Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Contracts Related Abstracts

5 Novel Practices in Research and Innovation Management

Authors: A. Ravinder Nath, D. Jaya Prakash, T. Venkateshwarlu, P. Raja Rao


The introduction of novel practices in research and innovation management at the university are likely to make a real difference in improving the quality of life and boost the global competitiveness for sustainable economic growth. Establishment a specific institutional structure at the university level provides professional management and administrative expertise to the university’s research community by sourcing out funding opportunities, extending guidance in grant proposal preparation and submission and also assisting in the post award reporting and regulatory observance. In addition to these it can involve in negotiating fair and equitable research contracts. Further it administer research governance to provide support and encourage collaborations across all disciplines of the university with industry, government, community based organizations, foundations, and associations at the local, regional, national and international levels/scales. The partnerships in research and innovation are more powerful and far needed tools for knowledge-based economy, where the universities can offer the services of much wanted human resources to promote, foster, and sustain excellence in research. In addition to this the institutes provide amply desired infrastructure and expertise to work with the investigators, and the industry will generate required financial resources in a coordinated manner. Further it is possible to carryout high-end applied research and synergizes the research capabilities and professional skills of students, faculty, scientists, and industrial work force.

Keywords: Governance, Contracts, Competitiveness, collaborations

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4 Modernization of the Economic Price Adjustment Software

Authors: Roger L. Goodwin


The US Consumer Price Indices (CPIs) measures hundreds of items in the US economy. Many social programs and government benefits index to the CPIs. In mid to late 1990, much research went into changes to the CPI by a Congressional Advisory Committee. One thing can be said from the research is that, aside from there are alternative estimators for the CPI; any fundamental change to the CPI will affect many government programs. The purpose of this project is to modernize an existing process. This paper will show the development of a small, visual, software product that documents the Economic Price Adjustment (EPA) for long-term contracts. The existing workbook does not provide the flexibility to calculate EPAs where the base-month and the option-month are different. Nor does the workbook provide automated error checking. The small, visual, software product provides the additional flexibility and error checking. This paper presents the feedback to project.

Keywords: Database, Contracts, Forms, consumer price index, Economic Price Adjustment, visualization tools, reports, event procedures

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3 Contracting Strategies to Foster Industrial Symbiosis Implementation

Authors: Robin Molinier


Industrial symbiosis (I.S) deals with the exchange of waste materials, fatal energy and utilities as resources for production. While it brings environmental benefits from resource conservation its economic profitability is one of the main barriers to its implementation. I.S involves several actors with their own objectives and resources so that each actor must be satisfied by ex-ante arrangements to commit toward investments and transactions. Regarding I.S Transaction cost economics helps to identify hybrid forms of governance for transactions governance due to I.S projects specificities induced by the need for customization (asset specificity, non-homogeneity). Thus we propose a framework to analyze the best contractual practices tailored to address I.S specific risks that we identified as threefold (load profiles and quality mismatch, value fluctuations). Schemes from cooperative game theory and contracting management are integrated to analyze value flows between actors. Contractual guidelines are then proposed to address the identified risks and to split the value for a set of I.S archetypes drawn from actual experiences.

Keywords: Economics, Contracts, Industrial Symbiosis, risks

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2 Integrating Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contract Design to Support Industrial Symbiosis Deployment

Authors: Robin Molinier


Industrial symbiosis (I.S) is the realization of Industrial Ecology (I.E) principles in production systems in function. I.S consists in the use of waste materials, fatal energy, recirculated utilities and infrastructure/service sharing as resources for production. Environmental benefits can be achieved from resource conservation but economic profitability is required by the participating actors. I.S indeed involves several actors with their own objectives and resources so that each one must be satisfied by ex-ante arrangements to commit toward I.S execution (investments and transactions). Following the Resource-Based View of transactions we build a modular framework to assess global I.S profitability and to specify each actor’s contributions to costs and benefits in line with their resource endowments and performance requirements formulations. I.S projects specificities implied by the need for customization (asset specificity, non-homogeneity) induce the use of long-term contracts for transactions following Transaction costs economics arguments. Thus we propose first a taxonomy of costs and value drivers for I.S and an assignment to each actor of I.S specific risks that we identified as load profiles mismatch, quality problems and value fluctuations. Then appropriate contractual guidelines (pricing, cost sharing and warranties) that support mutual profitability are derived from the detailed identification of contributions by the cost-benefits model. This analytical framework helps identifying what points to focus on when bargaining over contracting for transactions and investments. Our methodology is applied to I.S archetypes raised from a literature survey on eco-industrial parks initiatives and practitioners interviews.

Keywords: Contracts, Cost-benefit analysis, Industrial Symbiosis, risks

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1 The Feasibility of Ratification of the United Nation Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods by Islamic Countries, Saudi Arabia as a Case

Authors: Ibrahim M. Alwehaibi


Recently the windows of globalization weirdly open, which increase the trade between the Western countries and Muslim nations. Sales of goods contracts are one of the most common business transaction in the world. This commercial exchange has faced many obstacles. One of the most concerned obstacles is the conflicts between laws. Thus, United Nation created a Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). Some of Islamic countries have ratified the CISG, while other Islamic countries have concerns about the feasibility of ratification of the CISG, and many businessmen have a concern of application of the convention. The concerns related to the conflict between CISG and Sharia, and the long debate about the success, ambiguity, and stability of the CISG. Therefore, this research will examine the feasibility of Muslim countries and Muslim businessmen to adopt the CISG by following steps: First, this research will introduce sharia Law (Islamic contracts law) and CISG and provide backgrounds of both laws. Second, this research will compare the provisions of CISG and Sharia and figuring out the conflicts and provide possible solutions for the conflicts. Third, this study will examine the advantages and disadvantages of adopting the CISG and examining the success of the CISG. Fourth, this study will explore the current situation in Islamic countries by taking Saudi Arabia as a case and explore how the application of Sharia law works and the possibility to enforce the CISG and explore the current practice of foreign Sales in Saudi Arabia. The research finds that there are some conflicts between CISG and Sharia Law. The most notable conflicts are interest and uncertainty in considerations. Also, this research finds that it seems that ratification of CISG is not beneficial for Muslim countries because the convention has not reached its goal which is uniformity of laws. Moreover, the CISG has been excluded and ignored by businessmen and some courts. Additionally, this research finds that it could be possible to enforce CISG in Saudi Arabia, provided that no conflict between the enforced provision and Sharia Law. This study is following the competitive and analysis methodologies to reach its findings. The researcher analyzes the provision of CISG and compares them with Sharia rules and finds the conflicts and compatibilities. In fact, CISG has 101 articles, so a comprehensive comparison of all articles in CISG with Sharia is difficult. Thus, in order to deeply analyze all aspects of this issue, this study will exclude some areas of contract which have been discussed by other researchers such as deliver of goods, conformity, and mirror image rules. The comparative section of this study will focus on the most concerned articles that conflict or doubtful of conflict with Sharia, which are interest, uncertainty, statute of limitation, specific performance, and pass of risk.

Keywords: Contracts, Saudi Arabia, Sharia, CISG, Contracts for International Sale of Goods, sale of goods

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