Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

contract Related Abstracts

5 'Pacta Sunt Servanda': Which Form of Contract to Use in the Construction Industry

Authors: Ahmed Stifi, Sascha Gentes

Abstract:

The contract in its simplest definition is an agreement involving parties with a number of documents which may be as little as a marriage contract involving two parties or as big as a contract of construction and operation of a nuclear power plant involving companies and stakeholders with hundreds or even thousands of documents. All parties in the construction industry, not only the contract experts, agree that the success of a project is linked primarily to the form of contract regulating the relationship between stakeholders of the project. Therefore it is essential for the construction industry to study, analyze and improve its contracts forms continuously. However, it should be mentioned that different contract forms are developed to suit the construction evolution in term of its machinery, materials and construction process. There exist some similarities in some clauses and variations in many of these forms depending upon the type of project, the kind of clients and more importantly the laws and regulations governing the transaction in the country where the project is carried out. This paper will discuss the most important forms of construction contracts starting from national level, intended to the contract form in Germany and moving on to the international level introducing FIDIC contracts and its different forms, some newly developed contracts forms namely the integrated form of agreement, the new engineering contract and the project alliance agreement. The result of the study shows that many of the contract’s paragraphs are similar and the main difference comes in the approach of the relationship between the parties. Is it based on co-operation and mutual trust, or in some cases a load of responsibility for a particular party which increases the problems and disputes that affects the success of the project negatively. Thus we can say that the form of the contract, that plays an essential role in the approach of the project management, which is ultimately the key factor for the success of the project. So we advise to use a form of contract, which enhance the mutual trust between the project parties, contribute to support the cooperation between them, distribute responsibility and risks on an equitable basis and build on the principle “win-win". In additional to the conventional role of the contract it should integrate all parties into one team to achieve the target value of the project.

Keywords: contract, FIDIC, integrated form of agreement, new engineering contract, project alliance agreemen

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4 Research on Contract's Explicit Incentive and Reputation's Implicit Incentive Mechanism towards Construction Contractors

Authors: Li Ma, Meishuang Ma, Mengying Huang

Abstract:

The quality of construction projects reflects the credit and responsibilities of construction contractors for the owners and the whole society. Because the construction contractors master more relevant information about the entrusted engineering project under construction while the owners are in unfavorable position of gaining information, asymmetric information may lead the contractors act against the owners in order to pursue their own interests. Building a powerful motivation mechanism is the key to guarantee investor economic interests and the life and property of users in construction projects. Based on principal-agent theory and game theory, the authors develop relevant mathematical models to analyze and compare the contractor’s utility functions under different combinations of contracts’ explicit incentive mechanism and reputation’s implicit incentive mechanism aiming at finding out the conditions for incentive validity. The research concludes that the most rational motivation way is to combine the explicit and implicit incentive effects of both contracts and reputation mechanism, and puts forth some measures for problems on account of China’s current situation.

Keywords: reputation, contract, construction contractors, incentive mechanism

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3 Marosok Tradition in the Process of Buying and Selling Cattle in Payakumbuh: A Comparative Study between Adat Law and Positive Law of Indonesia

Authors: Mhd. Zakiul Fikri, M. Agus Maulidi

Abstract:

Indonesia is a constitutional state. As the constitutional state, Indonesia is not only using a single legal system, but also adopting three legal systems consist of: The European continental legal system or positive law of Indonesia, adat law system, and legal system of religion. This study will discuss Marosok tradition in the process of buying and selling cattle in Payakumbuh: a comparative study between adat law and positive law of Indonesia. The objectives of this research are: First, to find the meaning of the philosophical of Marosok tradition in Payakumbuh. Second, to find the legal implications of the Marosok tradition reviewed aspects of adat law and positive law of Indonesia. Third, to find legal procedure in arbitrating the dispute wich is potentially appear in the post-process of buying and selling cattle based on positive law and adat law adopted in Indonesia. This research is empirical legal research that using two model approaches which are statute approach and conceptual approach. Data was obtained through interviews, observations, and documents or books. Then a method of data analysis used is inductive analysis. Finally, this study found that: First, tradition of Marosok contains the meaning of harmonization of social life that keep people from negative debate, envy, and arrogant. Second, Marosok tradition is one of the adat law in Indonesia; it is one of contract law in the process of buying and selling. If the comparison between the practice Marosok tradition as adat law with the provisions of Article 1320 book of civil code about the terms of the validity of a contract, the elements contained in the provisions of these regulations are met in practice Marosok. Thus, the practice of Marosok in buying and selling cattle process in Payakumbuh justified in view of the positive law of Indonesia. Last of all, all kinds of disputes arising due to contracts made by Marosok tradition can be resolved by positive law and adat law of Indonesia.

Keywords: Indonesia, contract, Adat law, Marosok

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2 Arbitration in Foreign Investment: The Need for Equitable Treatment between the Investor and the Host State

Authors: Bárbara Magalhães Bravo, Maria João Mimoso

Abstract:

This study aims to analyse the phenomenon of arbitration as a paradigm in solving emerging controversies of foreign investment. We will present their benefits and demonstrate their contribution to greater legal certainty in economic relations. This article explores the legal relevant concepts under a strictly conceptual methodology, preparing future research to be developed under more developed comparative law methodologies. The review of national and international literature and jurisprudence will reveal the importance of arbitration in the field of international economic relations, presenting it as an alternative dispute resolution. Globalization imposes new forms of investment protection and appeals to other forms of dispute settlement, primarily to prevent, among other problems, the possible bias of the recipient country's investment tribunals. Characterization of foreign investment, its regulatory sources, their characteristics and the need for intervention of an entity capable of resolving disputes between the parties involved: State investor reception; Investor (of a nationality other than the latter); State of the investor's nationality, and sometimes a ‘subsidiary’ local foreign investor. The ICSID (International Settlement of Investment Disputes) arbitration as a means of resolving investment litigations covered by bilateral treaties (BIT) and investment contracts calls for a delimitation of these two figures in order to clarify the scope of the arbitration under the aegis of the World Bank and to make it more secure in the view of the sovereign power of the States.

Keywords: Investment, Foreign, Arbitration, contract, disputes

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1 A Comparative Study of Insurance Policies Worldwide in Public Private Partnerships

Authors: Guanqun Shi, Xueqing Zhang

Abstract:

The frequent occurrence of failures in PPP projects which caused great loss has raised attention from the government as well as the concessionaire. PPPs are complex arrangements for its long operation period and multiple players. Many types of risks in PPP projects may cause the project fail. The insurance is an important tool to transfer the risks. Through a comparison and analysis of international government PPP guidelines and contracts as well as the case studies worldwide, we have identified eight main insurance principles, discussed thirteen insurance types in different stages. An overall procedure would be established to improve the practices in PPP projects.

Keywords: Insurance, Risk, Public private partnerships, contract

Procedia PDF Downloads 99