigned to either the allopurinol group or the control group. Patients in the allopurinol group received 300 mg allopurinol 24 hours before a procedure and intravenous hydration for 12 hours before and after coronary angiography, whereas patients in the control group received intravenous hydration. Serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid were measured before contrast exposure and at 48 hours. CIN was defined as an increase of 25% in serum creatinine (SCr) or >0.5 mg/dl 48 hours after contrast administration. Results: CIN occurred in 11 out of 70 (7.9%) patients in the control group and in 8 out of 70 (5.7%) patients in the allopurinol group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of CIN between the two groups at 48 hours after administering the radiocontrast agent (p = 0.459). However, there were significant differences between the two groups in SCr, BUN, uric acid, and eGFR 48 hours after radiocontrast administration (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that allopurinol had no substantial efficacy over hydration protocol in high-risk patients for the development of CIN.

Keywords: coronary angiography, contrast-induced nephropathy, allopurinol, contrast agent

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2 Detecting Rat’s Kidney Inflammation Using Real Time Photoacoustic Tomography

Authors: S. H. Park, D. H. Shin, M. Y. Lee, W.C. Ham, S.K. Ko, C. G. Song


Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT) is a promising medical imaging modality that combines optical imaging contrast with the spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. It can also distinguish the changes in biological features. But, real-time PAT system should be confirmed due to photoacoustic effect for tissue. Thus, we have developed a real-time PAT system using a custom-developed data acquisition board and ultrasound linear probe. To evaluate performance of our system, phantom test was performed. As a result of those experiments, the system showed satisfactory performance and its usefulness has been confirmed. We monitored the degradation of inflammation which induced on the rat’s kidney using real-time PAT.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Kidney, rat, photoacoustic tomography, contrast agent, inflammation detection

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1 Gadolinium-Based Polymer Nanostructures as Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents

Authors: Franca De Sarno, Alfonso Maria Ponsiglione, Enza Torino


Recent advances in diagnostic imaging technology have significantly contributed to a better understanding of specific changes associated with diseases progression. Among different imaging modalities, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents a noninvasive medical diagnostic technique, which shows low sensitivity and long acquisition time and it can discriminate between healthy and diseased tissues by providing 3D data. In order to improve the enhancement of MRI signals, some imaging exams require intravenous administration of contrast agents (CAs). Recently, emerging research reports a progressive deposition of these drugs, in particular, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), in the body many years after multiple MRI scans. These discoveries confirm the need to have a biocompatible system able to boost a clinical relevant Gd-chelate. To this aim, several approaches based on engineered nanostructures have been proposed to overcome the common limitations of conventional CAs, such as the insufficient signal-to-noise ratios due to relaxivity and poor safety profile. In particular, nanocarriers, labeling or loading with CAs, capable of carrying high payloads of CAs have been developed. Currently, there’s no a comprehensive understanding of the thermodynamic contributions enable of boosting the efficacy of conventional CAs by using biopolymers matrix. Thus, considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, here it is reported a successful example of the next generation of these drugs where the commercial gadolinium chelate is incorporate into a biopolymer nanostructure, formed by cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA), with improved relaxation properties. In addition, they are highlighted the basic principles ruling biopolymer-CA interactions in the perspective of their influence on the relaxometric properties of the CA by adopting a multidisciplinary experimental approach. On the basis of these discoveries, it is clear that the main point consists in increasing the rigidification of readily-available Gd-CAs within the biopolymer matrix by controlling the water dynamics, the physicochemical interactions, and the polymer conformations. In the end, the acquired knowledge about polymer-CA systems has been applied to develop of Gd-based HA nanoparticles with enhanced relaxometric properties.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Biopolymers, MRI, contrast agent

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